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add some more details about traffic shaping

1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 vapier 1.5 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/home-router-howto.xml,v 1.4 2004/07/22 21:17:35 vapier Exp $ -->
3 vapier 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/home-router-howto.xml">
6    
7     <title>Home Router Guide</title>
8    
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="vapier@gentoo.org">Mike Frysinger</mail>
11     </author>
12    
13     <abstract>
14     This document details how to turn an old Gentoo machine into a router
15     for connecting your home network to the internet.
16     </abstract>
17    
18     <version>1.1</version>
19     <date>July 21, 2004</date>
20    
21     <chapter>
22     <title>Introduction</title>
23     <section>
24     <body>
25    
26     <p>
27     Building your own router out of old spare parts has many advantages
28     over buying a pre-made canned router by say Linksys. The biggest one by
29     far is control over the connection. The other advantages are left up to
30     your imagination; just about anything can be done in this scenario,
31     it's just a matter of needing it.
32     </p>
33    
34     <p>
35     This guide will show you how to setup Network Address Translation (NAT)
36     on the router (kernel and iptables), add and configure common services
37 vapier 1.2 (Domain Name System (DNS) via dnsmasq, dhcp via dhcpcd, ADSL via
38     rp-pppoe), and conclude with more elaborate and fun things that can be
39 vapier 1.3 done (port forwarding, traffic shaping, proxies/caching, etc...).
40 vapier 1.1 </p>
41    
42     <p>
43     Before getting started, there's a few basic requirements you must meet.
44     First, you'll need a computer that has at least 2 Network Interface
45     Cards (NICs) in it. Next, you'll need the configuration settings for
46     your internet connection (may include things like
47     IP/DNS/Gateway/username/password). Finally, you'll need a bit of spare
48     time and some Gentoo loving.
49     </p>
50    
51     <p>
52     The conventions used in this guide are:
53     </p>
54     <ul>
55     <li>eth0 - NIC connected to the Local Area Network (LAN)</li>
56     <li>eth1 - NIC connected to the Wide Area Network (WAN)</li>
57     <li>LAN utilizes the private 192.168.0.xxx network</li>
58     <li>router is hardcoded to the standard 192.168.0.1 IP</li>
59 vapier 1.3 <li>router is running Linux 2.4 or 2.6; you're on your own with 2.0/2.2</li>
60 vapier 1.1 </ul>
61    
62     <impo>
63     Due to security precautions, I would highly suggest you shut down any
64     unneeded services on the router until we have a chance to get the
65     firewall up and rolling. To view the currently running services, just
66     run <c>rc-status</c>.
67     </impo>
68    
69     </body>
70     </section>
71     </chapter>
72    
73     <chapter>
74     <title>Kernel setup (know thyself first)</title>
75     <section>
76     <body>
77    
78     <p>
79     Your kernel needs to have the drivers running for both your NICs. To
80     see if your cards are already setup, just run <c>ifconfig</c>. Your
81     output may differ slightly from the following, that's fine. What
82     matters is that the interface shows up at all.
83     </p>
84     <pre caption="Checking NICs">
85     # <i>ifconfig -a</i>
86     eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:60:F5:07:07:B8
87     BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
88     RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
89     TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
90     collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
91     RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
92     Interrupt:11 Base address:0x9800
93    
94     eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:60:F5:07:07:B9
95     BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
96     RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
97     TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
98     collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
99     RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
100     Interrupt:10 Base address:0x9400
101     </pre>
102     <p>
103     If you do not see your two cards showing up and you're not sure what
104     kind of cards you have, try running <c>lspci</c>. You can get that from
105 vapier 1.4 <c>emerge pciutils</c>. Look for "Ethernet controller" in the output.
106     Once you have this information, go into your kernel and add support for
107     the correct drivers.
108 vapier 1.1 </p>
109    
110     <p>
111     The next thing you'll need is support for iptables and NAT (and packet
112     shaping if you want). The following list is split up into required
113     (*), suggested (x), and shaper (s) features. It does not matter whether
114     you build the features into the kernel or as a module so long as when
115 vapier 1.4 the feature is needed, the correct module(s) are loaded (module loading
116 vapier 1.1 is left to the reader as a fun exercise however).
117     </p>
118     <pre caption="Network Options">
119     <i>Networking options ---&gt;</i>
120     <i> [*] TCP/IP networking</i>
121     <i> [*] IP: advanced router</i>
122     <i> [*] Network packet filtering (replaces ipchains)</i>
123    
124     <i> IP: Netfilter Configuration ---&gt;</i>
125     <i> [*] Connection tracking (required for masq/NAT)</i>
126     <i> [x] FTP protocol support</i>
127     <i> [x] IRC protocol support</i>
128     <i> [*] IP tables support (required for filtering/masq/NAT)</i>
129     <i> [*] IP range match support</i>
130     <i> [x] MAC address match support</i>
131     <i> [*] Multiple port match support</i>
132     <i> [*] Packet filtering</i>
133     <i> [*] REJECT target support</i>
134     <i> [x] REDIRECT target support</i>
135     <i> [*] Full NAT</i>
136     <i> [*] MASQUERADE target support</i>
137     <i> [s] Packet mangling</i>
138     <i> [s] MARK target support</i>
139     <i> [x] LOG target support</i>
140    
141     <i> QoS and/or fair queueing ---&gt;</i>
142     <i> [s] QoS and/or fair queueing</i>
143     <i> [s] HTB packet scheduler</i>
144     <i> [s] Ingress Qdisc</i>
145     </pre>
146     <note>
147     Somethings may be slightly different in a 2.4 vs 2.6 kernel, but you
148 vapier 1.3 should be able to figure it out :).
149 vapier 1.1 </note>
150    
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     </chapter>
154    
155     <chapter>
156     <title>Hug the WAN (a.k.a. The Internet)</title>
157    
158     <section>
159     <title>Intro</title>
160     <body>
161     <p>
162     There are many ways to connect to the internet so I'll just cover the
163     ones I'm familiar with. That leaves us with ADSL (PPPoE) and cable
164     modems (static/dynamic). If there are other methods out there, feel
165     free to write up a little blurb and e-mail me. Feel free to skip any of
166     the following sections in this chapter that don't apply to you. This
167     chapter is just about getting the router connected to the internet via
168     eth1.
169     </p>
170     </body>
171     </section>
172    
173     <section>
174     <title>ADSL and PPPoE</title>
175     <body>
176    
177     <p>
178     All the fancy PPPoE software has been bundled up into one little nice
179     package nowadays called <uri link="http://www.roaringpenguin.com/">Roaring Penguin</uri>.
180     Simply <c>emerge rp-pppoe</c> and you'll be on your way. Remember how
181     I said you'll need username/password information? Well I wasn't lying
182     so I hope you have it now! Load up <path>/etc/ppp/pppoe.conf</path> in
183     your favorite editor and set it up.
184     </p>
185    
186     <pre caption="Setting up eth1">
187     <comment>(Replace 'vla9h924' with your username and 'password' with your password)</comment>
188    
189     # <i>nano /etc/ppp/pppoe.conf</i>
190     <comment># Ethernet card connected to ADSL modem
191     ETH=eth1
192     # ADSL user name.
193     USER=vla9h924</comment>
194     # <i>nano /etc/ppp/pap-secrets</i>
195     <comment># client server secret
196     "vla9h924" * "password"</comment>
197     # <i>nano /etc/conf.d/net</i>
198     <comment>Add an entry for ifconfig_eth1 and set it to adsl:
199     ifconfig_eth1=( "adsl" )</comment>
200     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 /etc/init.d/net.eth1</i>
201     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
202     # <i>/etc/init.d/net.eth1 start</i>
203     </pre>
204    
205 vapier 1.3 <warn>
206     When the DSL interface comes up, it will create ppp0. Although your NIC
207     is called eth1, the IP is actually bound to ppp0. From now on, when you
208     see examples that utilize 'eth1', substitute with 'ppp0'.
209     </warn>
210 vapier 1.1
211     </body>
212     </section>
213    
214     <section>
215     <title>Cable and/or dynamic/static IP</title>
216     <body>
217    
218     <p>
219 vapier 1.4 If you have a static IP then you will need a few more details than if
220 vapier 1.1 you have a dynamic IP. For static users, you will need your IP,
221     gateway, and DNS servers.
222     </p>
223    
224     <pre caption="Setting up eth1">
225     <comment>Dynamic IP Users:</comment>
226     # <i>emerge dhcpcd</i>
227     # <i>nano /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228     <comment>You'll need an entry like so:
229     ifconfig_eth1=( "dhcp" )</comment>
230    
231     <comment>Static IP Users:</comment>
232     # <i>nano /etc/conf.d/net</i>
233     <comment>You'll need entries like so:
234     ifconfig_eth1=( "66.92.78.102 broadcast 66.92.78.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
235     routes_eth1=( "default gw 66.92.78.1" )</comment>
236     # <i>nano /etc/resolv.conf</i>
237     <comment>Add one line per DNS server:
238     nameserver 123.123.123.123</comment>
239    
240     <comment>Dynamic and Static Setup:</comment>
241     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 /etc/init.d/net.eth1</i>
242     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
243     # <i>/etc/init.d/net.eth1 start</i>
244     </pre>
245    
246     <p>
247     You should be all set to go now.
248     </p>
249    
250     </body>
251     </section>
252     </chapter>
253    
254     <chapter>
255     <title>Hug the LAN (bring along some friends)</title>
256     <section>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260     This step is a breeze compared to the previous one.
261     </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Setting up eth0">
264     # <i>nano /etc/conf.d/net</i>
265     <comment>Add a line like the following:
266     ifconfig_eth0=( "192.168.0.1 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" )</comment>
267     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
268     # <i>/etc/init.d/net.eth0 start</i>
269     </pre>
270    
271     </body>
272     </section>
273     </chapter>
274    
275     <chapter>
276     <title>LAN Services (because we're nice people)</title>
277    
278     <section>
279     <title>DHCP Server</title>
280     <body>
281     <p>
282     I bet it'd be nice if everyone else in your house could just plug
283     their computers into the network and things would just work. No need to
284     remember mind-numbing details or make them stare at confusing
285     configuration screens! Life would be grand eh? Introducing the Dynamic
286     Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and why you should care.
287     </p>
288    
289 vapier 1.2 <p>
290     DHCP is exactly what its name implies. It's a protocol that allows you
291     to dynamically configure other hosts automatically. You run a DHCP
292     server on the router (dhcpd), give it all the information about your
293     network (valid IPs, DNS servers, gateways, etc...), and then when the
294     other hosts start up, they run a DHCP client to automatically configure
295     themselves. No fuss, no muss! For even more information, you can
296     always visit <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DHCP">Wikipedia</uri>.
297     </p>
298    
299 vapier 1.1 <pre caption="Setting up dhcpd">
300     # <i>emerge dhcp</i>
301     # <i>nano /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</i>
302     <comment>Here is a sample configuration file:
303     authoritative;
304     subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
305     range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.250;
306     default-lease-time 259200;
307     max-lease-time 518400;
308     option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
309     option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
310     option routers 192.168.0.1;
311     option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.1;
312     }
313     </comment>
314     # <i>nano /etc/conf.d/dhcp</i>
315     <comment>Set IFACE="eth0"</comment>
316     # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
317     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
318     </pre>
319    
320     <p>
321     Now your little router is a bona-fide DHCP server! Plugin those
322     computers and watch them work! With Windows systems you should go into
323     the TCP/IP Properties and select the 'Obtain an IP address
324     automatically' and 'Obtain DNS server address automatically' options.
325     Sometimes the changes aren't instantaneous, so you may have to run a
326     command prompt and run <c>ipconfig /release</c> and <c>ipconfig
327     /renew</c>. But enough about Windows, let's get back to our favorite
328     penguin.
329     </p>
330     </body>
331     </section>
332    
333     <section>
334     <title>DNS Server</title>
335     <body>
336 vapier 1.2 <p>
337     When people want to visit a place on the internet, they remember names,
338     not a string of useless numbers. After all, what's easier to remember,
339     ebay.com or 66.135.192.87? This is where the DNS steps in. DNS servers
340     run all over the internet, and whenever someone wants to visit 'ebay.com',
341     these servers turn 'ebay.com' (what we understand) into '66.135.192.87'
342     (what our computers understand). For even more information, you can
343     always visit <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNS">Wikipedia</uri>.
344     </p>
345 vapier 1.1
346     <p>
347     You may have noticed in the previous section that we told the DHCP
348     clients we have a DNS server at 192.168.0.1. You may also remember that
349     192.168.0.1 is our little router that we're making. I don't remember
350     setting up a DNS server ... so let's do so now!
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption="Setting up dnsmasq">
354     # <i>emerge dnsmasq</i>
355     # <i>nano /etc/conf.d/dnsmasq</i>
356     <comment>Add "-i eth1" to DNSMASQ_OPTS</comment>
357     # <i>rc-update add dnsmasq</i>
358     # <i>/etc/init.d/dnsmasq start</i>
359     </pre>
360    
361     <p>
362     Well that was quick, but what did we do? The great thing is, we didn't
363     have to do very much! You're welcome to choose other DNS servers if
364     you're more comfortable with them, but the reason dnsmasq is great is
365 vapier 1.4 because it was designed to do exactly what we want and nothing more.
366     It's a little DNS caching/forwarding server for local networks. We're
367     not looking to provide DNS for our own domain here, just offer simple DNS
368 vapier 1.1 services to everyone else on our LAN.
369     </p>
370    
371     </body>
372     </section>
373    
374     <section>
375 vapier 1.4 <title>NAT (a.k.a. IP-masquerading)</title>
376 vapier 1.1 <body>
377    
378     <p>
379     At this point, people on your network can talk to each other and they
380     can look up hostnames via DNS, but they still can't actually connect to
381     the internet. While you may think that's great (more bandwidth for
382     you!), I bet they're not too happy just yet.
383     </p>
384    
385 vapier 1.2 <p>
386     This is where NAT steps in. NAT is a way of connecting multiple computers
387     in a private LAN to the internet when you only have a smaller number of
388     IP addresses availabe to you. Typically you were given 1 IP by your ISP,
389     but you want to let your whole house connect to the internet. NAT is the
390     magic that makes this possible. For even more information, you can
391     always visit <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NAT">Wikipedia</uri>.
392     </p>
393    
394     <note>
395     Before we get started, make sure you have iptables on your system. Although
396     it is automatically installed on most systems, you may not have it. If you
397     don't, just run <c>emerge iptables</c>.
398     </note>
399    
400 vapier 1.1 <pre caption="Setting up iptables">
401     <comment>First we flush our current rules</comment>
402     # <i>iptables -F</i>
403     # <i>iptables -t nat -F</i>
404    
405     <comment>Then we lock our services so they only work from the LAN</comment>
406     # <i>iptables -I INPUT 1 -i eth0 -j ACCEPT</i>
407     # <i>iptables -I INPUT 1 -i lo -j ACCEPT</i>
408     # <i>iptables -A INPUT -p UDP --dport bootps -i ! eth0 -j REJECT</i>
409     # <i>iptables -A INPUT -p UDP --dport dns -i ! eth0 -j REJECT</i>
410    
411     <comment>Drop TCP / UDP packets to privileged ports</comment>
412     # <i>iptables -A INPUT -p TCP -i ! eth0 -d 0/0 --dport 0:1023 -j DROP</i>
413     # <i>iptables -A INPUT -p UDP -i ! eth0 -d 0/0 --dport 0:1023 -j DROP</i>
414    
415     <comment>Finally we add the rules for NAT</comment>
416     # <i>iptables -I FORWARD -i 192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0 -j DROP</i>
417     # <i>iptables -A FORWARD -s 192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0 -j ACCEPT</i>
418     # <i>iptables -A FORWARD -d 192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0 -j ACCEPT</i>
419     # <i>iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth1 -j MASQUERADE</i>
420     <comment>Tell the kernel that ip forwarding is OK</comment>
421     # <i>echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward</i>
422     # <i>for f in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/rp_filter ; do echo 1 > $f ; done</i>
423    
424     <comment>This is so when we boot we don't have to run the rules by hand</comment>
425     # <i>/etc/init.d/iptables save</i>
426     # <i>rc-update add iptables default</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     <p>
430     Once you've typed out all of that, the rest of your network should now
431     be able to use the internet as if they were directly connected
432 vapier 1.3 themselves.
433 vapier 1.1 </p>
434    
435 vapier 1.3 </body>
436     </section>
437     </chapter>
438    
439     <chapter>
440     <title>Fun Things (for a rainy day)</title>
441    
442     <section>
443     <title>Intro</title>
444     <body>
445 vapier 1.1 <p>
446 vapier 1.3 Believe it or not, you're done :). From here on out, I'll cover a bunch
447     of common topics that may interest you. Everything in this chapter is
448     completely optional.
449 vapier 1.1 </p>
450 vapier 1.3 </body>
451     </section>
452 vapier 1.1
453 vapier 1.3 <section>
454     <title>Port Forwarding</title>
455     <body>
456     <p>
457     Sometimes you would like to be able to host services on a computer behind
458     the router, or just to make your life easier when connecting remotely.
459     Perhaps you want to run a FTP, HTTP, SSH, or VNC server on one or more
460     machines behind your router and be able to connect to them all. The only
461     caveat is that you can only have one service/machine combo per port.
462     For example, there is no practical way to setup three FTP servers behind
463     your router and then try to connect to them all through port 21; only one
464     can be on port 21 while the others would have to be on say port 123 and
465     port 567.
466     </p>
467    
468     <p>
469     All the port forwarding rules are of the form <c>iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING
470     [-p protocol] --dport [external port on router] -i eth1 -j DNAT --to [ip/port
471     to forward to]</c>. iptables does not accept hostnames when port forwarding.
472     If you are forwarding an external port to the same port on the internal machine,
473     you can omit the destination port. See the iptables(8) page for more information.
474     </p>
475    
476     <pre>
477     <comment>Forward port 2 to ssh on an internal host</comment>
478     # <i>iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 2 -i eth1 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.2:22</i>
479    
480     <comment>FTP forwarding to an internal host</comment>
481     # <i>iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 21 -i eth1 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.56</i>
482    
483     <comment>HTTP forwarding to an internal host</comment>
484     # <i>iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 80 -i eth1 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.56</i>
485    
486     <comment>VNC forwarding for internal hosts</comment>
487     # <i>iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 5900 -i eth1 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.2</i>
488     # <i>iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 5901 -i eth1 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.3:5900</i>
489     <comment>If you want to VNC in to 192.168.0.3, then just add ':1' to the router's hostname</comment>
490    
491     <comment>Bittorrent forwarding</comment>
492     # <i>iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 6881:6889 -i eth1 -j DNAT --to 192.168.0.2</i>
493     </pre>
494    
495     <note>
496     If you have other common / cool examples, please <uri link="mailto:vapier@gentoo.org">e-mail me</uri>.
497     </note>
498     </body>
499     </section>
500    
501     <section>
502     <title>Identd (for IRC)</title>
503     <body>
504     <p>
505     Internet Relay Chat utilizes the ident service pretty heavily. Now that
506     the IRC clients are behind the router, we need a way to host ident for
507     both the router and the clients. One such server has been created
508     called <c>midentd</c>.
509     </p>
510    
511     <pre caption="Setting up ident">
512     # <i>emerge midentd</i>
513     # <i>rc-update add midentd default</i>
514     # <i>/etc/init.d/midentd start</i>
515     </pre>
516    
517     <p>
518     There are a few other ident servers in portage. Depending on your needs,
519     I would recommend checking out <c>oidentd</c> and <c>fakeidentd</c>.
520     </p>
521     </body>
522     </section>
523    
524 vapier 1.5 <!--
525     <section>
526     <title>Traffic Shaping</title>
527     <body>
528     <p>
529     This is an attempt to simply and Gentooify the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/ADSL-Bandwidth-Management-HOWTO/">ADSL Bandwidth Management HOWTO</uri>
530     found over at the TLDP. Feel free to refer to the original document
531     for more details.
532     </p>
533    
534     <p>
535     Here we will be setting up what some people refer to as a "Packet Shaper",
536     <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_shaping">"Traffic Shaping"</uri>,
537     or <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QoS">"Quality of Service"</uri>.
538     Simply put, we want to setup rules on our router that will slow down
539     certain activities (like sending large e-mails or downloading from P2P
540     networks) while keeping other activities (like browsing the web or playing
541     online video games) reasonably fast. A 30 second difference in a video
542     game is a lot worse than a 30 second difference in downloading large
543     files :).
544     </p>
545    
546     <p>
547     The first thing is to make sure your kernel has all the features added to
548     it. See the chapter on <uri link="#doc_chap2">Kernel setup</uri> for more
549     information. Next, you will need to <c>emerge iptables iputils</c> so that
550     you will have access to the <c>iptables</c>, <c>ip</c>, and <c>tc</c>
551     commands.
552     </p>
553    
554     <p>
555     Before we jump into the commands, let's cover a little of the theory. The
556     way this whole system works is to classify common network streams and then
557     to prioritize them. You use iptables to classify network streams, iputils
558     to define the different priority levels, and the kernel to adjust speeds.
559     Just remember that although you can control outbound traffic pretty tightly
560     (from the LAN to the WAN), your ability to control inbound traffic (from
561     the WAN to the LAN) is somewhat limited. Just remember that the following
562     examples are to get your feet wet; if you want more then I'd suggest
563     reading up on the subject. In this example, we will be using the
564     <uri link="http://luxik.cdi.cz/~devik/qos/htb/">Hierarchical Token Buckets (HTB)</uri>
565     packet scheduling algorithm. Still with me? Great, let's start shaping :).
566     </p>
567    
568     <pre caption="Setup">
569     DEV=eth1 <comment>NIC connected to WAN</comment>
570     RATE_OUT=100 <comment>Available outbound bandwidth (in kilobits [kb])</comment>
571     RATE_IN=1400 <comment>Available inbound bandwidth (in kb)</comment>
572    
573     <comment>Here we initialize the priority system. The 45 is used to set the default classification level.</comment>
574     ip link set dev ${DEV} qlen 30
575     tc qdisc add dev ${DEV} root handle 1: htb default 45
576     tc class add dev ${DEV} parent 1: classid 1:1 htb rate ${RATE_OUT}kbit
577     </pre>
578    
579     <p>
580     Here we initialized the system which will be used to prioritize all of
581     our network traffic. We created our queue, told it to use the HTB
582     algorithm, and set the default classification level to '45'. The
583     default is completely arbitrary, as are the levels we choose from
584     here on out. The only thing that matters is how the levels compare
585     relatively; a level '10' packet will be given preference over a
586     level '45' packet. Let's move on to declaring different levels.
587     </p>
588    
589     <pre caption="Declaring levels">
590     tc class add dev $DEV parent 1:1 classid 1:10 htb rate $rkbit ceil $tkbit prio $p
591     tc qdisc add dev $DEV parent 1:10 handle 10: sfq
592     </pre>
593     </body>
594     </section>
595     -->
596    
597 vapier 1.3 <section>
598     <title>Mail Server</title>
599     <body>
600     <p>
601 vapier 1.4 Sometimes it's nice to run your own Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
602     server on the router. You may have your own reason for wanting to do so,
603     but I run it so that the users see mail as being sent instantly and the
604     work of retrying/routing is left up to the mail server. Some ISPs also
605     don't allow for mail relaying for accounts that aren't part of their
606     network (like Verizon). Also, you can easily throttle the delivery of
607     mail so that large attachments won't seriously lag your connection for
608     half an hour.
609     </p>
610    
611     <pre caption="Setting up SMTP">
612     # <i>emerge qmail</i>
613     <comment>make sure the output of `hostname` is correct</comment>
614     # <i>ebuild /var/db/pkg/*-*/qmail-1.03-r*/*.ebuild config</i>
615     # <i>iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport smtp -i ! eth1 -j REJECT</i>
616     # <i>ln -s /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send /service/qmail-send</i>
617     # <i>ln -s /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtp /service/qmail-smtp</i>
618     # <i>cd /etc/tcprules.d</i>
619     # <i>nano tcp.qmail-smtp</i>
620     <comment>Add an entry like so to the allow section:
621     192.168.0.:allow,RELAYCLIENT=""</comment>
622     # <i>tcprules tcp.qmail-qmtp.cdb rules.tmp &lt; tcp.qmail-smtp</i>
623     # <i>rc-update add svscan default</i>
624     # <i>/etc/init.d/svscan start</i>
625     </pre>
626    
627     <p>
628     I'm a huge fan of qmail, but you're free to use a different mta :).
629     When you setup e-mail on the hosts in your network, tell them that
630     their SMTP server is 192.168.0.1 and everything should be peachy.
631     You might want to visit the <uri link="http://qmail.org/">qmail
632     homepage</uri> for more documentation.
633 vapier 1.3 </p>
634     </body>
635     </section>
636    
637 vapier 1.4 <!--
638 vapier 1.3 <section>
639 vapier 1.4 <title>E-mail Virus Scanning</title>
640 vapier 1.3 <body>
641     <p>
642 vapier 1.4 If you'd like to provide e-mail virus scanning for your users, but
643     don't want to have to install a virus scanner on every single machine,
644     then <c>pop3vscan</c> may just be the thing for you; a transparent
645     Post Office Protocol (POP) scanner.
646 vapier 1.3 </p>
647 vapier 1.4
648     <pre caption="Setting up pop3vscan">
649     TODO
650     </pre>
651    
652 vapier 1.3 </body>
653     </section>
654 vapier 1.4 -->
655 vapier 1.3
656 vapier 1.4 </chapter>
657    
658     <chapter>
659     <title>Final Notes</title>
660 vapier 1.3 <section>
661     <body>
662     <p>
663 vapier 1.4 I have no final notes other than if you experience any troubles with the guide,
664     please contact <mail link="vapier@gentoo.org">me</mail> or file a bug with
665     <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">Gentoo's Bugtracking Website</uri>. If
666     you have some interesting bits you think would enhance this guide, by all means
667     send it my way for inclusion.
668 vapier 1.3 </p>
669 vapier 1.1 </body>
670     </section>
671     </chapter>
672     </guide>

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