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updated nvidia guide with new driver version info

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml,v 1.43 2007/08/18 08:40:52 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="curtis119@gentoo.org">M Curtis Napier</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="wolf31o2@gentoo.org">Chris Gianelloni</mail>
19 </author>
20
21 <abstract>
22 Many Gentooists have an nVidia chipset on their system. nVidia provides specific
23 Linux drivers to boost the performance of your card. This guide informs you how
24 to install and configure these drivers.
25 </abstract>
26
27 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29 <license/>
30
31 <version>1.35</version>
32 <date>2007-11-15</date>
33
34 <chapter>
35 <title>Introduction</title>
36 <section>
37 <body>
38
39 <p>
40 The nVidia drivers in the tree are released by nVidia and are built against the
41 Linux kernel. They contain a binary blob that does the heavy lifting for talking
42 to the card. The drivers consist of two parts, a kernel module, and an X11
43 driver. Both parts are included in a single package. Due to the way nVidia has
44 been packaging their drivers, you will need to make some choices before you
45 install the drivers.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 The <c>nvidia-drivers</c> package contains the latest drivers from nVidia with
50 support for <e>all</e> cards, with several versions available depending on how
51 old your card is. It uses an eclass to detect what kind of card you're running
52 so that it installs the proper version.
53 </p>
54
55 </body>
56 </section>
57 </chapter>
58
59 <chapter>
60 <title>Driver compatibility</title>
61 <section>
62 <title>Which version?</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <p>
66 The <c>nvidia-drivers</c> package supports the full range of available nVidia
67 cards. Multiple versions are available for installation, depending on the
68 card(s) you have.
69 </p>
70
71 <p>
72 Newer cards such as the GeForce 8, 7, 6, and FX 5 series should use the newer
73 drivers from the 100.x series.
74 </p>
75
76 <p>
77 Older cards such as the GeForce 3 or GeForce 4 series require the 96.x drivers.
78 For these cards, you should mask <c>>=x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers-97.00</c> in
79 your <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> file. This will prevent newer
80 versions of the driver which are incompatible with your card from being
81 installed.
82 </p>
83
84 <p>
85 Old NV2x-based cards (such as TNT, TNT2, GeForce, and GeForce 2) require the
86 older 71.x drivers (such as <c>nvidia-drivers-71.86.01</c>). For these cards,
87 you should mask <c>>=x11-drivers/nvidia-drivers-87.00</c> in
88 <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 You can check for driver compatibility for your card at to determine which
93 driver supports it by viewing the README at its appropriate x86 or x86-64
94 <uri link="http://www.nvidia.com/object/unix.html">release page</uri>.
95 </p>
96
97 </body>
98 </section>
99 </chapter>
100
101 <chapter>
102 <title>Configuring your Card</title>
103 <section>
104 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 As mentioned above, the nVidia kernel driver installs and runs against your
109 current kernel. It builds as a module, so it makes sense that your kernel must
110 support the loading of kernel modules. If you used <c>genkernel all</c> to
111 configure the kernel for you, then you're all set. If not, double check your
112 kernel configuration so that this support is enabled:
113 </p>
114
115 <pre caption="Enabling the Loading of Kernel Modules">
116 Loadable module support ---&gt;
117 [*] Enable loadable module support
118 </pre>
119
120 <p>
121 You also need to enable <e>Memory Type Range Register</e> in your kernel:
122 </p>
123
124 <pre caption="Enabling MTRR">
125 Processor and Features ---&gt;
126 [*] MTRR (Memory Type Range Register) support
127 </pre>
128
129 <p> Also, if you have an AGP graphics card, you can optionally enable
130 <c>agpgart</c> support to your kernel, either compiled in or as a module. If
131 you do not use the in-kernel agpgart, then the drivers will use their own
132 <c>agpgart</c> implementation, called <c>NvAGP</c>. On certain systems, this
133 performs better than the in-kernel agpgart, and on others, it performs worse.
134 You will need to evaluate this on your own system to get the best performance.
135 If you are unsure what to do, use the in-kernel agpgart:
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="Enabling agpgart">
139 Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Character devices ---&gt;
141 &lt;*&gt; /dev/agpgart (AGP Support)
142 </pre>
143
144 <note>
145 On amd64, the IOMMU controls the agpgart setting.
146 </note>
147
148 </body>
149 </section>
150 <section>
151 <title>Arch-specific notes</title>
152 <body>
153
154 <impo>
155 For x86 and AMD64 processors, the in-kernel driver conflicts with the binary
156 driver provided by nVidia. If you will be compiling your kernel for these CPUs,
157 you must completely remove support for the in-kernel driver as shown:
158 </impo>
159
160 <pre caption="Remove the in-kernel driver">
161 Device Drivers ---&gt;
162 Graphics Support ---&gt;
163 &lt; &gt; nVidia Framebuffer Support
164 &lt; &gt; nVidia Riva support
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 A good framebuffer alternative is <c>VESA</c>:
169 </p>
170
171 <pre caption="Enable VESA support">
172 Device Drivers ---&gt;
173 Graphics Support ---&gt;
174 &lt;*&gt; VESA VGA graphics support
175 </pre>
176
177 <p>
178 Then, under "VESA driver type" select either <c>vesafb</c> or
179 <c>vesafb-tng</c>. If you are using an AMD64 processor, you should select
180 <c>vesafb</c> rather than <c>vesafb-tng</c>:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Select framebuffer type">
184 (X) vesafb
185 ( ) vesafb-tng
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 For more information, you can read up
190 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt</path> if you are using
191 <c>vesafb</c> or look for your framebuffer documentation under
192 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/fb/</path>.
193 </p>
194
195 </body>
196 </section>
197 <section>
198 <title>Continuing with Kernel Configuration</title>
199 <body>
200
201 <p>
202 The <c>nvidia-drivers</c> ebuild automatically discovers your kernel version
203 based on the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink. Please ensure that you have
204 this symlink pointing to the correct sources and that your kernel is correctly
205 configured. Please refer to the "Configuring the Kernel" section of the <uri
206 link="/doc/en/handbook/">Installation Handbook</uri> for details on configuring
207 your kernel.
208 </p>
209
210 <p>
211 First, you'll need to emerge <c>eselect</c> (if you don't already have it). If
212 you are using <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.18-r4</c>, your kernel listing might look
213 something like this:
214 </p>
215
216 <pre caption="Check your /usr/src/linux symlink">
217 # <i>eselect kernel list</i>
218 Available kernel symlink targets:
219 [1] linux-2.6.18-gentoo-r4 *
220 [2] linux-2.6.20-gentoo-r7
221 [3] linux-2.6.20-gentoo-r8
222 <comment>(Verify that the right kernel is marked with an asterisk</comment>
223 </pre>
224
225 <p>
226 In the above output, you'll notice that the <c>linux-2.6.18-gentoo-r4</c> kernel
227 is marked with an asterisk (<b>*</b>) to show that it is the symlinked kernel.
228 </p>
229
230 <p>
231 If the symlink is not pointing to the correct sources, you must update the link
232 by selecting the number of your desired kernel sources, as in the example
233 above.
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Create/Update /usr/src/linux symlink">
237 <comment>(Select the correct kernel)</comment>
238 # <i>eselect kernel set 1</i>
239 </pre>
240
241 </body>
242 </section>
243 <section>
244 <title>Installing the Appropriate Drivers</title>
245 <body>
246
247 <p>
248 Now it's time to install the drivers.
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption="Installing the nVidia drivers">
252 # <i>emerge nvidia-drivers</i>
253 </pre>
254
255 <note>
256 The drivers can be installed with the <c>gtk</c> USE flag set. This will install
257 <c>media-video/nvidia-settings</c>, a handy graphical tool for monitoring and
258 configuring several aspects of your nVidia card.
259 </note>
260
261 <impo>
262 Every time you <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-upgrade.xml">compile a new kernel</uri>
263 or recompile the current one, you will need to run <c>emerge nvidia-drivers</c>
264 to reinstall the nVidia modules. An easier way to keep track of modules
265 installed by ebuilds (such as <c>nvidia-drivers</c>) is to install
266 <c>sys-kernel/module-rebuild</c>. Once you've installed it, simply run
267 <c>module-rebuild populate</c> to populate its database with a list of packages
268 to be rebuilt. Once you've finished compiling or recompiling a kernel, just run
269 <c>module-rebuild rebuild</c> to rebuild the drivers for your new kernel.
270 </impo>
271
272 <p>
273 Once the installation has finished, run <c>modprobe nvidia</c> to load the
274 kernel module into memory. If this is an upgrade, you should remove the
275 previous module first.
276 </p>
277
278 <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
279 # <i>lsmod | grep nvidia &amp;&amp; rmmod nvidia</i>
280 # <i>modprobe nvidia</i>
281 </pre>
282
283 <p>
284 To prevent you having to manually load the module on every bootup, you probably
285 want to have this done automatically each time you boot your system, so edit
286 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> and add <c>nvidia</c> to it.
287 Don't forget to run <c>update-modules</c> afterwards.
288 </p>
289
290 <impo>
291 If you compiled <c>agpgart</c> as a module, you will need to add it to
292 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>.
293 </impo>
294
295 <pre caption="Running update-modules">
296 # <i>update-modules</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 </body>
300 </section>
301 <section>
302 <title>Configuring the X Server</title>
303 <body>
304
305 <p>
306 Once the appropriate drivers are installed you need to configure your X Server
307 to use the <c>nvidia</c> driver instead of the default <c>nv</c> driver.
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 Open <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> with your favorite editor (such as
312 <c>nano</c> or <c>vim</c>) and go to the <c>Device</c> section. In that
313 section, change the <c>Driver</c> line:
314 </p>
315
316 <pre caption="Changing nv to nvidia in the X Server configuration">
317 Section "Device"
318 Identifier "nVidia Inc. GeForce2"
319 <i>Driver "nvidia"</i>
320 VideoRam 65536
321 EndSection
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 Then go to the <c>Module</c> section and make sure the <c>glx</c> module gets
326 loaded while the <c>dri</c> module doesn't:
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption="Updating the Module section">
330 Section "Module"
331 <comment>(...)</comment>
332 <i># Load "dri"
333 Load "glx"</i>
334 <comment>(...)</comment>
335 EndSection
336 </pre>
337
338 <p>
339 Next, in section <c>Screen</c>, make sure that either the <c>DefaultDepth</c>
340 directive is set to 16 or 24, or that you only have <c>Display</c> subsections
341 with <c>Depth</c> settings of 16 or 24. Without it, the nVidia GLX extensions
342 will not start.
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="Updating the Screen section">
346 Section "Screen"
347 <comment>(...)</comment>
348 <i>DefaultDepth 16</i>
349 Subsection "Display"
350 <comment>(...)</comment>
351 EndSection
352 </pre>
353
354 <p>
355 Run <c>eselect</c> so that the X Server uses the nVidia GLX libraries:
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Running eselect">
359 # <i>eselect opengl set nvidia</i>
360 </pre>
361
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 <section>
365 <title>Adding your Users to the video Group</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 You have to add your user to the <c>video</c> group so he has access to the
370 nVidia device files:
371 </p>
372
373 <pre caption="Adding your user to the video group">
374 # <i>gpasswd -a youruser video</i>
375 </pre>
376
377 <p>
378 This might not be totally necessary if you aren't using <c>udev</c> but it
379 doesn't hurt either and makes your system future-proof.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 <section>
385 <title>Testing your Card</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 To test your nVidia card, fire up X and run <c>glxinfo</c>, which is part of the
390 <c>mesa-progs</c> package. It should say that direct rendering is activated:
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption="Checking the direct rendering status">
394 $ <i>glxinfo | grep direct</i>
395 direct rendering: Yes
396 </pre>
397
398 <p>
399 To monitor your FPS, run <c>glxgears</c>.
400 </p>
401
402 </body>
403 </section>
404 <section>
405 <title>Enabling nvidia Support</title>
406 <body>
407
408 <p>
409 Some tools, such as <c>mplayer</c> and <c>xine-lib</c>, use a local USE flag
410 called <c>xvmc</c> which enables XvMCNVIDIA support, useful when watching high
411 resolution movies. Add in <c>xvmc</c> in your USE variable in
412 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or add it as USE flag to <c>media-video/mplayer</c>
413 and/or <c>media-libs/xine-lib</c> in <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 There are also some applications that use the <c>nvidia</c> USE flag, so you
418 may want to add it to <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 Then, run <c>emerge -uD --newuse world</c> to rebuild the applications that
423 benefit from the USE flag change.
424 </p>
425
426 </body>
427 </section>
428 <section>
429 <title>Using NVidia Settings Tool</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 nVidia also provides you with a settings tool. This tool allows you to monitor
434 and change graphical settings without restarting the X server and is available
435 through Portage as <c>media-video/nvidia-settings</c>. As mentioned earlier, it
436 will be pulled in automatically if you install the drivers with the <c>gtk</c>
437 USE flag set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
438 <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
439 </p>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443 </chapter>
444
445 <chapter>
446 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
447 <section>
448 <title>Getting 2D to work on machines with 4Gb or more memory</title>
449 <body>
450
451 <p>
452 If you are having troubles with the nVidia 2D acceleration it is likely that
453 you are unable to set up a write-combining range with MTRR. To verify, check
454 the contents of <path>/proc/mtrr</path>:
455 </p>
456
457 <pre caption="Checking if you have write-combining enabled">
458 # <i>cat /proc/mtrr</i>
459 </pre>
460
461 <p>
462 Every line should contain "write-back" or "write-combining". If you see a line
463 with "uncachable" in it you will need to change a BIOS setting to fix this.
464 </p>
465
466 <p>
467 Reboot and enter the BIOS, then find the MTRR settings (probably under "CPU
468 Settings"). Change the setting from "continuous" to "discrete" and boot back
469 into Linux. You will now find out that there is no "uncachable" entry anymore
470 and 2D acceleration now works without any glitches.
471 </p>
472
473 </body>
474 </section>
475 <section>
476 <title>
477 When I attempt to load the kernel module I receive a "no such device"
478 </title>
479 <body>
480
481 <p>
482 This usually occurs when you don't have a matching video card. Make sure that
483 you have an nVidia-powered graphical card (you can double-check this using
484 <c>lspci</c>).
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 If you are confident that you have an nVidia card, check your BIOS and see if
489 the directive <e>Assign IRQ to VGA</e> is set.
490 </p>
491
492 </body>
493 </section>
494 </chapter>
495
496 <chapter>
497 <title>Expert Configuration</title>
498 <section>
499 <title>Documentation</title>
500 <body>
501
502 <p>
503 The nVidia driver package also comes with comprehensive documentation. This is
504 installed into <c>/usr/share/doc</c> and can be viewed with the following
505 command:
506 </p>
507
508 <pre caption="Viewing the NVIDIA documentation">
509 $ <i>less /usr/share/doc/nvidia-drivers-*/README.gz</i>
510 </pre>
511
512 </body>
513 </section>
514 <section>
515 <title>Kernel module parameters</title>
516 <body>
517
518 <p>
519 The <c>nvidia</c> kernel module accepts a number of parameters (options) which
520 you can use to tweak the behaviour of the driver. Most of these are mentioned in
521 the documentation. To add or change the values of these parameters, edit the
522 file <c>/etc/modules.d/nvidia</c>. Remember to run <c>update-modules</c> after
523 modifying this file, and bear in mind that you will need to reload the
524 <c>nvidia</c> module before the new settings take effect.
525 </p>
526
527 <pre caption="Adjusting nvidia options">
528 <comment>(Edit /etc/modules.d/nvidia in your favourite editor)</comment>
529 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.d/nvidia</i>
530 <comment>(Update module information)</comment>
531 # <i>update-modules</i>
532 <comment>(Unload the nvidia module...)</comment>
533 # <i>modprobe -r nvidia</i>
534 <comment>(...and load it once again)</comment>
535 # <i>modprobe nvidia</i>
536 </pre>
537
538 </body>
539 </section>
540 <section>
541 <title>Advanced X configuration</title>
542 <body>
543
544 <p>
545 The GLX layer also has a plethora of options which can be configured. These
546 control the configuration of TV out, dual displays, monitor frequency detection,
547 etc. Again, all of the available options are detailed in the documentation.
548 </p>
549
550 <p>
551 If you wish to use any of these options, you need to list them in the relevant
552 Device section of your X config file (usually <c>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</c>). For
553 example, suppose I wanted to disable the splash logo:
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="Advanced nvidia configuration in the X configuration">
557 Section "Device"
558 Identifier "nVidia Inc. GeForce2"
559 Driver "nvidia"
560 <i>Option "NoLogo" "true"</i>
561 VideoRam 65536
562 EndSection
563 </pre>
564
565 </body>
566 </section>
567 </chapter>
568 </guide>

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