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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4     <guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
5     <title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
6     <author title="Author">
7 swift 1.2 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
8 swift 1.1 </author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
11     </author>
12     <author title="Editor">
13     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14     </author>
15    
16     <license/>
17    
18     <abstract>
19     This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
20     </abstract>
21 swift 1.3 <version>1.2</version>
22     <date>October 11, 2003</date>
23 swift 1.1 <chapter>
24     <title>Introduction</title>
25     <section>
26     <title>What is LTSP?</title>
27     <body>
28     <p>
29     LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
30     on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
31     with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
32     therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
33     reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
34     need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
35     schools or firms.
36     </p>
37     </body>
38     </section>
39     </chapter>
40     <chapter>
41     <title>Installation</title>
42     <section>
43     <title>Preliminaries</title>
44     <body>
45     <p>
46     All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
47     192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
48     192.168.0.0/24.
49     </p>
50     </body>
51     </section>
52     <section>
53     <title>Installation</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     First of all, you must have a working Gentoo system. Please read the
58     Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
59     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
60     </p>
61    
62     <p>
63     Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core
64     utils:
65     </p>
66    
67     <pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
68     # <i>emerge ltsp-core</i>
69     </pre>
70    
71     <p>
72     This will install the following packages as dependencies:
73     </p>
74    
75     <ul>
76     <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
77     <li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
78     computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
79     workstations.</li>
80     <li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
81     the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
82     workstations.</li>
83     <li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
84     to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li>
85     <li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
86     advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li>
87     </ul>
88    
89     <note>
90     If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
91     </note>
92    
93     </body>
94     </section>
95     </chapter>
96     <chapter>
97     <title>Configuration</title>
98     <body>
99    
100     <p>
101     After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
102     </p>
103    
104     </body>
105     <section>
106     <title>System Logger</title>
107     <body>
108    
109     <p>
110     To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
111     accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
112     system logger on how to achieve this.
113     </p>
114    
115     </body>
116     </section>
117     <section>
118     <title>NFS</title>
119     <body>
120    
121     <p>
122     Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
123     allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
124     least two lines in it:
125     </p>
126    
127     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
128     /opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
129     /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
130     </pre>
131    
132     <note>
133     You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
134     settings.
135     </note>
136    
137     <p>
138     Now start NFS.
139     </p>
140    
141     <pre caption="Starting nfs">
142     # <i>rc-update add nfs default</i>
143     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
144     </pre>
145    
146     </body>
147     </section>
148    
149     <section>
150     <title>xinetd/tftp</title>
151     <body>
152    
153     <p>
154     By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit
155     <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with
156 swift 1.3 <c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd.
157 swift 1.1 </p>
158    
159     <pre caption="Starting xinetd">
160     # <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
161     # <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
162     </pre>
163    
164     </body>
165     </section>
166     <section>
167     <title>Name resolving</title>
168     <body>
169    
170     <p>
171     In order for the workstation to reach all resources, a correct name
172     resolving must be available. There are several ways to achieve this. One
173     is to configure a DNS server for the local network, the other (and more
174     simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
175     systems. We are going to use the latter.
176     </p>
177    
178     <p>
179     All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
180     at the example:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
184     127.0.0.1 localhost
185     192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
186     192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com
187     </pre>
188    
189     </body>
190     </section>
191     <section>
192     <title>DHCP Config</title>
193     <body>
194    
195     <p>
196     This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
197     valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
198     example:
199     </p>
200    
201     <pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
202     <codenote>Some general options</codenote>
203     default-lease-time 21600;
204     max-lease-time 21600;
205     use-host-decl-names on;
206     ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
207    
208     <codenote>Bootp options</codenote>
209     allow booting;
210     allow bootp;
211    
212     <codenote>Network Options</codenote>
213     option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
214     option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
215     option routers 192.168.0.254;
216     option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
217     option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
218     option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
219    
220     <codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote>
221     option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386";
222     filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1";
223    
224     <codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote>
225     <codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote>
226     #option option-128 code 128 = string;
227     #option option-129 code 129 = text;
228     #option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
229     #option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
230    
231     shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
232     subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
233     <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote>
234     range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16;
235     <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote>
236     #host ws001 {
237     # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
238     # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
239     #}
240     }
241     }
242     </pre>
243    
244     <p>
245     If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
246     have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
247     give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
248     that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome).
249     </p>
250    
251     <p>
252     For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
253     <uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
254     </p>
255    
256     <p>
257     Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
258     </p>
259    
260 swift 1.3 <pre caption="start dhcp">
261 swift 1.1 # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
262     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
263     </pre>
264    
265     <note>
266 swift 1.3 DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
267 swift 1.1 </note>
268    
269     </body>
270     </section>
271    
272     <section>
273     <title>LTSP Configuration</title>
274     <body>
275    
276     <p>
277     There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
278     <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
279     for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
280     </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </section>
284    
285     <section>
286     <title>Displaymanager</title>
287     <body>
288    
289     <p>
290     Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
291     also accept remote connections.
292     </p>
293    
294     <p>
295     <b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
296     </p>
297    
298     <p>
299     <b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
300     for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
301     <c>Enable = true</c>.
302     </p>
303    
304     <p>
305     <b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
306     <c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
307     <c>Enable = True</c>.
308     </p>
309    
310     <p>
311     Then start the displaymanager:
312     </p>
313    
314     <pre caption="Starting xdm">
315     # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
316     # <i>/etc/init.d/xdm start</i>
317     </pre>
318    
319     <warn>
320     There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
321     KDM to resolve these issues.
322     </warn>
323    
324     </body>
325     </section>
326    
327     <section>
328     <title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a
333     boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to
334     <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press
335     <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
336     </p>
337    
338 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Write floppy image">
339 swift 1.1 # <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
340     </pre>
341    
342     </body>
343     </section>
344     </chapter>
345    
346     <chapter>
347     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
348     <body>
349    
350     <p>
351     There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
352     are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
353     </p>
354    
355     <ul>
356     <li>The official documentation:
357     <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/</uri>, especially the
358     Troubleshooting section.</li>
359     <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
360     <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
361     <li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
362     are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
363     </ul>
364     </body>
365     </chapter>
366    
367     <chapter>
368     <title>FAQ</title>
369     <body>
370     <p>
371     <b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
372     with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
373     </p>
374    
375     <p>
376     <b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
377     </p>
378    
379     <p>
380     <b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
381     </p>
382    
383     <p>
384     <b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
385     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/server_suggestions.html</uri>.
386     </p>
387    
388     <p>
389     <b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
390     </p>
391    
392     <p>
393     <b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
394     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/eproms.txt</uri>
395     and <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/pxe.howto.html</uri>.
396     </p>
397    
398     <p>
399     <b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
400     </p>
401    
402     <p>
403     <b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
404     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/nvidia.txt</uri>.
405     </p>
406    
407     <p>
408 swift 1.3 <b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do?
409 swift 1.1 </p>
410    
411     <p>
412 swift 1.3 <b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
413 swift 1.1 <path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
414     <c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
415     <c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
416     <c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>.
417 swift 1.2 </p>
418    
419     </body>
420     </chapter>
421    
422     <chapter>
423     <title>Glossary</title>
424     <body>
425    
426     <p>
427 swift 1.3 <b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
428     "The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
429 swift 1.2 graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
430     </p>
431    
432     <p>
433 swift 1.3 <b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b>
434 swift 1.2 "Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
435     components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
436     a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
437     drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
438     which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
439     off."
440 swift 1.1 </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </chapter>
444     </guide>

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