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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.6 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/ltsp.xml,v 1.5 2003/12/12 15:07:11 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.2 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Author">
11     <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15     </author>
16    
17     <abstract>
18     This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
19     </abstract>
20 swift 1.6
21     <license/>
22    
23 swift 1.5 <version>1.3</version>
24     <date>December 11, 2003</date>
25 swift 1.1 <chapter>
26     <title>Introduction</title>
27     <section>
28     <title>What is LTSP?</title>
29     <body>
30     <p>
31     LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
32     on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
33     with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
34     therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
35     reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
36     need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
37     schools or firms.
38     </p>
39     </body>
40     </section>
41     </chapter>
42     <chapter>
43     <title>Installation</title>
44     <section>
45     <title>Preliminaries</title>
46     <body>
47     <p>
48     All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
49     192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
50     192.168.0.0/24.
51     </p>
52     </body>
53     </section>
54     <section>
55     <title>Installation</title>
56     <body>
57    
58     <p>
59     First of all, you must have a working Gentoo system. Please read the
60     Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
61     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
62     </p>
63    
64     <p>
65     Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core
66     utils:
67     </p>
68    
69     <pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
70     # <i>emerge ltsp-core</i>
71     </pre>
72    
73     <p>
74     This will install the following packages as dependencies:
75     </p>
76    
77     <ul>
78     <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
79     <li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
80     computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
81     workstations.</li>
82     <li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
83     the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
84     workstations.</li>
85     <li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
86     to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li>
87     <li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
88     advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li>
89     </ul>
90    
91     <note>
92     If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
93     </note>
94    
95     </body>
96     </section>
97     </chapter>
98     <chapter>
99     <title>Configuration</title>
100 swift 1.6 <section>
101 swift 1.1 <body>
102    
103     <p>
104     After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
105     </p>
106    
107     </body>
108 swift 1.6 </section>
109 swift 1.1 <section>
110     <title>System Logger</title>
111     <body>
112    
113     <p>
114     To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
115     accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
116     system logger on how to achieve this.
117     </p>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122     <title>NFS</title>
123     <body>
124    
125     <p>
126     Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
127     allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
128     least two lines in it:
129     </p>
130    
131     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
132     /opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
133     /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
134     </pre>
135    
136     <note>
137     You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
138     settings.
139     </note>
140    
141     <p>
142     Now start NFS.
143     </p>
144    
145     <pre caption="Starting nfs">
146     # <i>rc-update add nfs default</i>
147     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
148     </pre>
149    
150     </body>
151     </section>
152    
153     <section>
154     <title>xinetd/tftp</title>
155     <body>
156    
157     <p>
158     By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit
159     <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with
160 swift 1.3 <c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd.
161 swift 1.1 </p>
162    
163     <pre caption="Starting xinetd">
164     # <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
165     # <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
166     </pre>
167    
168     </body>
169     </section>
170     <section>
171     <title>Name resolving</title>
172     <body>
173    
174     <p>
175     In order for the workstation to reach all resources, a correct name
176     resolving must be available. There are several ways to achieve this. One
177     is to configure a DNS server for the local network, the other (and more
178     simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
179     systems. We are going to use the latter.
180     </p>
181    
182     <p>
183     All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
184     at the example:
185     </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
188     127.0.0.1 localhost
189     192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
190     192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com
191     </pre>
192    
193     </body>
194     </section>
195     <section>
196     <title>DHCP Config</title>
197     <body>
198    
199     <p>
200     This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
201     valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
202     example:
203     </p>
204    
205     <pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
206     <codenote>Some general options</codenote>
207     default-lease-time 21600;
208     max-lease-time 21600;
209     use-host-decl-names on;
210     ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
211    
212     <codenote>Bootp options</codenote>
213     allow booting;
214     allow bootp;
215    
216     <codenote>Network Options</codenote>
217     option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
218     option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
219     option routers 192.168.0.254;
220     option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
221     option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
222     option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
223    
224     <codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote>
225     option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386";
226     filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1";
227    
228     <codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote>
229     <codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote>
230     #option option-128 code 128 = string;
231     #option option-129 code 129 = text;
232     #option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
233     #option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
234    
235     shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
236     subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
237     <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote>
238     range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16;
239     <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote>
240     #host ws001 {
241     # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
242     # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
243     #}
244     }
245     }
246     </pre>
247    
248     <p>
249     If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
250     have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
251     give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
252     that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome).
253     </p>
254    
255     <p>
256     For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
257     <uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261     Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
262     </p>
263    
264 swift 1.3 <pre caption="start dhcp">
265 swift 1.1 # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
266     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
267     </pre>
268    
269     <note>
270 swift 1.3 DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
271 swift 1.1 </note>
272    
273     </body>
274     </section>
275    
276     <section>
277     <title>LTSP Configuration</title>
278     <body>
279    
280     <p>
281     There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
282     <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
283     for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
284     </p>
285    
286     </body>
287     </section>
288    
289     <section>
290     <title>Displaymanager</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
295     also accept remote connections.
296     </p>
297    
298     <p>
299 swift 1.5 First change your <path>Xaccess</path> file, uncomment the following line:
300     </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Xaccess">
303     #* #any host can get a login window
304     </pre>
305    
306     <p>
307     Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
308     </p>
309    
310     <p>
311 swift 1.1 <b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
312     </p>
313    
314     <p>
315     <b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
316     for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
317     <c>Enable = true</c>.
318     </p>
319    
320     <p>
321     <b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
322     <c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
323     <c>Enable = True</c>.
324     </p>
325    
326     <p>
327     Then start the displaymanager:
328     </p>
329    
330     <pre caption="Starting xdm">
331     # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
332     # <i>/etc/init.d/xdm start</i>
333     </pre>
334    
335     <warn>
336     There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
337     KDM to resolve these issues.
338     </warn>
339    
340     </body>
341     </section>
342    
343     <section>
344     <title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a
349     boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to
350     <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press
351     <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
352     </p>
353    
354 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Write floppy image">
355 swift 1.1 # <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
356     </pre>
357    
358     </body>
359     </section>
360     </chapter>
361    
362     <chapter>
363     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
364 swift 1.6 <section>
365 swift 1.1 <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
369     are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
370     </p>
371    
372     <ul>
373     <li>The official documentation:
374     <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/</uri>, especially the
375     Troubleshooting section.</li>
376     <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
377     <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
378     <li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
379     are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
380     </ul>
381     </body>
382 swift 1.6 </section>
383 swift 1.1 </chapter>
384    
385     <chapter>
386     <title>FAQ</title>
387 swift 1.6 <section>
388 swift 1.1 <body>
389     <p>
390     <b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
391     with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
392     </p>
393    
394     <p>
395     <b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
396     </p>
397    
398     <p>
399     <b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
400     </p>
401    
402     <p>
403     <b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
404     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/server_suggestions.html</uri>.
405     </p>
406    
407     <p>
408     <b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
409     </p>
410    
411     <p>
412     <b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
413     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/eproms.txt</uri>
414     and <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/pxe.howto.html</uri>.
415     </p>
416    
417     <p>
418     <b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
419     </p>
420    
421     <p>
422     <b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
423     <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/nvidia.txt</uri>.
424     </p>
425    
426     <p>
427 swift 1.3 <b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do?
428 swift 1.1 </p>
429    
430     <p>
431 swift 1.3 <b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
432 swift 1.1 <path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
433     <c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
434     <c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
435     <c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>.
436 swift 1.2 </p>
437    
438 swift 1.5 <p>
439     <b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation?
440     </p>
441    
442     <p>
443     <b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read
444     the included <path>README</path> file.
445     </p>
446    
447 swift 1.2 </body>
448 swift 1.6 </section>
449 swift 1.2 </chapter>
450    
451     <chapter>
452     <title>Glossary</title>
453 swift 1.6 <section>
454 swift 1.2 <body>
455    
456     <p>
457 swift 1.3 <b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
458     "The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
459 swift 1.2 graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
460     </p>
461    
462     <p>
463 swift 1.3 <b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b>
464 swift 1.2 "Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
465     components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
466     a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
467     drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
468     which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
469     off."
470 swift 1.1 </p>
471    
472     </body>
473 swift 1.6 </section>
474 swift 1.1 </chapter>
475     </guide>

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