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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor">
13 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14 </author>
15
16 <license/>
17
18 <abstract>
19 This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
20 </abstract>
21 <version>1.1</version>
22 <date>26 July 2003</date>
23 <chapter>
24 <title>Introduction</title>
25 <section>
26 <title>What is LTSP?</title>
27 <body>
28 <p>
29 LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
30 on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
31 with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
32 therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
33 reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
34 need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
35 schools or firms.
36 </p>
37 </body>
38 </section>
39 </chapter>
40 <chapter>
41 <title>Installation</title>
42 <section>
43 <title>Preliminaries</title>
44 <body>
45 <p>
46 All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
47 192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
48 192.168.0.0/24.
49 </p>
50 </body>
51 </section>
52 <section>
53 <title>Installation</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 First of all, you must have a working Gentoo system. Please read the
58 Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
59 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core
64 utils:
65 </p>
66
67 <pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
68 # <i>emerge ltsp-core</i>
69 </pre>
70
71 <p>
72 This will install the following packages as dependencies:
73 </p>
74
75 <ul>
76 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
77 <li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
78 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
79 workstations.</li>
80 <li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
81 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
82 workstations.</li>
83 <li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
84 to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li>
85 <li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
86 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li>
87 </ul>
88
89 <note>
90 If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
91 </note>
92
93 </body>
94 </section>
95 </chapter>
96 <chapter>
97 <title>Configuration</title>
98 <body>
99
100 <p>
101 After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
102 </p>
103
104 </body>
105 <section>
106 <title>System Logger</title>
107 <body>
108
109 <p>
110 To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
111 accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
112 system logger on how to achieve this.
113 </p>
114
115 </body>
116 </section>
117 <section>
118 <title>NFS</title>
119 <body>
120
121 <p>
122 Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
123 allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
124 least two lines in it:
125 </p>
126
127 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
128 /opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
129 /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
130 </pre>
131
132 <note>
133 You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
134 settings.
135 </note>
136
137 <p>
138 Now start NFS.
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Starting nfs">
142 # <i>rc-update add nfs default</i>
143 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
144 </pre>
145
146 </body>
147 </section>
148
149 <section>
150 <title>xinetd/tftp</title>
151 <body>
152
153 <p>
154 By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit
155 <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with
156 <c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinitd.
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Starting xinetd">
160 # <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
161 # <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
162 </pre>
163
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>Name resolving</title>
168 <body>
169
170 <p>
171 In order for the workstation to reach all resources, a correct name
172 resolving must be available. There are several ways to achieve this. One
173 is to configure a DNS server for the local network, the other (and more
174 simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
175 systems. We are going to use the latter.
176 </p>
177
178 <p>
179 All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
180 at the example:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
184 127.0.0.1 localhost
185 192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
186 192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com
187 </pre>
188
189 </body>
190 </section>
191 <section>
192 <title>DHCP Config</title>
193 <body>
194
195 <p>
196 This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
197 valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
198 example:
199 </p>
200
201 <pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
202 <codenote>Some general options</codenote>
203 default-lease-time 21600;
204 max-lease-time 21600;
205 use-host-decl-names on;
206 ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
207
208 <codenote>Bootp options</codenote>
209 allow booting;
210 allow bootp;
211
212 <codenote>Network Options</codenote>
213 option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
214 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
215 option routers 192.168.0.254;
216 option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
217 option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
218 option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
219
220 <codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote>
221 option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386";
222 filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1";
223
224 <codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote>
225 <codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote>
226 #option option-128 code 128 = string;
227 #option option-129 code 129 = text;
228 #option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
229 #option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
230
231 shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
232 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
233 <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote>
234 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16;
235 <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote>
236 #host ws001 {
237 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
238 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
239 #}
240 }
241 }
242 </pre>
243
244 <p>
245 If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
246 have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
247 give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
248 that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome).
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
253 <uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
254 </p>
255
256 <p>
257 Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="start xinetd">
261 # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
262 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
263 </pre>
264
265 <note>
266 Note: DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
267 </note>
268
269 </body>
270 </section>
271
272 <section>
273 <title>LTSP Configuration</title>
274 <body>
275
276 <p>
277 There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
278 <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
279 for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </section>
284
285 <section>
286 <title>Displaymanager</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
291 also accept remote connections.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 <b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
296 </p>
297
298 <p>
299 <b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
300 for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
301 <c>Enable = true</c>.
302 </p>
303
304 <p>
305 <b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
306 <c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
307 <c>Enable = True</c>.
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 Then start the displaymanager:
312 </p>
313
314 <pre caption="Starting xdm">
315 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
316 # <i>/etc/init.d/xdm start</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <warn>
320 There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
321 KDM to resolve these issues.
322 </warn>
323
324 </body>
325 </section>
326
327 <section>
328 <title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a
333 boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to
334 <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press
335 <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Write floppy iamge">
339 # <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 </body>
343 </section>
344 </chapter>
345
346 <chapter>
347 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
352 are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
353 </p>
354
355 <ul>
356 <li>The official documentation:
357 <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/</uri>, especially the
358 Troubleshooting section.</li>
359 <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
360 <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
361 <li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
362 are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
363 </ul>
364 </body>
365 </chapter>
366
367 <chapter>
368 <title>FAQ</title>
369 <body>
370 <p>
371 <b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
372 with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
373 </p>
374
375 <p>
376 <b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 <b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 <b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
385 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/server_suggestions.html</uri>.
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 <b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
390 </p>
391
392 <p>
393 <b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
394 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/eproms.txt</uri>
395 and <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/pxe.howto.html</uri>.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 <b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
400 </p>
401
402 <p>
403 <b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
404 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/nvidia.txt</uri>.
405 </p>
406
407 <p>
408 <b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crapy, what do to?
409 </p>
410
411 <p>
412 <b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, Add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
413 <path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
414 <c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
415 <c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
416 <c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>.
417 </p>
418
419 </body>
420 </chapter>
421
422 <chapter>
423 <title>Glossary</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 <b><a href="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</a></b>
428 "The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either i
429 graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
430 </p>
431
432 <p>
433 <b><a href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</a></b>
434 "Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
435 components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
436 a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
437 drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
438 which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
439 off."
440 </p>
441
442 </body>
443 </chapter>
444 </guide>

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