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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 diox 1.36 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml,v 1.35 2006/11/29 15:57:52 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9 nightmorph 1.35 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 swift 1.1 </author>
11 neysx 1.13 <author title="Editor">
12 fox2mike 1.15 <mail link="curtis119@gentoo.org">M Curtis Napier</mail>
13 neysx 1.13 </author>
14 neysx 1.21 <author title="Editor">
15 nightmorph 1.24 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
16 neysx 1.21 </author>
17 nightmorph 1.31 <author title="Editor">
18     <mail link="wolf31o2@gentoo.org">Chris Gianelloni</mail>
19     </author>
20 swift 1.1
21     <abstract>
22     Many Gentooists have an nVidia chipset on their system. nVidia provides specific
23     Linux drivers to boost the performance of your card. This guide informs you how
24     to install and configure these drivers.
25     </abstract>
26    
27 fox2mike 1.15 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29 swift 1.1 <license/>
30    
31 nightmorph 1.35 <version>1.28</version>
32     <date>2006-10-23</date>
33 swift 1.1
34     <chapter>
35 neysx 1.14 <title>Introduction</title>
36     <section>
37     <body>
38    
39     <p>
40 diox 1.36 The nVidia drivers in the tree are released by nVidia and are built against the
41     Linux kernel. They contain a binary blob that does the heavy lifting for talking
42     to the card. The drivers consist of two parts, a kernel module, and an X11
43     driver. Both parts are included in a single package. Due to the way nVidia has
44     been packaging their drivers, you will need to make some choices before you
45     install the drivers. Currently, there are two driver packages in the tree. The
46     first, <c>nvidia-drivers</c>, is the latest drivers from nVidia and includes
47     support for the latest cards. The second, <c>nvidia-legacy-drivers</c>, supports
48     older cards, from the original TNT through the GeForce 6800. However, this
49     driver does not support the latest features of the newer cards. You should only
50     use <c>nvidia-legacy-driver</c> if your cards is not supported in the
51     <c>nvidia-drivers</c> package.
52 nightmorph 1.31 </p>
53    
54     <note>
55 nightmorph 1.33 Previously, Gentoo provided separate ebuilds for the nVidia kernel module
56     (<c>nvidia-kernel</c>) and the X11 GLX libraries (<c>nvidia-glx</c>). These
57     ebuilds have since been removed from the Portage tree in favor of
58     <c>nvidia-drivers</c> and <c>nvidia-legacy-drivers</c>. If you use
59     <c>nvidia-kernel</c> and <c>nvidia-glx</c>, then you should migrate to the
60     newer packages.
61 nightmorph 1.31 </note>
62    
63 neysx 1.14 </body>
64     </section>
65     </chapter>
66    
67     <chapter>
68 diox 1.36 <title>Driver compatibility</title>
69     <section>
70     <title>nvidia-legacy-drivers</title>
71     <body>
72    
73     <p>
74     The <c>nvidia-legacy-driver</c> branch supports older nVidia cards which are no
75     longer supported in the latest driver releases. This branch is based on an older
76     code base of the nVidia drivers, and supports the latest kernels and X.Org
77     versions. You should use this driver if you have a TNT, TNT2, GeForce, or
78     GeForce 2 series card. The driver compatibility information can be found in
79     Appendix A of
80     <uri>http://download.nvidia.com/XFree86/Linux-x86/1.0-7184/README/readme.txt</uri>.
81     </p>
82    
83     </body>
84     </section>
85     <section>
86     <title>nvidia-drivers</title>
87     <body>
88    
89     <p>
90     The <c>nvidia-drivers</c> branch supports the features in newer nVidia cards.
91     The latest version of these drivers has dropped support for the NV2x based
92     cards. If you have a GeForce 3 or GeForce 4 series card, you should mask
93     <c>>=x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers-1.0.9700</c> in your
94     <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> file. This will prevent newer versions of
95     the driver which are incompatible with your card from being installed. You can
96     check for driver compatibility for your card at to determine if it is supported
97     on the newer drivers at
98     <uri>http://us.download.nvidia.com/XFree86/Linux-x86/1.0-9746/README/appendix-a.html</uri>.
99     </p>
100    
101     </body>
102     </section>
103     </chapter>
104    
105     <chapter>
106 swift 1.1 <title>Configuring your Card</title>
107     <section>
108 neysx 1.21 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
109 swift 1.1 <body>
110    
111     <p>
112 neysx 1.14 As mentioned above, the nVidia kernel driver installs and runs against your
113     current kernel. It builds as a module, so it makes sense that your kernel must
114 diox 1.36 support the loading of kernel modules. If you used <c>genkernel all</c> to
115     configure the kernel for you, then you're all set. If not, double check your
116 nightmorph 1.31 kernel configuration so that this support is enabled:
117 swift 1.1 </p>
118    
119     <pre caption="Enabling the Loading of Kernel Modules">
120     Loadable module support ---&gt;
121     [*] Enable loadable module support
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125 swift 1.5 You also need to enable <e>Memory Type Range Register</e> in your kernel:
126     </p>
127    
128     <pre caption="Enabling MTRR">
129     Processor and Features ---&gt;
130     [*] MTRR (Memory Type Range Register) support
131     </pre>
132    
133 nightmorph 1.33 <p> Also, if you have an AGP graphics card, you can optionally enable
134     <c>agpgart</c> support to your kernel, either compiled in or as a module. If
135     you do not use the in-kernel agpgart, then the drivers will use their own
136     <c>agpgart</c> implementation, called <c>NvAGP</c>. On certain systems, this
137     performs better than the in-kernel agpgart, and on others, it performs worse.
138     You will need to evaluate this on your own system to get the best performance.
139     If you are unsure what to do, use the in-kernel agpgart:
140 nightmorph 1.29 </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Enabling agpgart">
143     Device Drivers ---&gt;
144     Character devices ---&gt;
145     &lt;*&gt; /dev/agpgart (AGP Support)
146     </pre>
147    
148 diox 1.36 <note>
149     On amd64, the IOMMU controls the agpgart setting.
150     </note>
151    
152 fox2mike 1.25 </body>
153     </section>
154     <section>
155     <title>Arch-specific notes</title>
156     <body>
157    
158     <impo>
159     For x86 and AMD64 processors, the in-kernel driver conflicts with the binary
160     driver provided by nVidia. If you will be compiling your kernel for these CPUs,
161     you must completely remove support for the in-kernel driver as shown:
162     </impo>
163    
164     <pre caption="Remove the in-kernel driver">
165     Device Drivers ---&gt;
166     Graphics Support ---&gt;
167     &lt; &gt; nVidia Framebuffer Support
168     &lt; &gt; nVidia Riva support
169     </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     A good framebuffer alternative is <c>VESA</c>:
173     </p>
174    
175     <pre caption="Enable VESA support">
176     Device Drivers ---&gt;
177     Graphics Support ---&gt;
178     &lt;*&gt; VESA VGA graphics support
179     </pre>
180    
181     <p>
182     Then, under "VESA driver type" select either <c>vesafb</c> or
183 nightmorph 1.31 <c>vesafb-tng</c>. If you are using an AMD64 processor, you should select
184     <c>vesafb</c> rather than <c>vesafb-tng</c>:
185 fox2mike 1.25 </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="Select framebuffer type">
188 nightmorph 1.31 (X) vesafb
189     ( ) vesafb-tng
190 fox2mike 1.25 </pre>
191    
192     <p>
193     For more information, you can read up
194     <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt</path> if you are using
195     <c>vesafb</c> or look for your framebuffer documentation under
196     <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/</path>.
197     </p>
198    
199     </body>
200     </section>
201     <section>
202     <title>Continuing with Kernel Configuration</title>
203     <body>
204    
205 swift 1.5 <p>
206 nightmorph 1.33 The <c>nvidia-drivers</c> and <c>nvidia-legacy-drivers</c> ebuilds
207     automatically discover your kernel version based on the
208     <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink. Please ensure that you have this symlink
209     pointing to the correct sources and that your kernel is correctly configured.
210 diox 1.36 Please refer to the &quot;Configuring the Kernel&quot; section of the <uri
211 neysx 1.13 link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbook</uri> for details on configuring
212     your kernel.
213     </p>
214    
215     <p>
216 rane 1.18 If you are using gentoo-sources-2.6.11-r6, your <path>/usr/src</path> directory
217     might look something like this:
218 neysx 1.13 </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Check your /usr/src/linux symlink">
221     # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
222     # <i>ls -l</i>
223 neysx 1.14 <comment>(Check that linux points to the right directory)</comment>
224 neysx 1.13 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Apr 23 18:33 linux -&gt; linux-2.6.11-gentoo-r6
225     drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 120 Apr 8 18:56 linux-2.4.26-gentoo-r4
226     drwxr-xr-x 18 root root 664 Dec 31 16:09 linux-2.6.10
227     drwxr-xr-x 18 root root 632 Mar 3 12:27 linux-2.6.11
228     drwxr-xr-x 19 root root 4096 Mar 16 22:00 linux-2.6.11-gentoo-r6
229     </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232 neysx 1.14 In the above output, you'll notice that the <c>linux</c> symlink is pointing
233     to the <c>linux-2.6.11-gentoo-r6</c> kernel.
234     </p>
235    
236     <p>
237     If the symlink is not pointing to the correct sources, you must update the link
238 neysx 1.13 like this:
239     </p>
240    
241 neysx 1.14 <pre caption="Create/Update /usr/src/linux symlink">
242 neysx 1.13 # <i>cd /usr/src</i>
243     # <i>ln -snf linux-2.6.11-gentoo-r6 linux</i>
244     </pre>
245    
246 neysx 1.21 </body>
247     </section>
248     <section>
249     <title>Optional: Check for Legacy Card Support</title>
250     <body>
251    
252     <note>
253     Unfortunately, certain legacy video cards are not supported by the newer
254 diox 1.36 versions of <c>nvidia-drivers</c>.
255     nVidia provides a <uri link="http://www.nvidia.com/object/IO_18897.html">list
256     of supported cards</uri>. Please check the list before installing the drivers.
257 neysx 1.21 </note>
258    
259     <p>
260     The following is a list of <b>unsupported</b> legacy video cards:
261     </p>
262    
263     <pre caption="Unsupported cards">
264 diox 1.36 TNT
265 neysx 1.21 TNT2
266     TNT2 Pro
267     TNT2 Ultra
268     TNT2 Model 64 (M64)
269     TNT2 Model 64 (M64) Pro
270     Vanta
271     Vanta LT
272     GeForce 256
273     GeForce DDR
274     GeForce2 GTS
275     GeForce2 Pro
276     GeForce2 Ti
277     GeForce2 Ultra
278     GeForce2 MX Integrated graphics
279     Quadro
280     Quadro2 Pro
281     Quadro2 EX
282     </pre>
283    
284     <p>
285 nightmorph 1.31 If your card is listed in the legacy list, then you will be required to install
286     the <c>nvidia-legacy-drivers</c> package to get 3D support.
287 neysx 1.21 </p>
288    
289     </body>
290     </section>
291     <section>
292     <title>Installing the Appropriate Drivers</title>
293     <body>
294    
295 neysx 1.13 <p>
296 nightmorph 1.33 Now it's time to install the drivers.
297 swift 1.1 </p>
298    
299 nightmorph 1.31 <pre caption="Installing the nVidia drivers">
300     <comment>(If you have a card not listed in the legacy list above)</comment>
301     # <i>emerge nvidia-drivers</i>
302     <comment>(If your card is listed in the legacy list)</comment>
303     # <i>emerge nvidia-legacy-drivers</i>
304     </pre>
305    
306 neysx 1.13 <impo>
307     Every time you <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-upgrade.xml">compile a new
308 nightmorph 1.33 kernel</uri> or recompile the current one, you will need to run <c>emerge
309     nvidia-drivers</c> or <c>emerge nvidia-legacy-drivers</c> to reinstall the
310     nVidia modules.
311 neysx 1.13 </impo>
312    
313 swift 1.1 <p>
314     Once the installation has finished, run <c>modprobe nvidia</c> to load the
315 nightmorph 1.31 kernel module into memory. If this is an upgrade, you should remove the
316     previous module first.
317 swift 1.1 </p>
318    
319     <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
320 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>lsmod | grep nvidia &amp;&amp; rmmod nvidia</i>
321 swift 1.1 # <i>modprobe nvidia</i>
322     </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325 neysx 1.14 To prevent you having to manually load the module on every bootup, you probably
326     want to have this done automatically each time you boot your system, so edit
327     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path>,
328     depending on which kernel version you use) and add <c>nvidia</c> to it. Don't
329     forget to run <c>modules-update</c> afterwards.
330 swift 1.1 </p>
331    
332 nightmorph 1.29 <impo>
333     If you compiled <c>agpgart</c> as a module, you will need to add it to
334     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path>
335     depending on your kernel version).
336     </impo>
337    
338 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Running modules-update">
339     # <i>modules-update</i>
340     </pre>
341    
342     </body>
343     </section>
344     <section>
345     <title>Configuring the X Server</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     Once the appropriate drivers are installed you need to configure your X Server
350 nightmorph 1.31 to use the <c>nvidia</c> driver instead of the default <c>nv</c> driver.
351 swift 1.1 </p>
352    
353     <p>
354 nightmorph 1.33 Open <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> with your favorite editor (such as
355     <c>nano</c> or <c>vim</c>) and go to the <c>Device</c> section. In that
356 neysx 1.14 section, change the <c>Driver</c> line:
357 swift 1.1 </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Changing nv to nvidia in the X Server configuration">
360     Section "Device"
361     Identifier "nVidia Inc. GeForce2"
362     <i>Driver "nvidia"</i>
363     VideoRam 65536
364     EndSection
365     </pre>
366    
367     <p>
368 swift 1.4 Then go to the <c>Module</c> section and make sure the <c>glx</c> module gets
369     loaded while the <c>dri</c> module doesn't:
370     </p>
371    
372     <pre caption="Updating the Module section">
373     Section "Module"
374     <comment>(...)</comment>
375     <i># Load "dri"
376     Load "glx"</i>
377     <comment>(...)</comment>
378     EndSection
379     </pre>
380    
381     <p>
382 swift 1.12 Next, in section <c>Screen</c>, make sure that either the <c>DefaultDepth</c>
383 neysx 1.21 directive is set to 16 or 24, or that you only have <c>Display</c> subsections
384 nightmorph 1.33 with <c>Depth</c> settings of 16 or 24. Without it, the nVidia GLX extensions
385 swift 1.12 will not start.
386     </p>
387    
388     <pre caption="Updating the Screen section">
389     Section "Screen"
390     <comment>(...)</comment>
391     <i>DefaultDepth 16</i>
392     Subsection "Display"
393     <comment>(...)</comment>
394     EndSection
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398 nightmorph 1.28 Run <c>eselect</c> so that the X Server uses the nVidia GLX libraries:
399 swift 1.1 </p>
400    
401 nightmorph 1.28 <pre caption="Running eselect">
402     # <i>eselect opengl set nvidia</i>
403 swift 1.1 </pre>
404    
405     </body>
406     </section>
407     <section>
408 swift 1.10 <title>Adding your Users to the video Group</title>
409     <body>
410    
411     <p>
412     You have to add your user to the <c>video</c> group so he has access to the
413     nvidia device files:
414     </p>
415    
416     <pre caption="Adding your user to the video group">
417     # <i>gpasswd -a youruser video</i>
418     </pre>
419    
420     <p>
421 fox2mike 1.16 This might not be totally necessary if you aren't using <c>udev</c> but it
422 nightmorph 1.33 doesn't hurt either and makes your system future-proof.
423 swift 1.10 </p>
424    
425     </body>
426     </section>
427     <section>
428 swift 1.1 <title>Testing your Card</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     To test your nVidia card, fire up X and run the <c>glxinfo | grep direct</c>
433     command. It should say that direct rendering is activated:
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Checking the direct rendering status">
437     $ <i>glxinfo | grep direct</i>
438     direct rendering: Yes
439     </pre>
440    
441     <p>
442 neysx 1.21 To monitor your FPS, run <c>glxgears</c>.
443 swift 1.1 </p>
444    
445     </body>
446     </section>
447 swift 1.11 <section>
448     <title>Enabling nvidia Support</title>
449     <body>
450    
451     <p>
452     Some tools, such as <c>mplayer</c> and <c>xine-lib</c>, use a local USE flag
453     called "nvidia" which enables XvMCNVIDIA support, useful when watching high
454     resolution movies. Add in "nvidia" in your USE variable in
455     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or add it as USE flag to <c>media-video/mplayer</c>
456     and/or <c>media-libs/xine-lib</c> in <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
457     </p>
458    
459     <p>
460     Then, run <c>emerge -uD --newuse world</c> to rebuild the applications that
461     benefit from the USE flag change.
462     </p>
463    
464     </body>
465     </section>
466 swift 1.19 <section>
467     <title>Using NVidia Settings Tool</title>
468     <body>
469    
470     <p>
471 nightmorph 1.31 Since nVidia released version 1.0.6106 it also provides you with a settings
472     tool. This tool allows you to change graphical settings without restarting the
473     X server and is available through Portage as
474     <c>media-video/nvidia-settings</c>.
475 swift 1.19 </p>
476    
477     </body>
478     </section>
479 swift 1.1 </chapter>
480 swift 1.6
481     <chapter>
482     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
483     <section>
484     <title>Getting 2D to work on machines with 4Gb or more memory</title>
485     <body>
486    
487     <p>
488 nightmorph 1.31 If you are having troubles with the nVidia 2D acceleration it is likely that
489     you are unable to set up a write-combining range with MTRR. To verify, check
490     the contents of <path>/proc/mtrr</path>:
491 swift 1.6 </p>
492    
493     <pre caption="Checking if you have write-combining enabled">
494     # <i>cat /proc/mtrr</i>
495     </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498     Every line should contain "write-back" or "write-combining". If you see a line
499     with "uncachable" in it you will need to change a BIOS setting to fix this.
500     </p>
501    
502     <p>
503     Reboot and enter the BIOS, then find the MTRR settings (probably under "CPU
504     Settings"). Change the setting from "continuous" to "discrete" and boot back
505     into Linux. You will now find out that there is no "uncachable" entry anymore
506     and 2D acceleration now works without any glitches.
507     </p>
508    
509     </body>
510     </section>
511 swift 1.7 <section>
512 swift 1.20 <title>
513     When I attempt to load the kernel module I receive a "no such device"
514     </title>
515     <body>
516    
517     <p>
518     This usually occurs when you don't have a matching video card. Make sure that
519     you have an nVidia-powered graphical card (you can double-check this using
520     <c>lspci</c>).
521     </p>
522    
523     <p>
524     If you are confident that you have an nVidia card, check your BIOS and see if
525     the directive <e>Assign IRQ to VGA</e> is set.
526     </p>
527    
528     </body>
529     </section>
530 swift 1.6 </chapter>
531    
532 neysx 1.14 <chapter>
533     <title>Expert Configuration</title>
534     <section>
535     <title>Documentation</title>
536     <body>
537    
538     <p>
539     The nVidia driver package also comes with comprehensive documentation. This is
540     installed into <c>/usr/share/doc</c> and can be viewed with the following
541     command:
542     </p>
543    
544     <pre caption="Viewing the NVIDIA documentation">
545 nightmorph 1.31 <comment>(for nvidia-drivers)</comment>
546     $ <i>less /usr/share/doc/nvidia-drivers-*/README.gz</i>
547     <comment>(for nvidia-legacy-drivers)</comment>
548     $ <i>less /usr/share/doc/nvidia-legacy-drivers-*/README.gz</i>
549 neysx 1.14 </pre>
550    
551     </body>
552     </section>
553     <section>
554     <title>Kernel module parameters</title>
555     <body>
556    
557     <p>
558     The <c>nvidia</c> kernel module accepts a number of parameters (options) which
559     you can use to tweak the behaviour of the driver. Most of these are mentioned in
560     the documentation. To add or change the values of these parameters, edit the
561     file <c>/etc/modules.d/nvidia</c>. Remember to run <c>modules-update</c> after
562     modifying this file, and bear in mind that you will need to reload the
563     <c>nvidia</c> module before the new settings take effect.
564     </p>
565    
566 jkt 1.17 <pre caption="Adjusting nvidia options">
567     <comment>(Edit /etc/modules.d/nvidia in your favourite editor)</comment>
568     # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.d/nvidia</i>
569     <comment>(Update module information)</comment>
570     # <i>modules-update</i>
571     <comment>(Unload the nvidia module...)</comment>
572     # <i>modprobe -r nvidia</i>
573     <comment>(...and load it once again)</comment>
574     # <i>modprobe nvidia</i>
575     </pre>
576    
577 neysx 1.14 </body>
578     </section>
579     <section>
580     <title>Advanced X configuration</title>
581     <body>
582    
583     <p>
584     The GLX layer also has a plethora of options which can be configured. These
585     control the configuration of TV out, dual displays, monitor frequency detection,
586     etc. Again, all of the available options are detailed in the documentation.
587     </p>
588    
589     <p>
590     If you wish to use any of these options, you need to list them in the relevant
591     Device section of your X config file (usually <c>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</c>). For
592     example, suppose I wanted to disable the splash logo:
593     </p>
594    
595     <pre caption="Advanced nvidia configuration in the X configuration">
596     Section "Device"
597     Identifier "nVidia Inc. GeForce2"
598     Driver "nvidia"
599     <i>Option "NoLogo" "true"</i>
600     VideoRam 65536
601     EndSection
602     </pre>
603    
604     </body>
605     </section>
606     </chapter>
607    
608 swift 1.1 </guide>

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