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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.5 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/ltsp.xml,v 1.4 2003/11/15 00:35:19 neysx Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.2 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Author">
11     <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15     </author>
16    
17     <license/>
18    
19     <abstract>
20     This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
21     </abstract>
22 swift 1.5 <version>1.3</version>
23     <date>December 11, 2003</date>
24 swift 1.1 <chapter>
25     <title>Introduction</title>
26     <section>
27     <title>What is LTSP?</title>
28     <body>
29     <p>
30     LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
31     on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
32     with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
33     therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
34     reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
35     need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
36     schools or firms.
37     </p>
38     </body>
39     </section>
40     </chapter>
41     <chapter>
42     <title>Installation</title>
43     <section>
44     <title>Preliminaries</title>
45     <body>
46     <p>
47     All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
48     192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
49     192.168.0.0/24.
50     </p>
51     </body>
52     </section>
53     <section>
54     <title>Installation</title>
55     <body>
56    
57     <p>
58     First of all, you must have a working Gentoo system. Please read the
59     Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
60     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
61     </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core
65     utils:
66     </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
69     # <i>emerge ltsp-core</i>
70     </pre>
71    
72     <p>
73     This will install the following packages as dependencies:
74     </p>
75    
76     <ul>
77     <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
78     <li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
79     computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
80     workstations.</li>
81     <li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
82     the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
83     workstations.</li>
84     <li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
85     to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li>
86     <li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
87     advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li>
88     </ul>
89    
90     <note>
91     If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
92     </note>
93    
94     </body>
95     </section>
96     </chapter>
97     <chapter>
98     <title>Configuration</title>
99     <body>
100    
101     <p>
102     After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
103     </p>
104    
105     </body>
106     <section>
107     <title>System Logger</title>
108     <body>
109    
110     <p>
111     To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
112     accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
113     system logger on how to achieve this.
114     </p>
115    
116     </body>
117     </section>
118     <section>
119     <title>NFS</title>
120     <body>
121    
122     <p>
123     Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
124     allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
125     least two lines in it:
126     </p>
127    
128     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
129     /opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
130     /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
131     </pre>
132    
133     <note>
134     You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
135     settings.
136     </note>
137    
138     <p>
139     Now start NFS.
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Starting nfs">
143     # <i>rc-update add nfs default</i>
144     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
145     </pre>
146    
147     </body>
148     </section>
149    
150     <section>
151     <title>xinetd/tftp</title>
152     <body>
153    
154     <p>
155     By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit
156     <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with
157 swift 1.3 <c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd.
158 swift 1.1 </p>
159    
160     <pre caption="Starting xinetd">
161     # <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
162     # <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
163     </pre>
164    
165     </body>
166     </section>
167     <section>
168     <title>Name resolving</title>
169     <body>
170    
171     <p>
172     In order for the workstation to reach all resources, a correct name
173     resolving must be available. There are several ways to achieve this. One
174     is to configure a DNS server for the local network, the other (and more
175     simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
176     systems. We are going to use the latter.
177     </p>
178    
179     <p>
180     All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
181     at the example:
182     </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
185     127.0.0.1 localhost
186     192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
187     192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com
188     </pre>
189    
190     </body>
191     </section>
192     <section>
193     <title>DHCP Config</title>
194     <body>
195    
196     <p>
197     This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
198     valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
199     example:
200     </p>
201    
202     <pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
203     <codenote>Some general options</codenote>
204     default-lease-time 21600;
205     max-lease-time 21600;
206     use-host-decl-names on;
207     ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
208    
209     <codenote>Bootp options</codenote>
210     allow booting;
211     allow bootp;
212    
213     <codenote>Network Options</codenote>
214     option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
215     option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
216     option routers 192.168.0.254;
217     option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
218     option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
219     option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
220    
221     <codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote>
222     option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386";
223     filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1";
224    
225     <codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote>
226     <codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote>
227     #option option-128 code 128 = string;
228     #option option-129 code 129 = text;
229     #option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
230     #option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
231    
232     shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
233     subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
234     <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote>
235     range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16;
236     <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote>
237     #host ws001 {
238     # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
239     # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
240     #}
241     }
242     }
243     </pre>
244    
245     <p>
246     If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
247     have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
248     give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
249     that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome).
250     </p>
251    
252     <p>
253     For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
254     <uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
255     </p>
256    
257     <p>
258     Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
259     </p>
260    
261 swift 1.3 <pre caption="start dhcp">
262 swift 1.1 # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
263     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
264     </pre>
265    
266     <note>
267 swift 1.3 DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
268 swift 1.1 </note>
269    
270     </body>
271     </section>
272    
273     <section>
274     <title>LTSP Configuration</title>
275     <body>
276    
277     <p>
278     There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
279     <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
280     for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
281     </p>
282    
283     </body>
284     </section>
285    
286     <section>
287     <title>Displaymanager</title>
288     <body>
289    
290     <p>
291     Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
292     also accept remote connections.
293     </p>
294    
295     <p>
296 swift 1.5 First change your <path>Xaccess</path> file, uncomment the following line:
297     </p>
298    
299     <pre caption="Xaccess">
300     #* #any host can get a login window
301     </pre>
302    
303     <p>
304     Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
305     </p>
306    
307     <p>
308 swift 1.1 <b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312     <b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
313     for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
314     <c>Enable = true</c>.
315     </p>
316    
317     <p>
318     <b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
319     <c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
320     <c>Enable = True</c>.
321     </p>
322    
323     <p>
324     Then start the displaymanager:
325     </p>
326    
327     <pre caption="Starting xdm">
328     # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
329     # <i>/etc/init.d/xdm start</i>
330     </pre>
331    
332     <warn>
333     There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
334     KDM to resolve these issues.
335     </warn>
336    
337     </body>
338     </section>
339    
340     <section>
341     <title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
342     <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a
346     boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to
347     <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press
348     <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
349     </p>
350    
351 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Write floppy image">
352 swift 1.1 # <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
353     </pre>
354    
355     </body>
356     </section>
357     </chapter>
358    
359     <chapter>
360     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
361     <body>
362    
363     <p>
364     There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
365     are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
366     </p>
367    
368     <ul>
369     <li>The official documentation:
370     <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/</uri>, especially the
371     Troubleshooting section.</li>
372     <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
373     <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
374     <li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
375     are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
376     </ul>
377     </body>
378     </chapter>
379    
380     <chapter>
381     <title>FAQ</title>
382     <body>
383     <p>
384     <b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
385     with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
386     </p>
387    
388     <p>
389     <b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
390     </p>
391    
392     <p>
393     <b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
394     </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     <b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
398     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/server_suggestions.html</uri>.
399     </p>
400    
401     <p>
402     <b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
403     </p>
404    
405     <p>
406     <b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
407     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/eproms.txt</uri>
408     and <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/pxe.howto.html</uri>.
409     </p>
410    
411     <p>
412     <b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
413     </p>
414    
415     <p>
416     <b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
417     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/nvidia.txt</uri>.
418     </p>
419    
420     <p>
421 swift 1.3 <b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do?
422 swift 1.1 </p>
423    
424     <p>
425 swift 1.3 <b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
426 swift 1.1 <path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
427     <c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
428     <c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
429     <c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>.
430 swift 1.2 </p>
431    
432 swift 1.5 <p>
433     <b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation?
434     </p>
435    
436     <p>
437     <b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read
438     the included <path>README</path> file.
439     </p>
440    
441 swift 1.2 </body>
442     </chapter>
443    
444     <chapter>
445     <title>Glossary</title>
446     <body>
447    
448     <p>
449 swift 1.3 <b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
450     "The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
451 swift 1.2 graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
452     </p>
453    
454     <p>
455 swift 1.3 <b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b>
456 swift 1.2 "Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
457     components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
458     a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
459     drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
460     which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
461     off."
462 swift 1.1 </p>
463    
464     </body>
465     </chapter>
466     </guide>

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