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Removing duplicate source USE flag explanation. Thanks to honzig on IRC for reporting

1 neysx 1.11 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 fox2mike 1.31 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/java.xml,v 1.30 2006/08/31 01:19:43 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.8 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.4
5 neysx 1.11 <guide link="/doc/en/java.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Java Guide</title>
7    
8 nightmorph 1.23 <author title="Author">
9 rane 1.28 <mail link="nichoj@gentoo.org">Joshua Nichols</mail>
10 neysx 1.11 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.23 <author title="Author">
12 rane 1.28 <mail link="karltk@gentoo.org">Karl Trygve Kalleberg</mail>
13 neysx 1.11 </author>
14 swift 1.13 <author title="Editor">
15 nightmorph 1.23 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
16 swift 1.13 </author>
17 neysx 1.11
18     <abstract>
19 nightmorph 1.23 This guide will introduce you to Java and explain how to use Java with Gentoo
20     Linux.
21 neysx 1.11 </abstract>
22    
23 nightmorph 1.23 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
24     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25 neysx 1.11 <license/>
26    
27 nightmorph 1.30 <version>0.8</version>
28 fox2mike 1.31 <date>2006-09-08</date>
29 neysx 1.11
30     <chapter>
31 swift 1.13 <title>What is Java?</title>
32 neysx 1.11 <section>
33     <title>Overview</title>
34     <body>
35    
36     <p>
37 nightmorph 1.23 Java is a programming language developed by engineers of Sun Microsystems. The
38     language is object-oriented and designed to run on multiple platforms without
39     the need of recompiling code for each platform. Although Java can be compiled
40     as a native program, much of Java's popularity can be attributed to its
41     portability, along with other features such as garbage collection. To make
42     platform independence possible the Java compiler compiles the Java code to an
43     intermediate representation called "Java bytecode" that runs on a JRE (Java
44     Runtime Environment) and not directly on the operating system.
45 swift 1.13 </p>
46    
47     <p>
48 nightmorph 1.23 In order to run Java bytecode, one needs to have a JRE (Java Runtime
49     Environment) installed. A JRE provides core libraries, a platform dependent
50     Java Virtual Machine, plug-ins for browsers, among other things. A JDK (Java
51     Development Kit) adds programming tools, such as a bytecode compiler and a
52     debugger.
53 swift 1.13 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </section>
57     </chapter>
58    
59     <chapter>
60 rane 1.28 <title>New Java System</title>
61     <section>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     The way Java is handled on Gentoo has recently seen many changes and
66     improvements. This has only happened very recently, and as a result, all the
67     packages related to it are marked with testing keywords, ie ~x86. This
68     document assumes you are using the new system.
69     </p>
70    
71     </body>
72     </section>
73     <section>
74     <title>Keywords</title>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>
78 nightmorph 1.30 If you are using the stable tree opposed to ~arch, you will need to add some
79     entries to your <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>:
80 rane 1.28 </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="package.keywords">
83     # Core Gentoo/Java Packages
84     dev-java/ant-core
85     dev-java/ant-tasks
86     dev-java/ant
87     dev-java/java-config
88     dev-java/java-config-wrapper
89     dev-java/javatoolkit
90 rane 1.29 dev-java/sun-jce-bin
91 rane 1.28 # JDKs
92     =dev-java/sun-jdk-1.4*
93     =dev-java/sun-jdk-1.5*
94     =dev-java/ibm-jdk-bin-1.4*
95     =dev-java/ibm-jdk-bin-1.5*
96     =dev-java/jrockit-jdk-bin-1.4*
97     =dev-java/jrockit-jdk-bin-1.5*
98     =dev-java/blackdown-jdk-1.4*
99     dev-java/kaffe
100     # JREs
101     =dev-java/sun-jre-bin-1.4*
102     =dev-java/sun-jre-bin-1.5*
103     =dev-java/ibm-jre-bin-1.4*
104     =dev-java/blackdown-jre-1.4*
105     # Virtuals
106     virtual/jdk
107     virtual/jre
108     # Compilers
109     dev-java/eclipse-ecj
110     dev-java/jikes
111     # Documentation
112     dev-java/java-sdk-docs
113     # Misc packages that have been updated to generation-2,
114     # where the generation-1 won't build and/or run properly
115     dev-java/lucene
116     # These have optional Java support, but need ~arch to function properly
117     # with generation-2
118     dev-util/subversion
119     sys-libs/db
120     </pre>
121    
122 nightmorph 1.30 <warn>
123     It is crucial that you list ALL these packages in
124     <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>, otherwise you will have problems in
125     the later steps of this guide. Your new Java system will not function correctly
126     without this list.
127     </warn>
128 rane 1.28
129     </body>
130     </section>
131     <section>
132     <title>Existing installs</title>
133     <body>
134    
135     <p>
136     For existing installs, regardless of if you have installed anything Java
137     before, make sure you have followed the <uri
138     link="/proj/en/java/java-upgrade.xml">Java Upgrade Guide</uri>.
139     </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     <section>
144     <title>New installs</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     New installs should require no further preparation.
149     </p>
150    
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     </chapter>
154    
155     <chapter>
156     <title>Installing a Virtual Machine</title>
157 swift 1.13 <section>
158     <title>The choices</title>
159     <body>
160    
161     <p>
162 rane 1.28 Gentoo provides numerous Runtime Environments (JREs) and Development Kits
163     (JDKs). Among the current choices, we have:
164 swift 1.13 </p>
165    
166 nightmorph 1.23 <table>
167     <tr>
168     <th>Vendor</th>
169     <th>JDK</th>
170     <th>JRE</th>
171     </tr>
172     <tr>
173     <ti>The Blackdown Java Kit</ti>
174 rane 1.27 <ti>dev-java/blackdown-jdk</ti>
175 nightmorph 1.23 <ti>dev-java/blackdown-jre</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <ti>Sun's Java Kit</ti>
179     <ti>dev-java/sun-jdk</ti>
180     <ti>dev-java/sun-jre-bin</ti>
181     </tr>
182     <tr>
183     <ti>The IBM Java Kit</ti>
184     <ti>dev-java/ibm-jdk-bin</ti>
185     <ti>dev-java/ibm-jre-bin</ti>
186     </tr>
187     <tr>
188     <ti>The Compaq Java Kit for Alpha/Linux/GNU</ti>
189     <ti>dev-java/compaq-jdk</ti>
190     <ti>dev-java/compaq-jre</ti>
191     </tr>
192     <tr>
193     <ti>BEA WebLogic's J2SE Development Kit</ti>
194     <ti>dev-java/jrockit-jdk-bin</ti>
195     </tr>
196     </table>
197    
198     <!--
199 rane 1.26 TODO: list free implementations?
200     note about not drop-in replacements
201 nightmorph 1.23 kaffe/sablevm/gcj/jamvm
202     -->
203    
204     <p>
205     The default is Blackdown for both the JRE and the JDK, as it is freely ("free
206     as in beer") available without any registration fuss.
207     </p>
208 swift 1.13
209     <p>
210 rane 1.28 The default for Java 1.4 is the Blackdown JRE/JDK pair, as it is freely
211     ("free as in beer") available without any registration fuss.
212 neysx 1.11 </p>
213    
214     <p>
215 rane 1.28 JREs and JDKs from Sun, IBM, and BEA are generally faster, but getting them
216     is a bit more work, as you are required to read and accept their license before
217     downloading (IBM additionally requires you to register).
218 neysx 1.11 </p>
219    
220 nightmorph 1.23 </body>
221     </section>
222     <section>
223     <title>Installing a JRE/JDKs</title>
224     <body>
225    
226 neysx 1.11 <p>
227 nightmorph 1.23 To install your profile's default JDK, you can run <c>emerge virtual/jdk</c>.
228     Or to install your profile's default JRE, you can <c>emerge virtual/jre</c>.
229 neysx 1.11 </p>
230    
231 rane 1.28 <p>
232     In recent events, Sun has relicensed their JDK and JRE under a more Linux
233     distro friendly license. As a result, Sun releases Java 1.5 and onwards are
234     freely downloadable, without any further hassle.
235     </p>
236    
237 nightmorph 1.23 <note>
238     A JDK also includes a JRE, so if you install a JDK you shouldn't have to also
239     have to install a JRE.
240     </note>
241    
242 neysx 1.11 </body>
243     </section>
244     <section>
245 rane 1.28 <title>Installing fetch-restricted virtual machines</title>
246 neysx 1.11 <body>
247    
248     <p>
249 rane 1.28 As already mentioned, some of the JDKs and JREs require you to jump through a
250     few hoops before installing. Simply emerge the packages as you normally would.
251     The ebuilds will then instruct you where to go and what to download.
252 neysx 1.11 </p>
253    
254     <p>
255     You should download the indicated file(s) into
256 nightmorph 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. Once there, you can rerun the emerge
257     command, at which point the JRE/JDK will be begin to install.
258 neysx 1.11 </p>
259    
260     </body>
261     </section>
262     </chapter>
263    
264     <chapter>
265 rane 1.28 <title>Configuring your virtual machine</title>
266 neysx 1.11 <section>
267     <title>Overview</title>
268     <body>
269    
270     <p>
271 nightmorph 1.23 Gentoo has the ability to have multiple JDKs and JREs installed without causing
272     conflicts.
273 neysx 1.11 </p>
274    
275     <p>
276 nightmorph 1.23 Using the <c>java-config</c> tool, you can set the system-wide default
277     (provided you have root access). Users can also use <c>java-config</c> to set
278     up their own personal default.
279 neysx 1.11 </p>
280    
281 nightmorph 1.23 <note>
282     You can also use <e>eselect</e> to change the system and user vm. See
283 nightmorph 1.24 <c>eselect java-vm help</c>.
284 nightmorph 1.23 </note>
285    
286 neysx 1.11 </body>
287     </section>
288     <section>
289 rane 1.28 <title>Setting a default virtual machine</title>
290 neysx 1.11 <body>
291    
292     <p>
293 nightmorph 1.23 Running the command <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> will give you a
294     list of all JREs and JDKs installed on your system. Here is an example of
295     output:
296 neysx 1.11 </p>
297    
298     <pre caption="Listing available VMs">
299 neysx 1.12 # <i>java-config --list-available-vms</i>
300 nightmorph 1.23 1) Blackdown JDK 1.3.1 [blackdown-jdk-1.3] (/etc/env.d/java/20blackdown-jdk-1.3)
301     2) Blackdown JDK 1.4.2.02 [blackdown-jdk-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20blackdown-jdk-1.4)
302     3) Blackdown JRE 1.4.2.02 [blackdown-jre-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20blackdown-jre-1.4)
303     4) IBM JDK 1.4.2 [ibm-jdk-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20ibm-jdk-bin-1.4)
304     5) IBM JRE 1.4.2 [ibm-jre-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20ibm-jre-bin-1.4)
305     6) WebLogic JRockit 1.4.2.05 [jrockit-jdk-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20jrockit-jdk-bin-1.4)
306     7) WebLogic JRockit 1.5.0.03 [jrockit-jdk-bin-1.5] (/etc/env.d/java/20jrockit-jdk-bin-1.5)
307     8) Sun JDK 1.3.1.13 [sun-jdk-1.3] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jdk-1.3)
308     9) Sun JDK 1.4.2.09 [sun-jdk-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jdk-1.4)
309     *) Sun JDK 1.5.0.04 [sun-jdk-1.5] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jdk-1.5)
310     11) Sun JRE 1.4.2.09 [sun-jre-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jre-bin-1.4)
311     12) Sun JRE 1.5.0.04 [sun-jre-bin-1.5] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jre-bin-1.5)
312 neysx 1.11 </pre>
313    
314     <p>
315 nightmorph 1.23 The <e>*</e> indicates this is the current active vm (system-vm or user-vm when
316     set). The name in the brackets (<e>[]</e>) is the handle or ID for that
317     particular VM. You use the handle or the number to <c>java-config
318     --set-system-vm</c>. Here is an example of how to set the system VM.
319 neysx 1.11 </p>
320 zhen 1.4
321 neysx 1.11 <pre caption="Setting the System VM">
322 nightmorph 1.23 <comment>(By handle (preferred))</comment>
323     # <i>java-config --set-system-vm blackdown-jdk-1.4</i>
324     <comment>(By number)</comment>
325     # <i>java-config --set-system-vm 2</i>
326 neysx 1.11 </pre>
327 drobbins 1.1
328 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
329     As a regular user, you can use <c>java-config --set-user-vm</c>.
330     </p>
331    
332 neysx 1.11 <note>
333 nightmorph 1.23 You no longer have to <c>source</c> the profile for updates to the user/system
334     VM take place.
335 neysx 1.11 </note>
336    
337 nightmorph 1.23 </body>
338     </section>
339     <section id="preferred-vm">
340     <title>Preferred VM</title>
341     <body>
342    
343     <p>
344     While merging Java packages, the VM can and will be switched as necessary.
345     </p>
346    
347     <p>
348     Because of the wide variety of available VMs, we do not have the resources to
349     test and verify every package works on all of them. So to ensure that every
350     packages merges smoothly, we have defined a list of <e>default/supported
351     VMs</e> per arch. You can find them in
352     <path>/usr/share/java-config/config/jdk-defaults.conf</path>. When you are
353     merging a Java package, and it detects one of the VM in that file is installed,
354     it will automatically use that VM, instead of the system-vm.
355     </p>
356    
357 neysx 1.11 <p>
358 nightmorph 1.23 The merge time VM switching is also needed when, for example, your system-vm is
359     set a 1.4 VM and the package you are merging requires a 1.5 VM. While merging
360     it will use the preferred 1.5 VM, leaving your system-vm choice intact.
361 neysx 1.11 </p>
362 drobbins 1.1
363 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
364     Of course, Gentoo is all about choice, so you can override these defaults in
365     <path>/etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf</path> and have complete control over
366     which VM will get used. Some examples:
367     </p>
368    
369     <pre caption="Example /etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf">
370     <comment>(I always want it to use a sun-jdk, ie sun-jdk-1.4 for 1.4, sun-jdk-1.5 for 1.5, etc)</comment>
371     *=sun-jdk
372 neysx 1.11 </pre>
373 drobbins 1.1
374 nightmorph 1.23 <pre caption="Example /etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf">
375     <comment>(Always use sun-jdk-1.5 wherever possible, except for when a 1.4 or 1.3 VM is explicitly required)</comment>
376     *=sun-jdk-1.5
377     </pre>
378    
379     <pre caption="Example /etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf">
380     <comment># For 1.3 I prefer sun-jdk 1.4 but when it is not available, use ibm-jdk-bin,
381     # For 1.4, use blackdown-jdk, and for 1.5, use sun-jdk </comment>
382     1.3=sun-jdk-1.4 ibm-jdk-bin
383     1.4=blackdown-jdk
384     1.5=sun-jdk
385     </pre>
386    
387     <warn>
388     You do not have to edit this file. If you change these options to use a
389     unsupported VM, things could possibly break. Bugs reported with a unsupported
390 rane 1.26 VM won't be prioritized as much as bugs present within supported VMs.
391 nightmorph 1.23 </warn>
392    
393     </body>
394     </section>
395     </chapter>
396    
397     <chapter>
398     <title>Compilers</title>
399     <section>
400     <body>
401    
402 neysx 1.11 <p>
403 nightmorph 1.23 The standard Java compiler used for building is javac, which comes with each
404     JDK. In addition to configuring the VM used at build time, it is also possible
405     configure which compiler is used. Essentially, you define a list your
406     preference for which compiler to use in
407     <path>/etc/java-config-2/build/compilers.conf</path>.
408 neysx 1.11 </p>
409    
410 nightmorph 1.23 <pre caption="/etc/java-config-2/build/compilers.conf">
411     # If the ebuild supports it
412     # it will check the COMPILERS var front to back and
413     # use the first compiler that is installed
414    
415     COMPILERS="ecj-3.1 jikes javac"
416     </pre>
417    
418 neysx 1.11 <p>
419 nightmorph 1.23 Some compilers don't support all possible -target and -source arguments.
420     Therefore, each compiler in the list is checked to see if it can support the
421     desired -source/-target. javac will work in all cases, so if no other suitable
422     compiler is found, it will be used instead.
423 neysx 1.11 </p>
424    
425 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
426     More details about each compiler are provided below:
427     </p>
428    
429     <table>
430     <tr>
431     <th>Name</th>
432     <th>Handle</th>
433     <th>Package</th>
434     <th>Description</th>
435     </tr>
436     <tr>
437     <ti>javac</ti>
438     <ti>javac</ti>
439     <ti>N/A</ti>
440     <ti>
441     This is the default compiler that will be used, and comes with each JDK.
442     </ti>
443     </tr>
444     <tr>
445     <ti>jikes</ti>
446     <ti>jikes</ti>
447     <ti>dev-java/jikes</ti>
448     <ti>
449     Jikes was originally developed by IBM. Anecdotally, it is generally quicker
450     than javac. Note however, that it is more pedantic, and will fail under a
451     few circumstances where javac has no issue. It also does not support Java
452     1.5 syntax yet.
453     </ti>
454     </tr>
455     <tr>
456     <ti>Eclipse Compiler for Java</ti>
457     <ti>ecj-3.1</ti>
458     <ti>=dev-java/eclipse-ecj-3.1*</ti>
459     <ti>
460     ECJ is the compiler used by the Eclipse software development kit. It is
461     very full featured, and is pretty fast. It does support Java 1.5 syntax.
462     </ti>
463     </tr>
464     </table>
465    
466     </body>
467     </section>
468     </chapter>
469    
470     <chapter>
471     <title>Setting a default CLASSPATH</title>
472     <section>
473     <body>
474    
475     <warn>
476     The options explained in this section should be considered deprecated and will
477 rane 1.26 most likely be removed in the future. We strongly recommend against using
478 nightmorph 1.23 these, because your Java projects or application should ideally manage their
479     own classpaths. If you choose to specify a default CLASSPATH, some applications
480     may behave unexpectedly, because classes they weren't expecting would be on the
481     classpath.
482     </warn>
483    
484     <p>
485     <c>java-config</c> can also be used to set a system-wide default CLASSPATH, as
486     well a user-specific default CLASSPATH.
487     </p>
488    
489     <p>
490     First, you will want to list available Java libraries installed on your system
491     that might want to be put in your CLASSPATH. Here is an example of output:
492     </p>
493    
494     <pre caption="Listing classes">
495     # <i>java-config --list-available-packages</i>
496     [xerces-2] The next generation of high performance, fully compliant XML parsers in the Apache Xerces family (/usr/share/xerces-2/package.env)
497     [junit] Simple framework to write repeatable tests (/usr/share/junit/package.env)
498     [bsh] BeanShell: A small embeddable Java source interpreter (/usr/share/bsh/package.env)
499     [bcel] The Byte Code Engineering Library: analyze, create, manipulate Java class files (/usr/share/bcel/package.env)
500     [log4j] A low-overhead robust logging package for Java (/usr/share/log4j/package.env)
501     ...
502     </pre>
503    
504     <p>
505     Again, the names in brackets (<e>[]</e>) are the IDs that you have to pass to
506     <c>java-config --set-system-classpath</c>. Here is an example:
507     </p>
508    
509     <pre caption="Setting classpaths">
510     # <i>java-config --set-system-classpath log4j,xerces-2</i>
511     </pre>
512    
513     <note>
514     The current directory (<path>.</path>) will not be part of the system
515     classpath, as that should be added in your system's login profile.
516     </note>
517    
518     <p>
519 rane 1.26 You will have to update your environment by logging out, then in again or
520     sourcing <path>/etc/profile</path>.
521 nightmorph 1.23 </p>
522    
523     <p>
524     For users, <c>java-config --set-user-classpath</c> will create
525     <path>~/.gentoo/java-env-classpath</path>, which you should then source from
526     your shell's profile.
527     </p>
528    
529     <pre caption="Sourcing user specific classpath">
530     <i>if [[ -f "${HOME}/.gentoo/java-env-classpath" ]]; then
531     source ${HOME}/.gentoo/java-env-classpath
532     fi</i>
533     </pre>
534    
535     <p>
536     If you really want a system wide or user default classpath you can add
537 rane 1.25 something like the following to your shell's profile. But we would advise
538 nightmorph 1.23 against it.
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="Setting classpath">
542     # <i>export CLASSPATH="${CLASSPATH}:$(java-config --classpath log4j,xerces-2)"</i>
543     </pre>
544    
545 neysx 1.11 </body>
546     </section>
547 swift 1.13 </chapter>
548    
549     <chapter>
550     <title>USE flags for use with Java</title>
551     <section>
552     <title>Setting USE flags</title>
553     <body>
554    
555     <p>
556 rane 1.17 For more information regarding USE flags, refer to the <uri
557     link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
558 swift 1.13 chapter from the Gentoo Handbook.
559 neysx 1.11 </p>
560    
561     </body>
562     </section>
563 swift 1.13 <section>
564     <title>The flags</title>
565     <body>
566    
567     <ul>
568 nightmorph 1.23 <li>The <b>java</b> flag adds support for Java in a variety of programs</li>
569     <li>
570     The <b>nsplugin</b> flag adds support for Mozilla-like browsers (including
571     Firefox).You will need this for viewing Java applets in your Mozilla-like
572     browser.
573     </li>
574 rane 1.17 <li>
575 nightmorph 1.23 The <b>doc</b> flag will typically install API documentation, as generated
576     by javadoc.
577     </li>
578     <li>
579 rane 1.28 The <b>source</b> flag installs a zip of the source code of a package.
580     This is traditionally used for for IDEs to 'attach' source to the libraries
581     you are using.
582     </li>
583     <li>
584     For Java packages, the <b>doc</b> flag will build API documentation using
585     javadoc.
586     </li>
587 swift 1.13 </ul>
588    
589     </body>
590     </section>
591 neysx 1.11 </chapter>
592    
593     <chapter>
594     <title>Additional resources</title>
595     <section>
596     <title>Off-line resources</title>
597     <body>
598    
599     <ul>
600 rane 1.17 <li>java-config man page</li>
601     <li><c>java-config --help</c></li>
602 neysx 1.11 </ul>
603    
604     </body>
605     </section>
606     <section>
607     <title>Online resources</title>
608     <body>
609 rane 1.17
610 neysx 1.11 <ul>
611 nightmorph 1.23 <li>
612     The <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/java/">Java Project
613     Page</uri>
614     </li>
615 rane 1.17 <li>
616     The <uri
617 nightmorph 1.23 link="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.java">gentoo-java</uri>,
618     <uri
619     link="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.user">gentoo-user</uri>, and
620     <uri
621     link="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel">gentoo-dev</uri>
622 alin 1.18 mailing list archives
623 rane 1.17 </li>
624 alin 1.18 <li>#gentoo and #gentoo-java on irc.freenode.net</li>
625 rane 1.17 <li>
626     <uri
627     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_programming_language">Wikipedia's
628     entry for Java</uri>
629     </li>
630 neysx 1.11 </ul>
631    
632     </body>
633     </section>
634     </chapter>
635 neysx 1.12 </guide>

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