/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/liveusb.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/liveusb.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.19 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Nov 20 13:12:51 2009 UTC (4 years, 8 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.18: +12 -16 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
update liveusb.xml for bug 290093

1 rane 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.19 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/liveusb.xml,v 1.18 2009/01/26 20:19:31 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 rane 1.1
5 neysx 1.17 <guide>
6 rane 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux LiveUSB HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 neysx 1.17 <mail link="brix"/>
10 rane 1.1 </author>
11 neysx 1.13 <author title="Editor">
12 nightmorph 1.18 <mail link="neysx"/>
13 neysx 1.13 </author>
14 rane 1.1
15     <abstract>
16     This HOWTO explains how to create a Gentoo Linux LiveUSB or, in other words,
17 neysx 1.13 how to emulate an x86 or AMD64 Gentoo Linux LiveCD using a USB flash drive.
18 rane 1.1 </abstract>
19    
20     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
21     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
22     <license/>
23    
24 nightmorph 1.19 <version>7</version>
25     <date>2009-11-20</date>
26 rane 1.1
27     <chapter>
28     <title>Introduction</title>
29     <section>
30     <title>The LiveUSB</title>
31     <body>
32    
33     <p>
34     This HOWTO explains how to create a <e>Gentoo Linux LiveUSB</e> or, in other
35 neysx 1.13 words, how to emulate an x86 or AMD64 Gentoo Linux LiveCD using a USB flash
36     drive. This is particularly useful for installing Gentoo Linux on a modern
37     laptop with no CD-ROM drive.
38 rane 1.1 </p>
39    
40 neysx 1.17 <note>
41     The <c>sys-boot/unetbootin</c> package provides a much easier alternative to
42     create a bootable USB stick from any bootable CD image.
43     </note>
44    
45 rane 1.1 <p>
46 vanquirius 1.4 Although the instructions found in this document aim at emulating a Gentoo
47 neysx 1.13 Linux LiveCD using a USB flash drive, they should work for any arbitrary block
48     device as long as you adjust the device names accordingly.
49 rane 1.1 </p>
50    
51     </body>
52     </section>
53     <section>
54     <title>Prerequisites</title>
55     <body>
56    
57     <p>
58     In order to use a Gentoo Linux LiveUSB you need the following:
59     </p>
60    
61     <ul>
62 neysx 1.13 <li>Bootable USB flash drive with at least 1GB</li>
63     <li>i686 or x86_64 computer with support for booting from USB</li>
64 rane 1.1 </ul>
65    
66     <p>
67     You will also need access to the following for creating the LiveUSB:
68     </p>
69    
70     <ul>
71     <li>
72     A computer running Gentoo Linux (or alternatively another Linux
73     distribution)
74     </li>
75     </ul>
76    
77     </body>
78     </section>
79     </chapter>
80     <chapter>
81     <title>Preparing the USB flash drive</title>
82     <section>
83     <title>Partitioning the drive</title>
84     <body>
85    
86     <warn>
87     These instructions will erase all data from the USB flash drive. Make sure to
88     backup your data first.
89     </warn>
90    
91     <impo>
92 neysx 1.13 This HOWTO assumes that the <path>/dev/sdc</path> device node corresponds to
93 rane 1.1 your USB flash drive. If you have other SCSI-like devices make sure to use the
94     correct device node.
95     </impo>
96    
97     <p>
98 neysx 1.13 Create a FAT16 partition on your USB flash drive and mark it bootable using
99 rane 1.1 <c>fdisk</c>. An example partitioning scheme can be seen below:
100     </p>
101    
102 neysx 1.13 <note>
103     If your key is 4GB or larger, use partition type <c>b</c> (W95 FAT32).
104     </note>
105    
106 rane 1.1 <pre caption="Example partitioning scheme">
107 neysx 1.13 # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sdc</i>
108 rane 1.1
109 neysx 1.13 Disk /dev/sdc: 2063 MB, 2063597056 bytes
110     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 250 cylinders
111     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
112 rane 1.1
113     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
114 neysx 1.13 /dev/sdc1 * 1 250 2008124+ 6 FAT16
115 rane 1.1 </pre>
116    
117     </body>
118     </section>
119     <section>
120     <title>Creating the filesystem</title>
121     <body>
122    
123     <p>
124 neysx 1.13 Create a FAT16 filesystem on the USB flash drive using <c>mkdosfs</c>:
125 rane 1.1 </p>
126    
127 neysx 1.13 <note>
128     If your key is 4GB or larger, use <c>-F 32</c> to create a FAT32 filesystem.
129     </note>
130    
131 rane 1.1 <pre caption="Running mkdosfs">
132     <comment>(Make sure you have sys-fs/dosfstools installed)</comment>
133     # <i>emerge -av sys-fs/dosfstools</i>
134 neysx 1.13 # <i>mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc1</i>
135 rane 1.1 mkdosfs 2.11 (12 Mar 2005)
136     </pre>
137    
138     </body>
139     </section>
140     <section>
141     <title>Installing a Master Boot Record</title>
142     <body>
143    
144     <p>
145     Install the precompiled Master Boot Record (MBR) from <c>syslinux</c> on the
146     USB flash drive:
147     </p>
148    
149     <pre caption="Installing a master boot record">
150     <comment>(Make sure you have sys-boot/syslinux-3.00 or later installed)</comment>
151 nightmorph 1.12 # <i>emerge -av '>sys-boot/syslinux-3'</i>
152 nightmorph 1.16 # <i>dd if=/usr/share/syslinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sdc</i>
153 rane 1.1 0+1 records in
154     0+1 records out
155 neysx 1.13 304 bytes (304 B) copied, 0.0162317 s, 18.7 kB/s
156 rane 1.1 </pre>
157    
158     </body>
159     </section>
160     </chapter>
161 neysx 1.13
162 rane 1.1 <chapter>
163 neysx 1.13 <title>Copying the files to your key</title>
164 rane 1.1 <section>
165     <title>Mounting the Gentoo Linux Installation CD</title>
166     <body>
167    
168     <p>
169 nightmorph 1.19 Download the Gentoo Weekly Minimal Install CD for your architecture from your
170     local Gentoo Linux <uri link="/main/en/where.xml">mirror</uri> site and mount
171     the ISO image on <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> as shown below:
172 rane 1.1 </p>
173    
174     <pre caption="Mounting the Gentoo Linux Installation CD ISO image">
175 neysx 1.13 <comment>(Create the /mnt/cdrom mount point if needed)</comment>
176 rane 1.1 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/cdrom</i>
177 nightmorph 1.19 # <i>mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /path/to/iso.iso /mnt/cdrom</i>
178 rane 1.1 </pre>
179    
180 neysx 1.7 <note>
181     If you receive a <e>Could not find any loop device</e> error message when
182     mounting the iso, you need to enable the <c>Loopback device support</c> option
183     in your kernel configuration.
184     </note>
185    
186 rane 1.1 </body>
187     </section>
188     <section>
189     <title>Mounting the LiveUSB</title>
190     <body>
191    
192     <p>
193 neysx 1.13 Mount the newly formatted USB flash drive on <path>/mnt/usb</path> as shown
194 rane 1.1 below:
195     </p>
196    
197     <pre caption="Mounting the USB flash drive">
198 neysx 1.13 <comment>(Create the /mnt/usb mount point if needed)</comment>
199 rane 1.1 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/usb</i>
200 neysx 1.13 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb</i>
201 rane 1.1 </pre>
202    
203     </body>
204     </section>
205     <section>
206     <title>Copying the files</title>
207     <body>
208    
209     <p>
210     Copy the files from the Gentoo Linux Installation CD to the LiveUSB. The files
211 rane 1.3 need to be reordered a bit as we will be using the <c>syslinux</c> bootloader
212 rane 1.1 instead of <c>isolinux</c>:
213     </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Copying the files">
216 neysx 1.13 # <i>cp -r /mnt/cdrom/* /mnt/usb</i>
217     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/isolinux/* /mnt/usb</i>
218 rane 1.1 # <i>mv /mnt/usb/isolinux.cfg /mnt/usb/syslinux.cfg</i>
219     # <i>rm -rf /mnt/usb/isolinux*</i>
220    
221     <comment>(The memtest86 kernel needs to be renamed for loading it via syslinux)</comment>
222     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/memtest86 /mnt/usb/memtest</i>
223     </pre>
224    
225     <p>
226     You can now unmount the ISO image:
227     </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Unmounting the ISO image">
230 neysx 1.13 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
231 rane 1.1 </pre>
232    
233     </body>
234     </section>
235     <section>
236     <title>Adjusting the bootloader configuration</title>
237     <body>
238    
239     <p>
240     Adjust the syslinux configuration file using <c>sed</c> as shown below. The
241 neysx 1.13 <c>slowusb</c> parameter will introduce some extra delays before attempting to
242     mount the filesystem. This is needed to allow the USB flash drive to settle
243     upon detection.
244 rane 1.1 </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="Adjusting the boot parameters">
247     # <i>sed -i \
248 neysx 1.13 -e "s:cdroot:cdroot slowusb:" \
249 rane 1.1 -e "s:kernel memtest86:kernel memtest:" \
250     /mnt/usb/syslinux.cfg</i>
251     </pre>
252    
253     </body>
254     </section>
255     </chapter>
256 neysx 1.13
257 rane 1.1 <chapter>
258     <title>Installing a bootloader</title>
259     <section>
260     <title>Unmounting the drive</title>
261     <body>
262    
263     <p>
264 rane 1.2 Make sure you unmount the USB flash drive before installing the bootloader:
265 rane 1.1 </p>
266    
267     <pre caption="Unmounting the USB flash drive">
268 neysx 1.13 # <i>umount /mnt/usb</i>
269 rane 1.1 </pre>
270    
271     </body>
272     </section>
273     <section>
274     <title>Installing syslinux</title>
275     <body>
276    
277     <p>
278     Finally install the <c>syslinux</c> bootloader on the USB flash drive:
279     </p>
280    
281     <pre caption="Running syslinux">
282 neysx 1.13 # <i>syslinux /dev/sdc1</i>
283 rane 1.1 </pre>
284    
285     <impo>
286 neysx 1.13 You will need to rerun <c>syslinux /dev/sdc1</c> each time you modify the
287 rane 1.1 <path>syslinux.cfg</path> file for the configuration changes to take affect.
288     </impo>
289 nightmorph 1.19 <note>
290     If this is the first time you have used syslinux, you will need to edit
291     <path>/etc/mtools/mtools.conf</path> on your host. Simply commenting out
292     <c>SAMPLE FILE</c> will suffice for the purpose of this guide.
293     </note>
294 rane 1.1
295     </body>
296     </section>
297     </chapter>
298     <chapter>
299     <title>Using the LiveUSB</title>
300     <section>
301     <title>Booting</title>
302     <body>
303    
304     <p>
305     Insert the USB flash drive and turn on the computer, making sure the BIOS is
306     set to boot from USB. If all goes well you should be presented with a standard
307     syslinux prompt.
308     </p>
309    
310     <p>
311     You should be able to follow the generic installation instructions found in the
312     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> from here on.
313     </p>
314    
315     </body>
316     </section>
317     </chapter>
318     </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20