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added 2006.1 fix-in-the-works; should be evaluated. commented fixes and explanation only, **no content change**

1 rane 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.11 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/liveusb.xml,v 1.10 2006/09/18 10:51:48 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 rane 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/liveusb.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux LiveUSB HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.8 <mail link="henrik@brixandersen.dk">Henrik Brix Andersen</mail>
10 rane 1.1 </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13     This HOWTO explains how to create a Gentoo Linux LiveUSB or, in other words,
14     how to emulate a Gentoo Linux Installation CD using an USB flash drive.
15     </abstract>
16    
17     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
18     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
19     <license/>
20    
21 nightmorph 1.10 <version>1.6</version>
22     <date>2006-09-18</date>
23 rane 1.1
24     <chapter>
25     <title>Introduction</title>
26     <section>
27     <title>The LiveUSB</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31     This HOWTO explains how to create a <e>Gentoo Linux LiveUSB</e> or, in other
32     words, how to emulate a Gentoo Linux Installation CD using an USB flash drive.
33     This is particularly useful for installing Gentoo Linux on a modern laptop with
34     no CD-ROM drive.
35     </p>
36    
37     <p>
38 vanquirius 1.4 Although the instructions found in this document aim at emulating a Gentoo
39 rane 1.1 Linux Installation CD using an USB flash drive, they should work for any
40     arbitrary block device as long as you adjust the device names accordingly.
41     </p>
42    
43     </body>
44     </section>
45     <section>
46     <title>Prerequisites</title>
47     <body>
48    
49     <p>
50     In order to use a Gentoo Linux LiveUSB you need the following:
51     </p>
52    
53     <ul>
54     <li>Bootable USB flash drive (at least 64MB)</li>
55 nightmorph 1.5 <li>
56 jkt 1.6 x86 computer with support for booting from USB
57 nightmorph 1.5 </li>
58 rane 1.1 </ul>
59    
60     <p>
61     You will also need access to the following for creating the LiveUSB:
62     </p>
63    
64     <ul>
65     <li>
66     A computer running Gentoo Linux (or alternatively another Linux
67     distribution)
68     </li>
69     </ul>
70    
71     </body>
72     </section>
73     </chapter>
74     <chapter>
75     <title>Preparing the USB flash drive</title>
76     <section>
77     <title>Partitioning the drive</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <warn>
81     These instructions will erase all data from the USB flash drive. Make sure to
82     backup your data first.
83     </warn>
84    
85     <impo>
86     This HOWTO assumes that the <path>/dev/sda</path> device node corresponds to
87     your USB flash drive. If you have other SCSI-like devices make sure to use the
88     correct device node.
89     </impo>
90    
91     <p>
92     Create a FAT32 partition on your USB flash drive and mark it bootable using
93     <c>fdisk</c>. An example partitioning scheme can be seen below:
94     </p>
95    
96     <pre caption="Example partitioning scheme">
97     # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
98    
99     Disk /dev/sda: 1048 MB, 1048313856 bytes
100     33 heads, 61 sectors/track, 1017 cylinders
101     Units = cylinders of 2013 * 512 = 1030656 bytes
102    
103     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
104     /dev/sda1 * 1 1017 1023580 b W95 FAT32
105     </pre>
106    
107     </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Creating the filesystem</title>
111     <body>
112    
113     <p>
114     Create a FAT32 filesystem on the USB flash drive using <c>mkdosfs</c>:
115     </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Running mkdosfs">
118     <comment>(Make sure you have sys-fs/dosfstools installed)</comment>
119     # <i>emerge -av sys-fs/dosfstools</i>
120     # <i>mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sda1</i>
121     mkdosfs 2.11 (12 Mar 2005)
122     </pre>
123    
124     </body>
125     </section>
126     <section>
127     <title>Installing a Master Boot Record</title>
128     <body>
129    
130     <p>
131     Install the precompiled Master Boot Record (MBR) from <c>syslinux</c> on the
132     USB flash drive:
133     </p>
134    
135     <pre caption="Installing a master boot record">
136     <comment>(Make sure you have sys-boot/syslinux-3.00 or later installed)</comment>
137     # <i>emerge -av '>=sys-boot/syslinux-3*'</i>
138     # <i>dd if=/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda</i>
139     0+1 records in
140     0+1 records out
141     </pre>
142    
143     </body>
144     </section>
145     </chapter>
146     <chapter>
147     <title>Copying the files</title>
148     <section>
149     <title>Mounting the Gentoo Linux Installation CD</title>
150     <body>
151    
152 nightmorph 1.10 <warn>
153     This guide is designed only to be used with Gentoo 2006.0. Do not attempt to
154     use a 2006.1 CD or newer; you will end up with an unbootable USB disk.
155     </warn>
156    
157 rane 1.1 <p>
158 nightmorph 1.9 Download the <path>install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso</path> file from your
159 rane 1.1 local Gentoo Linux <uri link="/main/en/where.xml">mirror</uri> site and mount
160     the ISO image on <path>/mnt/cdrom/</path> as shown below:
161     </p>
162    
163     <pre caption="Mounting the Gentoo Linux Installation CD ISO image">
164     <comment>(Create the /mnt/cdrom/ mount point if needed)</comment>
165     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/cdrom</i>
166 nightmorph 1.9 # <i>mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
167 rane 1.1 </pre>
168    
169 neysx 1.7 <note>
170     If you receive a <e>Could not find any loop device</e> error message when
171     mounting the iso, you need to enable the <c>Loopback device support</c> option
172     in your kernel configuration.
173     </note>
174    
175 rane 1.1 </body>
176     </section>
177     <section>
178     <title>Mounting the LiveUSB</title>
179     <body>
180    
181     <p>
182     Mount the newly formatted USB flash drive on <path>/mnt/usb/</path> as shown
183     below:
184     </p>
185    
186     <pre caption="Mounting the USB flash drive">
187     <comment>(Create the /mnt/usb/ mount point if needed)</comment>
188     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/usb</i>
189     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb/</i>
190     </pre>
191    
192     </body>
193     </section>
194     <section>
195     <title>Copying the files</title>
196     <body>
197    
198     <p>
199     Copy the files from the Gentoo Linux Installation CD to the LiveUSB. The files
200 rane 1.3 need to be reordered a bit as we will be using the <c>syslinux</c> bootloader
201 rane 1.1 instead of <c>isolinux</c>:
202     </p>
203    
204     <pre caption="Copying the files">
205     # <i>cp -r /mnt/cdrom/* /mnt/usb/</i>
206     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/isolinux/* /mnt/usb/</i>
207     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/isolinux.cfg /mnt/usb/syslinux.cfg</i>
208     # <i>rm -rf /mnt/usb/isolinux*</i>
209    
210     <comment>(The memtest86 kernel needs to be renamed for loading it via syslinux)</comment>
211     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/memtest86 /mnt/usb/memtest</i>
212     </pre>
213    
214     <p>
215     You can now unmount the ISO image:
216     </p>
217    
218     <pre caption="Unmounting the ISO image">
219     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
220     </pre>
221    
222     </body>
223     </section>
224     <section>
225     <title>Adjusting the bootloader configuration</title>
226     <body>
227    
228     <p>
229     Adjust the syslinux configuration file using <c>sed</c> as shown below. The
230 jkt 1.6 <c>dobladecenter</c> parameter will introduce some extra delays before
231     attempting to mount the filesystem. This is needed to allow the USB
232     flash drive to settle upon detection.
233 rane 1.1 </p>
234    
235     <pre caption="Adjusting the boot parameters">
236     # <i>sed -i \
237 jkt 1.6 -e "s:cdroot:cdroot dobladecenter:" \
238 rane 1.1 -e "s:kernel memtest86:kernel memtest:" \
239     /mnt/usb/syslinux.cfg</i>
240     </pre>
241    
242     <note>
243     Consider adding <c>docache</c> to the boot parameters. This will allow running
244     <c>umount /mnt/cdrom/</c> after booting so that you can unplug the USB flash
245 jkt 1.6 drive. Do not enable this unless the target computer has at least 128MB RAM.
246 rane 1.1 </note>
247    
248 nightmorph 1.11 <!--
249     (2006.1 workaround) posted by nightmorph
250    
251     Background:
252     After some lengthy discussion with Robin Johnson (robbat2) on IRC, it turns out
253     that the reason why 2006.1 fails to work with this guide is because inside the
254     initramfs, it specifies -t iso9660..but usb flash isn't this filetype, it's
255     vfat. 2006.0 was much better and just specified mount -t auto. so the thing is
256     to install an ~arch version of genkernel (3.4.4, still ~arch as of 2006-11-04)
257     and reconfigure syslinux.config to point at the renamed files.
258    
259     Obviously, unmasking an ~arch version is never desirable in documentation, so we
260     need some more alternatives...since 3.4.4 was only created at the end of
261     october; not likely to go stable all that soon.
262    
263     Procedure:
264     After adjusting the parameters, and before the disk is unmounted/bootloader
265     installed, the following must be done for ~arch genkernel. Please replace (dash)
266     with an actual - , since the damned xmllint throws a "comment not terminated"
267     error.
268    
269     # echo "sys-kernel/genkernel" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords
270     # genkernel (dash)(dash)bootdir=/mnt/usb (dash)(dash)install all
271     (not sure if syslinux has been installed previously yet)
272     # nano -w syslinux.cfg
273     (Edit it to point at the new filenames installed by genkernel)
274     (might be worth renaming to the ones normally used by syslinux, as
275     if the kernel name is too long, "vfat might bite")
276    
277     (might need to re-run syslinux as specified below to pick up the new names,
278     though maybe this renaming step should be in the section below?)
279     # syslinux /dev/sda1
280    
281     TODO:
282     - if/when this document changes, brix requested some time ago that he be renamed
283     "Original Author" and be moved to the bottom of the credits list.
284     - if/when this fix goes in, robbat2 deserves credit: this is his solution after
285     all, and it works.
286    
287     -->
288    
289 rane 1.1 </body>
290     </section>
291     </chapter>
292     <chapter>
293     <title>Installing a bootloader</title>
294     <section>
295     <title>Unmounting the drive</title>
296     <body>
297    
298     <p>
299 rane 1.2 Make sure you unmount the USB flash drive before installing the bootloader:
300 rane 1.1 </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Unmounting the USB flash drive">
303     # <i>umount /mnt/usb/</i>
304     </pre>
305    
306     </body>
307     </section>
308     <section>
309     <title>Installing syslinux</title>
310     <body>
311    
312     <p>
313     Finally install the <c>syslinux</c> bootloader on the USB flash drive:
314     </p>
315    
316     <pre caption="Running syslinux">
317     # <i>syslinux /dev/sda1</i>
318     </pre>
319    
320     <impo>
321     You will need to rerun <c>syslinux /dev/sda1</c> each time you modify the
322     <path>syslinux.cfg</path> file for the configuration changes to take affect.
323     </impo>
324    
325     </body>
326     </section>
327     </chapter>
328     <chapter>
329     <title>Using the LiveUSB</title>
330     <section>
331     <title>Booting</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335     Insert the USB flash drive and turn on the computer, making sure the BIOS is
336     set to boot from USB. If all goes well you should be presented with a standard
337     syslinux prompt.
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     You should be able to follow the generic installation instructions found in the
342     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> from here on.
343     </p>
344    
345     </body>
346     </section>
347     </chapter>
348     </guide>

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