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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/ltsp.xml,v 1.5 2003/12/12 15:07:11 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Author">
11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15 </author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <license/>
22
23 <version>1.3</version>
24 <date>December 11, 2003</date>
25 <chapter>
26 <title>Introduction</title>
27 <section>
28 <title>What is LTSP?</title>
29 <body>
30 <p>
31 LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
32 on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
33 with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
34 therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
35 reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
36 need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
37 schools or firms.
38 </p>
39 </body>
40 </section>
41 </chapter>
42 <chapter>
43 <title>Installation</title>
44 <section>
45 <title>Preliminaries</title>
46 <body>
47 <p>
48 All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
49 192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
50 192.168.0.0/24.
51 </p>
52 </body>
53 </section>
54 <section>
55 <title>Installation</title>
56 <body>
57
58 <p>
59 First of all, you must have a working Gentoo system. Please read the
60 Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
61 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
62 </p>
63
64 <p>
65 Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core
66 utils:
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
70 # <i>emerge ltsp-core</i>
71 </pre>
72
73 <p>
74 This will install the following packages as dependencies:
75 </p>
76
77 <ul>
78 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
79 <li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
80 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
81 workstations.</li>
82 <li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
83 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
84 workstations.</li>
85 <li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
86 to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li>
87 <li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
88 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li>
89 </ul>
90
91 <note>
92 If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
93 </note>
94
95 </body>
96 </section>
97 </chapter>
98 <chapter>
99 <title>Configuration</title>
100 <section>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
105 </p>
106
107 </body>
108 </section>
109 <section>
110 <title>System Logger</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <p>
114 To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
115 accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
116 system logger on how to achieve this.
117 </p>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>NFS</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <p>
126 Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
127 allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
128 least two lines in it:
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
132 /opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
133 /var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
134 </pre>
135
136 <note>
137 You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
138 settings.
139 </note>
140
141 <p>
142 Now start NFS.
143 </p>
144
145 <pre caption="Starting nfs">
146 # <i>rc-update add nfs default</i>
147 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
148 </pre>
149
150 </body>
151 </section>
152
153 <section>
154 <title>xinetd/tftp</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit
159 <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with
160 <c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd.
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Starting xinetd">
164 # <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
165 # <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
166 </pre>
167
168 </body>
169 </section>
170 <section>
171 <title>Name resolving</title>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 In order for the workstation to reach all resources, a correct name
176 resolving must be available. There are several ways to achieve this. One
177 is to configure a DNS server for the local network, the other (and more
178 simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
179 systems. We are going to use the latter.
180 </p>
181
182 <p>
183 All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
184 at the example:
185 </p>
186
187 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
188 127.0.0.1 localhost
189 192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
190 192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com
191 </pre>
192
193 </body>
194 </section>
195 <section>
196 <title>DHCP Config</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
201 valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
202 example:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
206 <codenote>Some general options</codenote>
207 default-lease-time 21600;
208 max-lease-time 21600;
209 use-host-decl-names on;
210 ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
211
212 <codenote>Bootp options</codenote>
213 allow booting;
214 allow bootp;
215
216 <codenote>Network Options</codenote>
217 option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
218 option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
219 option routers 192.168.0.254;
220 option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
221 option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
222 option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
223
224 <codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote>
225 option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386";
226 filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1";
227
228 <codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote>
229 <codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote>
230 #option option-128 code 128 = string;
231 #option option-129 code 129 = text;
232 #option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
233 #option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
234
235 shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
236 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
237 <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote>
238 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16;
239 <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote>
240 #host ws001 {
241 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
242 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
243 #}
244 }
245 }
246 </pre>
247
248 <p>
249 If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
250 have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
251 give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
252 that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome).
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
257 <uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
258 </p>
259
260 <p>
261 Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
262 </p>
263
264 <pre caption="start dhcp">
265 # <i>rc-update add dhcp default</i>
266 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
267 </pre>
268
269 <note>
270 DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
271 </note>
272
273 </body>
274 </section>
275
276 <section>
277 <title>LTSP Configuration</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
282 <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
283 for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
284 </p>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288
289 <section>
290 <title>Displaymanager</title>
291 <body>
292
293 <p>
294 Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
295 also accept remote connections.
296 </p>
297
298 <p>
299 First change your <path>Xaccess</path> file, uncomment the following line:
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption="Xaccess">
303 #* #any host can get a login window
304 </pre>
305
306 <p>
307 Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 <b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 <b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
316 for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
317 <c>Enable = true</c>.
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 <b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
322 <c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
323 <c>Enable = True</c>.
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 Then start the displaymanager:
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Starting xdm">
331 # <i>rc-update add xdm default</i>
332 # <i>/etc/init.d/xdm start</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <warn>
336 There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
337 KDM to resolve these issues.
338 </warn>
339
340 </body>
341 </section>
342
343 <section>
344 <title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a
349 boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to
350 <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press
351 <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
352 </p>
353
354 <pre caption="Write floppy image">
355 # <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 </chapter>
361
362 <chapter>
363 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
364 <section>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
369 are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
370 </p>
371
372 <ul>
373 <li>The official documentation:
374 <uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/</uri>, especially the
375 Troubleshooting section.</li>
376 <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
377 <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
378 <li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
379 are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
380 </ul>
381 </body>
382 </section>
383 </chapter>
384
385 <chapter>
386 <title>FAQ</title>
387 <section>
388 <body>
389 <p>
390 <b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
391 with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
392 </p>
393
394 <p>
395 <b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 <b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
400 </p>
401
402 <p>
403 <b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
404 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/server_suggestions.html</uri>.
405 </p>
406
407 <p>
408 <b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
409 </p>
410
411 <p>
412 <b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
413 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/eproms.txt</uri>
414 and <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/pxe.howto.html</uri>.
415 </p>
416
417 <p>
418 <b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 <b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
423 <uri>http://ltsp.org/documentation/nvidia.txt</uri>.
424 </p>
425
426 <p>
427 <b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do?
428 </p>
429
430 <p>
431 <b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
432 <path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
433 <c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
434 <c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
435 <c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>.
436 </p>
437
438 <p>
439 <b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation?
440 </p>
441
442 <p>
443 <b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read
444 the included <path>README</path> file.
445 </p>
446
447 </body>
448 </section>
449 </chapter>
450
451 <chapter>
452 <title>Glossary</title>
453 <section>
454 <body>
455
456 <p>
457 <b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
458 "The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
459 graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
460 </p>
461
462 <p>
463 <b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b>
464 "Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
465 components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
466 a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
467 drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
468 which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
469 off."
470 </p>
471
472 </body>
473 </section>
474 </chapter>
475 </guide>

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