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Revision 1.9 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Sep 9 10:00:13 2006 UTC (7 years, 11 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.8: +5 -5 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
reverting to a 2006.0 stage per email received from brix. looks like the 2006.1 tarballs are fundamentally incompatible with the steps in this guide

1 rane 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.9 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/liveusb.xml,v 1.8 2006/09/04 20:35:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 rane 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/liveusb.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux LiveUSB HOWTO</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.8 <mail link="henrik@brixandersen.dk">Henrik Brix Andersen</mail>
10 rane 1.1 </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13     This HOWTO explains how to create a Gentoo Linux LiveUSB or, in other words,
14     how to emulate a Gentoo Linux Installation CD using an USB flash drive.
15     </abstract>
16    
17     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
18     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
19     <license/>
20    
21 nightmorph 1.9 <version>1.5</version>
22     <date>2006-09-09</date>
23 rane 1.1
24     <chapter>
25     <title>Introduction</title>
26     <section>
27     <title>The LiveUSB</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31     This HOWTO explains how to create a <e>Gentoo Linux LiveUSB</e> or, in other
32     words, how to emulate a Gentoo Linux Installation CD using an USB flash drive.
33     This is particularly useful for installing Gentoo Linux on a modern laptop with
34     no CD-ROM drive.
35     </p>
36    
37     <p>
38 vanquirius 1.4 Although the instructions found in this document aim at emulating a Gentoo
39 rane 1.1 Linux Installation CD using an USB flash drive, they should work for any
40     arbitrary block device as long as you adjust the device names accordingly.
41     </p>
42    
43     </body>
44     </section>
45     <section>
46     <title>Prerequisites</title>
47     <body>
48    
49     <p>
50     In order to use a Gentoo Linux LiveUSB you need the following:
51     </p>
52    
53     <ul>
54     <li>Bootable USB flash drive (at least 64MB)</li>
55 nightmorph 1.5 <li>
56 jkt 1.6 x86 computer with support for booting from USB
57 nightmorph 1.5 </li>
58 rane 1.1 </ul>
59    
60     <p>
61     You will also need access to the following for creating the LiveUSB:
62     </p>
63    
64     <ul>
65     <li>
66     A computer running Gentoo Linux (or alternatively another Linux
67     distribution)
68     </li>
69     </ul>
70    
71     </body>
72     </section>
73     </chapter>
74     <chapter>
75     <title>Preparing the USB flash drive</title>
76     <section>
77     <title>Partitioning the drive</title>
78     <body>
79    
80     <warn>
81     These instructions will erase all data from the USB flash drive. Make sure to
82     backup your data first.
83     </warn>
84    
85     <impo>
86     This HOWTO assumes that the <path>/dev/sda</path> device node corresponds to
87     your USB flash drive. If you have other SCSI-like devices make sure to use the
88     correct device node.
89     </impo>
90    
91     <p>
92     Create a FAT32 partition on your USB flash drive and mark it bootable using
93     <c>fdisk</c>. An example partitioning scheme can be seen below:
94     </p>
95    
96     <pre caption="Example partitioning scheme">
97     # <i>fdisk -l /dev/sda</i>
98    
99     Disk /dev/sda: 1048 MB, 1048313856 bytes
100     33 heads, 61 sectors/track, 1017 cylinders
101     Units = cylinders of 2013 * 512 = 1030656 bytes
102    
103     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
104     /dev/sda1 * 1 1017 1023580 b W95 FAT32
105     </pre>
106    
107     </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Creating the filesystem</title>
111     <body>
112    
113     <p>
114     Create a FAT32 filesystem on the USB flash drive using <c>mkdosfs</c>:
115     </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Running mkdosfs">
118     <comment>(Make sure you have sys-fs/dosfstools installed)</comment>
119     # <i>emerge -av sys-fs/dosfstools</i>
120     # <i>mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sda1</i>
121     mkdosfs 2.11 (12 Mar 2005)
122     </pre>
123    
124     </body>
125     </section>
126     <section>
127     <title>Installing a Master Boot Record</title>
128     <body>
129    
130     <p>
131     Install the precompiled Master Boot Record (MBR) from <c>syslinux</c> on the
132     USB flash drive:
133     </p>
134    
135     <pre caption="Installing a master boot record">
136     <comment>(Make sure you have sys-boot/syslinux-3.00 or later installed)</comment>
137     # <i>emerge -av '>=sys-boot/syslinux-3*'</i>
138     # <i>dd if=/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda</i>
139     0+1 records in
140     0+1 records out
141     </pre>
142    
143     </body>
144     </section>
145     </chapter>
146     <chapter>
147     <title>Copying the files</title>
148     <section>
149     <title>Mounting the Gentoo Linux Installation CD</title>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153 nightmorph 1.9 Download the <path>install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso</path> file from your
154 rane 1.1 local Gentoo Linux <uri link="/main/en/where.xml">mirror</uri> site and mount
155     the ISO image on <path>/mnt/cdrom/</path> as shown below:
156     </p>
157    
158     <pre caption="Mounting the Gentoo Linux Installation CD ISO image">
159     <comment>(Create the /mnt/cdrom/ mount point if needed)</comment>
160     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/cdrom</i>
161 nightmorph 1.9 # <i>mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
162 rane 1.1 </pre>
163    
164 neysx 1.7 <note>
165     If you receive a <e>Could not find any loop device</e> error message when
166     mounting the iso, you need to enable the <c>Loopback device support</c> option
167     in your kernel configuration.
168     </note>
169    
170 rane 1.1 </body>
171     </section>
172     <section>
173     <title>Mounting the LiveUSB</title>
174     <body>
175    
176     <p>
177     Mount the newly formatted USB flash drive on <path>/mnt/usb/</path> as shown
178     below:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Mounting the USB flash drive">
182     <comment>(Create the /mnt/usb/ mount point if needed)</comment>
183     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/usb</i>
184     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb/</i>
185     </pre>
186    
187     </body>
188     </section>
189     <section>
190     <title>Copying the files</title>
191     <body>
192    
193     <p>
194     Copy the files from the Gentoo Linux Installation CD to the LiveUSB. The files
195 rane 1.3 need to be reordered a bit as we will be using the <c>syslinux</c> bootloader
196 rane 1.1 instead of <c>isolinux</c>:
197     </p>
198    
199     <pre caption="Copying the files">
200     # <i>cp -r /mnt/cdrom/* /mnt/usb/</i>
201     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/isolinux/* /mnt/usb/</i>
202     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/isolinux.cfg /mnt/usb/syslinux.cfg</i>
203     # <i>rm -rf /mnt/usb/isolinux*</i>
204    
205     <comment>(The memtest86 kernel needs to be renamed for loading it via syslinux)</comment>
206     # <i>mv /mnt/usb/memtest86 /mnt/usb/memtest</i>
207     </pre>
208    
209     <p>
210     You can now unmount the ISO image:
211     </p>
212    
213     <pre caption="Unmounting the ISO image">
214     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
215     </pre>
216    
217     </body>
218     </section>
219     <section>
220     <title>Adjusting the bootloader configuration</title>
221     <body>
222    
223     <p>
224     Adjust the syslinux configuration file using <c>sed</c> as shown below. The
225 jkt 1.6 <c>dobladecenter</c> parameter will introduce some extra delays before
226     attempting to mount the filesystem. This is needed to allow the USB
227     flash drive to settle upon detection.
228 rane 1.1 </p>
229    
230     <pre caption="Adjusting the boot parameters">
231     # <i>sed -i \
232 jkt 1.6 -e "s:cdroot:cdroot dobladecenter:" \
233 rane 1.1 -e "s:kernel memtest86:kernel memtest:" \
234     /mnt/usb/syslinux.cfg</i>
235     </pre>
236    
237     <note>
238     Consider adding <c>docache</c> to the boot parameters. This will allow running
239     <c>umount /mnt/cdrom/</c> after booting so that you can unplug the USB flash
240 jkt 1.6 drive. Do not enable this unless the target computer has at least 128MB RAM.
241 rane 1.1 </note>
242    
243     </body>
244     </section>
245     </chapter>
246     <chapter>
247     <title>Installing a bootloader</title>
248     <section>
249     <title>Unmounting the drive</title>
250     <body>
251    
252     <p>
253 rane 1.2 Make sure you unmount the USB flash drive before installing the bootloader:
254 rane 1.1 </p>
255    
256     <pre caption="Unmounting the USB flash drive">
257     # <i>umount /mnt/usb/</i>
258     </pre>
259    
260     </body>
261     </section>
262     <section>
263     <title>Installing syslinux</title>
264     <body>
265    
266     <p>
267     Finally install the <c>syslinux</c> bootloader on the USB flash drive:
268     </p>
269    
270     <pre caption="Running syslinux">
271     # <i>syslinux /dev/sda1</i>
272     </pre>
273    
274     <impo>
275     You will need to rerun <c>syslinux /dev/sda1</c> each time you modify the
276     <path>syslinux.cfg</path> file for the configuration changes to take affect.
277     </impo>
278    
279     </body>
280     </section>
281     </chapter>
282     <chapter>
283     <title>Using the LiveUSB</title>
284     <section>
285     <title>Booting</title>
286     <body>
287    
288     <p>
289     Insert the USB flash drive and turn on the computer, making sure the BIOS is
290     set to boot from USB. If all goes well you should be presented with a standard
291     syslinux prompt.
292     </p>
293    
294     <p>
295     You should be able to follow the generic installation instructions found in the
296     <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/">Gentoo Handbook</uri> from here on.
297     </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </section>
301     </chapter>
302     </guide>

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