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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/ltsp.xml,v 1.4 2003/11/15 00:35:19 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Author">
11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15 </author>
16
17 <license/>
18
19 <abstract>
20 This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
21 </abstract>
22 <version>1.3</version>
23 <date>December 11, 2003</date>
24 <chapter>
25 <title>Introduction</title>
26 <section>
27 <title>What is LTSP?</title>
28 <body>
29 <p>
30 LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
31 on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
32 with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
33 therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
34 reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
35 need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
36 schools or firms.
37 </p>
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 </chapter>
41 <chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title>
43 <section>
44 <title>Preliminaries</title>
45 <body>
46 <p>
47 All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
48 192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
49 192.168.0.0/24.
50 </p>
51 </body>
52 </section>
53 <section>
54 <title>Installation</title>
55 <body>
56
57 <p>
58 First of all, you must have a working Gentoo system. Please read the
59 Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
60 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core
65 utils:
66 </p>
67
68 <pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
69 # <i>emerge ltsp-core</i>
70 </pre>
71
72 <p>
73 This will install the following packages as dependencies:
74 </p>
75
76 <ul>
77 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
78 <li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
79 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
80 workstations.</li>
81 <li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
82 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
83 workstations.</li>
84 <li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
85 to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li>
86 <li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
87 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li>
88 </ul>
89
90 <note>
91 If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
92 </note>
93
94 </body>
95 </section>
96 </chapter>
97 <chapter>
98 <title>Configuration</title>
99 <body>
100
101 <p>
102 After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
103 </p>
104
105 </body>
106 <section>
107 <title>System Logger</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
112 accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
113 system logger on how to achieve this.
114 </p>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 <section>
119 <title>NFS</title>
120 <body>
121
122 <p>
123 Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
124 allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
125 least two lines in it:
126 </p>
127
128 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
129 /opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
130 /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
131 </pre>
132
133 <note>
134 You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
135 settings.
136 </note>
137
138 <p>
139 Now start NFS.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Starting nfs">
143 # <i>rc-update add nfs default</i>
144 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
145 </pre>
146
147 </body>
148 </section>
149
150 <section>
151 <title>xinetd/tftp</title>
152 <body>
153
154 <p>
155 By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit
156 <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with
157 <c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd.
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="Starting xinetd">
161 # <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
162 # <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
163 </pre>
164
165 </body>
166 </section>
167 <section>
168 <title>Name resolving</title>
169 <body>
170
171 <p>
172 In order for the workstation to reach all resources, a correct name
173 resolving must be available. There are several ways to achieve this. One
174 is to configure a DNS server for the local network, the other (and more
175 simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
176 systems. We are going to use the latter.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
181 at the example:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
185 127.0.0.1 localhost
186 192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
187 192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com
188 </pre>
189
190 </body>
191 </section>
192 <section>
193 <title>DHCP Config</title>
194 <body>
195
196 <p>
197 This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
198 valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
199 example:
200 </p>
201
202 <pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
203 <codenote>Some general options</codenote>
204 default-lease-time 21600;
205 max-lease-time 21600;
206 use-host-decl-names on;
207 ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
208
209 <codenote>Bootp options</codenote>
210 allow booting;
211 allow bootp;
212
213 <codenote>Network Options</codenote>
214 option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
215 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
216 option routers 192.168.0.254;
217 option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
218 option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
219 option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
220
221 <codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote>
222 option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386";
223 filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1";
224
225 <codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote>
226 <codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote>
227 #option option-128 code 128 = string;
228 #option option-129 code 129 = text;
229 #option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
230 #option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
231
232 shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
233 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
234 <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote>
235 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16;
236 <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote>
237 #host ws001 {
238 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
239 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
240 #}
241 }
242 }
243 </pre>
244
245 <p>
246 If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
247 have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
248 give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
249 that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome).
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
254 <uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
255 </p>
256
257 <p>
258 Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
259 </p>
260
261 <pre caption="start dhcp">
262 # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
263 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
264 </pre>
265
266 <note>
267 DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
268 </note>
269
270 </body>
271 </section>
272
273 <section>
274 <title>LTSP Configuration</title>
275 <body>
276
277 <p>
278 There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
279 <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
280 for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
281 </p>
282
283 </body>
284 </section>
285
286 <section>
287 <title>Displaymanager</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
292 also accept remote connections.
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 First change your <path>Xaccess</path> file, uncomment the following line:
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption="Xaccess">
300 #* #any host can get a login window
301 </pre>
302
303 <p>
304 Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
305 </p>
306
307 <p>
308 <b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
309 </p>
310
311 <p>
312 <b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
313 for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
314 <c>Enable = true</c>.
315 </p>
316
317 <p>
318 <b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
319 <c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
320 <c>Enable = True</c>.
321 </p>
322
323 <p>
324 Then start the displaymanager:
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="Starting xdm">
328 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
329 # <i>/etc/init.d/xdm start</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <warn>
333 There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
334 KDM to resolve these issues.
335 </warn>
336
337 </body>
338 </section>
339
340 <section>
341 <title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a
346 boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to
347 <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press
348 <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Write floppy image">
352 # <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
353 </pre>
354
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 </chapter>
358
359 <chapter>
360 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
365 are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
366 </p>
367
368 <ul>
369 <li>The official documentation:
370 <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/</uri>, especially the
371 Troubleshooting section.</li>
372 <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
373 <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
374 <li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
375 are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
376 </ul>
377 </body>
378 </chapter>
379
380 <chapter>
381 <title>FAQ</title>
382 <body>
383 <p>
384 <b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
385 with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 <b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
390 </p>
391
392 <p>
393 <b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 <b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
398 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/server_suggestions.html</uri>.
399 </p>
400
401 <p>
402 <b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
403 </p>
404
405 <p>
406 <b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
407 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/eproms.txt</uri>
408 and <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/pxe.howto.html</uri>.
409 </p>
410
411 <p>
412 <b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
413 </p>
414
415 <p>
416 <b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
417 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/nvidia.txt</uri>.
418 </p>
419
420 <p>
421 <b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do?
422 </p>
423
424 <p>
425 <b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
426 <path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
427 <c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
428 <c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
429 <c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>.
430 </p>
431
432 <p>
433 <b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation?
434 </p>
435
436 <p>
437 <b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read
438 the included <path>README</path> file.
439 </p>
440
441 </body>
442 </chapter>
443
444 <chapter>
445 <title>Glossary</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 <b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
450 "The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
451 graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
452 </p>
453
454 <p>
455 <b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b>
456 "Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
457 components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
458 a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
459 drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
460 which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
461 off."
462 </p>
463
464 </body>
465 </chapter>
466 </guide>

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