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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml,v 1.7 2004/12/22 07:52:29 swift Exp $ --> 4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml,v 1.8 2005/01/09 10:44:44 swift Exp $ -->
5 5
6<guide link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml"> 6<guide link="/doc/en/migration-to-2.6.xml">
7 7
8<title>The complete Gentoo Linux 2.6 migration guide</title> 8<title>The complete Gentoo Linux 2.6 migration guide</title>
9 9
26<abstract> 26<abstract>
27This document will aid you in the process of migrating from Linux 2.4 to Linux 27This document will aid you in the process of migrating from Linux 2.4 to Linux
282.6, devfs to udev and OSS to ALSA. 282.6, devfs to udev and OSS to ALSA.
29</abstract> 29</abstract>
30 30
31<version>0.1.5</version> 31<version>0.2.0</version>
32<date>2004-12-22</date> 32<date>2005-01-09</date>
33 33
34<chapter> 34<chapter>
35<title>Introduction</title> 35<title>Introduction</title>
36 36
37<section> 37<section>
516</p> 516</p>
517 517
518</body> 518</body>
519</section> 519</section>
520<section> 520<section>
521<title>X11 config file should now use /dev/input/mice</title> 521<title>X11 config file should now use /dev/input/mice for PS/2 and USB
522mice</title>
522<body> 523<body>
523 524
524<p> 525<p>
525One of the changes that a default udev configuration introduces is different 526One of the changes that a default udev configuration introduces is different
526organisation of the mouse device nodes. Previously, you would have had nodes 527organisation of the mouse device nodes. Previously, you would have had nodes
568EndSection 569EndSection
569</pre> 570</pre>
570 571
571</body> 572</body>
572</section> 573</section>
574<section>
575<title>New Serial-ATA (SATA) drivers name the devices differently</title>
576<body>
577
578<p>
579If you used the original Serial ATA drivers under Linux 2.4, you probably
580observed your SATA devices having names such as <c>/dev/hde</c>.
581</p>
582
583<p>
584Linux 2.6 introduces some new SATA drivers (libata) which are based on the
585SCSI subsystem. As these drivers are based on SCSI, your SATA disks will now
586show up as SCSI devices. Your first SATA disk will be named <c>/dev/sda</c>.
587You will need to update your <c>/etc/fstab</c> file to reflect this, and you
588will need to bear this in mind when choosing the root/real_root kernel boot
589parameter later on.
590</p>
591
592<note>
593libata has been backported into recent versions of Linux 2.4, so you may
594already be familiar with the new device naming.
595</note>
596
597</body>
598</section>
599<section>
600<title>bootsplash no longer maintained</title>
601<body>
602
603<p>
604If you used the <c>gentoo-sources-2.4</c> kernel, you may have used the
605<e>bootsplash</e> functionality in order to provide yourself with a colourful
606framebuffer console.
607</p>
608
609<p>
610The developer of bootsplash appears to have lost interest in his project, given
611some design problems. However, Gentoo developer <e>Michal Januszewski</e> is
612developing a successor, <c>gensplash</c>, which in included in the
613gentoo-dev-sources kernel. You can follow Michals
614<uri link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~spock/projects/gensplash/archive/gensplash-in-5-easy-steps.txt">
615Gensplash in 5 easy steps</uri> document in order to familiarize yourself with
616how gensplash is operated.
617</p>
618
619</body>
620</section>
621<section>
622<title>I2C drivers now included in the kernel</title>
623<body>
624
625<p>
626If you use <c>lm-sensors</c> to monitor system temperatures and power levels,
627you previously needed to install the <c>i2c</c> package in order to provide
628hardware support.
629</p>
630
631<p>
632The I2C hardware drivers are now included in the Linux 2.6 kernel, no external
633i2c package is required. Remember to compile support for your specific I2C
634devices into the kernel configuration. You will then be able to use
635<c>lm-sensors</c> as usual.
636</p>
637
638</body>
639</section>
640
641
573</chapter> 642</chapter>
574 643
575<chapter id="conf"> 644<chapter id="conf">
576<title>Configuring, building, and installing the kernel</title> 645<title>Configuring, building, and installing the kernel</title>
577<section> 646<section>
843nvidia 912nvidia
844</pre> 913</pre>
845 914
846</body> 915</body>
847</section> 916</section>
848<section>
849<title>Configuring the ALSA modules</title>
850<body>
851
852<p>
853You will have noticed that we chose to compile ALSA as modules. We can now
854configure ALSA's behaviour easily. However, we also need to configure which
855modules are to be loaded. Open up <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> in your text
856editor:
857</p>
858
859<pre caption="Opening /etc/modules.d/alsa in nano">
860# <i>nano -w /etc/modules.d/alsa</i>
861</pre>
862
863<p>
864Now look for the section marked as <e>IMPORTANT</e>. In most cases, you just
865need to uncomment and modify the snd-card-0 and snd-slot-0 aliases.
866</p>
867
868<pre caption="Sample section of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
869## IMPORTANT:
870## You need to customise this section for your specific sound card(s)
871## and then run `update-modules' command.
872## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
873##
874## ALSA portion
875
876# My laptop uses the snd-maestro3 driver
877alias snd-card-0 snd-maestro3
878
879## OSS/Free portion
880
881# Generally all you need to do is uncomment this line:
882alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
883</pre>
884
885<p>
886For more info on which driver name to use, consult the <uri
887link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</uri>. Remember to prefix
888it with <e>snd-</e> in this file.
889</p>
890
891<p>
892Finally, set the <c>alsasound</c> init script to be executed on bootup:
893</p>
894
895<pre caption="Adding alsasound to default runlevel">
896# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
897</pre>
898
899</body>
900</section>
901</chapter> 917</chapter>
902 918
903<chapter> 919<chapter>
904<title>Booting into Linux 2.6</title> 920<title>Booting into Linux 2.6</title>
905<section> 921<section>
929</p> 945</p>
930 946
931</body> 947</body>
932</section> 948</section>
933<section> 949<section>
934<title>Unmuting ALSA channels</title> 950<title>Configuring and unmuting ALSA</title>
935<body> 951<body>
936 952
937<p>
938By default, ALSA channels are muted, so you won't hear anything when you go to
939play a sound. You need to unmute them now. Run the <c>alsamixer</c> program
940from a console and use the arrow keys to move around and adjust volumes, and
941the M key to mute and unmute. Read the <uri
942link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</uri> for more complete
943documentation and other ways to do this.
944</p> 953<p>
954We will now complete the ALSA configuration and unmute the audio channels. The
955ALSA packages provide a useful utility to make this process relatively simple:
956</p>
957
958<pre caption="Invoking the automatic ALSA configuration utility">
959# <i>alsaconf</i>
960</pre>
961
962<p>
963The process is straightforward: allow the <e>/etc/modules.d/alsa</e> file to
964be automatically updated, and then allow ALSA to be reloaded. alsaconf will
965then terminate, however you will need to run it multiple times if you have
966multiple sound devices installed in your system.
967</p>
968
969<p>
970You should now add <c>alsasound</c> to your boot runlevel, so that volumes
971will be saved on shutdown and restored on bootup:
972</p>
973
974<pre caption="Adding alsasound to the boot runlevel">
975# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
976</pre>
945 977
946<note> 978<note>
947The alsasound init script that we put in the default runlevel will save mixer 979The <c>alsaconf</c> utility chooses initial volume levels for your sound
948levels on shutdown and restore them on bootup. You won't need to set all these 980devices. If these are inappropriate, you can modify them at any time with the
949volumes every time you boot! 981<c>alsamixer</c> utility.
950</note> 982</note>
951 983
952</body> 984</body>
953</section> 985</section>
954<section> 986<section>
1057Thanks! 1089Thanks!
1058</p> 1090</p>
1059 1091
1060</body> 1092</body>
1061</section> 1093</section>
1094<section>
1095<title>Removing Linux 2.4 from your system</title>
1096<body>
1097
1098<p>
1099After you have been running 2.6 for a while, you may decide that you no longer
1100have any requirement to be able to use Linux 2.4. The steps you can take to
1101clean up your system are detailed below. Only follow this section if you are
1102sure that you don't want/need to use 2.4 again!
1103</p>
1104
1105<p>
1106The 2.4 kernel source code can be removed, using the emerge utility as usual.
1107For example, assuming you have 2.4 versions of vanilla-sources and
1108gentoo-sources installed, you could use the following command to remove them
1109while keeping the 2.6 versions intact:
1110</p>
1111
1112<pre caption="Example: Removing Linux 2.4 sources">
1113# <i>emerge unmerge =vanilla-sources-2.4.* =gentoo-sources-2.4.*</i>
1114</pre>
1115
1116<p>
1117Portage will not completely clean out your 2.4 kernel source installations,
1118because some temporary files are created during compilation. It is safe to
1119remove these remnants with the following command:
1120</p>
1121
1122<pre caption="Removing remaining temporary files">
1123# <i>rm -rf /usr/src/linux-2.4.*</i>
1124</pre>
1125
1126<p>
1127You can additionally remove modules and information files relating to your
1128old 2.4 kernel installations, as these are no longer needed.
1129</p>
1130
1131<pre caption="Removing previously-installed 2.4 modules">
1132# <i>rm -rf /lib/modules/2.4.*</i>
1133</pre>
1134
1135<p>
1136The 2.4 kernel binaries you used to boot from can also be safely removed.
1137You should mount your <c>/boot</c> partition, and remove those images. You
1138should also update your bootloader configuration so that it no longer
1139references these deleted kernel images.
1140</p>
1141
1142<p>
1143Some Linux 2.4 users will have previously installed the <c>alsa-drivers</c>
1144package to benefit from the new audio capabilities included in Linux 2.6. If
1145you were one of these users, and you followed the advice given earlier in this
1146document about building ALSA with the 2.6 kernel sources (as opposed to using
1147the <c>alsa-driver</c> package), then you can safely remove this to prevent
1148future conflicts.
1149</p>
1150
1151<p>
1152Additionally, <c>lm-sensors</c> users will have previously used the <c>i2c</c>
1153package to provide the hardware drivers. As already mentioned, I2C drivers are
1154now included in the kernel, so this package can also be removed in order to
1155prevent future conflicts.
1156</p>
1157
1158<pre caption="Removing alsa-driver and i2c">
1159# <i>emerge unmerge alsa-driver i2c</i>
1160</pre>
1161
1162</body>
1163</section>
1062</chapter> 1164</chapter>
1063</guide> 1165</guide>

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