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1 <?xml version='1.0'?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide>
7 <title>Gentoo Linux OpenAFS Guide</title>
8 <author title="Editor">
9 <mail link="darks@gentoo.org">Holger Brueckner</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This guide shows you how to install a openafs server and client on gentoo linux
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>0.1</version>
17 <date>05 June 2001</date>
18
19 <chapter>
20 <title>Overview</title>
21 <section>
22 <title>About this Document</title>
23 <body>
24 <p>This document provides you with all neccessary steps to install an openafs server on Gentoo Linux.
25 Parts of this document are taken from the AFS FAQ and IBM's Quick Beginnings guide on AFS. Well, never reinvent
26 the weel :)</p>
27 </body>
28 </section>
29 <section>
30 <title>What is AFS ?</title>
31 <body>
32
33 <p>
34 AFS is a distributed filesystem that enables co-operating hosts
35 (clients and servers) to efficiently share filesystem resources
36 across both local area and wide area networks. Clients hold a
37 cache for often used objects (files), to get quicker
38 access to them.
39 </p>
40 <p>
41 AFS is based on a distributed file system originally developed
42 at the Information Technology Center at Carnegie-Mellon University
43 that was called the "Andrew File System". "Andrew" was the name of the research project at CMU - honouring the
44 founders of the University. Once Transarc was formed and AFS became a
45 product, the "Andrew" was dropped to indicate that AFS had gone beyond
46 the Andrew research project and had become a supported, product quality
47 filesystem. However, there were a number of existing cells that rooted
48 their filesystem as /afs. At the time, changing the root of the filesystem
49 was a non-trivial undertaking. So, to save the early AFS sites from having
50 to rename their filesystem, AFS remained as the name and filesystem root.
51 </p>
52 </body>
53 </section>
54 <section>
55 <title>What is an AFS cell ?</title>
56 <body>
57 <p>An AFS cell is a collection of servers grouped together administratively
58 and presenting a single, cohesive filesystem. Typically, an AFS cell is a set of
59 hosts that use the same Internet domain name (like for example gentoo.org)
60 Users log into AFS client workstations which request information and files
61 from the cell's servers on behalf of the users. Users won't know on which server
62 a file which they are accessing, is located. They even won't notice if a server
63 will be located to another room, since every volume can be replicated and moved
64 to another server without user an user noticing. The files are always accessable.
65 Well it's like NFS on steroids :)
66 </p>
67 </body>
68 </section>
69 <section>
70 <title>What are the benefits of using AFS ?</title>
71 <body>
72 <p>The main strengths of AFS are its:
73
74 caching facility (on client side, typically 100M to 1GB),
75 security features (Kerberos 4 based, access control lists),
76 simplicity of addressing (you just have one filesystem),
77 scalability (add further servers to your cell as needed),
78 communications protocol.
79 </p>
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>Where can i get more information ?</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>
86 Read the <uri link="http://www.angelfire.com/hi/plutonic/afs-faq.html">AFS FAQ</uri>.
87 </p>
88 <p>
89 Openafs main page is at <uri link="http://www.openafs.org">www.openafs.org</uri>.
90 </p>
91 <p>
92 AFS was originally developed by Transarc which is now owned by IBM.
93 You can find some information about AFS on
94 <uri link="http://www.transarc.ibm.com/Product/EFS/AFS/index.html">Transarcs Webpage</uri>
95 </p>
96 </body>
97 </section>
98
99 </chapter>
100
101 <chapter>
102 <title>Documentation</title>
103 <section>
104 <title>Getting AFS Documentation</title>
105 <body>
106 <p>
107 You can get the original IBM AFS Documentation. It is very well written and you
108 really want
109 read it if it is up to you to administer a AFS Server.
110 </p>
111 <pre>
112 # <i>emerge app-doc/afsdoc</i>
113 </pre>
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 </chapter>
117
118 <chapter>
119 <title>Client Installation</title>
120 <section>
121 <title>Preliminary Work</title>
122 <body>
123 <note>
124 All commands should be written in on line !! In this document they are
125 sometimes wrapped to two lines to make them easier to read.
126 </note>
127 <note>
128 Unfortunately the AFS Client needs a ext2 partiton for it's cache to run
129 correctly, because there are some locking issues with reiserfs. You need to
130 create a ext2 partition of approx. 200MB (more won't hurt) and mount it to
131 <path>/usr/vice/cache</path>
132 </note>
133 <p>
134 You should adjust the two files CellServDB ans ThisCell before you build the
135 afs client. (These files are in <path>/usr/portage/net-fs/openafs/files</path>)
136 </p>
137 <pre>
138 CellServDB:
139 >netlabs #Cell name
140 10.0.0.1 #storage
141
142 ThisCell:
143 netlabs
144 </pre>
145 <p>
146 CellServDB tells your client which server(s) he needs to contact for a
147 specific cell. ThisCell should be quite obvious. Normally you use a name
148 which is unique for your organisation. Your (official) domain might be a
149 good choice.
150 </p>
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section>
154 <title>Building the Client</title>
155 <body>
156 <pre>
157 <i>emerge net-fs/openafs</i>
158 </pre>
159 <p>
160 After successfull compilation you're ready to go.
161 </p>
162 </body>
163 </section>
164 <section>
165 <title>Starting afs on startup</title>
166 <body>
167 <p>
168 The following command will create the appropriate links to start your afs client
169 on system startup.
170 </p>
171 <warn>
172 You should always have a running afs server in your domain when trying to start the afs client. You're system won't boot
173 until it gets some timeout if your afs server is down. (and this is quite a long long time)
174 </warn>
175 <pre>
176 # <i>rc-update add afs default</i>
177 </pre>
178 </body>
179 </section>
180 </chapter>
181
182 <chapter>
183 <title>Server Installation</title>
184 <section>
185 <title>Building the Server</title>
186 <body>
187 <p>
188 The follwing command will install all necessary binaries for setting up a AFS Server
189 <i>and</i> Client
190 </p>
191 <pre>
192 # <i>emerge net-fs/openafs</i>
193 </pre>
194 </body>
195 </section>
196 <section>
197 <title>Starting AFS Server</title>
198 <body>
199 <p>
200 You need to remove the sample CellServDB and ThisCell file first.
201 </p>
202 <pre>
203 # <i>rm /usr/vice/etc/ThisCell</i>
204 # <i>rm /usr/vice/etc/CellServDB</i>
205 </pre>
206 <p>
207 Next you will run the <b>bosserver</b> command to initialize the Basic OverSeer (BOS)
208 Server, which monitors and controls other AFS server processes on its server
209 machine. Think of it as init for the system. Include the <b>-noauth</b>
210 flag to disable authorization checking, since you haven't added the admin user yet.
211 </p>
212 <p>
213 <warn>
214 Disabling authorization checking gravely compromises cell security.
215 You must complete all subsequent steps in one uninterrupted pass
216 and must not leave the machine unattended until you restart the BOS Server with
217 authorization checking enabled. Well this is what the AFS documentation says :)
218 </warn>
219 </p>
220 <pre>
221 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bosserver -noauth &amp;</i>
222 </pre>
223 <p>
224 Verify that the BOS Server created <path>/usr/vice/etc/CellServDB</path>
225 and <path>/usr/vice/etc/ThisCell</path>
226 </p>
227 <pre>
228 # <i>ls -al /usr/vice/etc/</i>
229 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 41 Jun 4 22:21 CellServDB
230 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7 Jun 4 22:21 ThisCell
231 </pre>
232
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>Defining Cell Name and Membership for Server Process</title>
237 <body>
238 <p>
239 Now assign your cells name.
240 </p>
241 <p>
242 <impo>There are some restrictions on the name format.
243 Two of the most important restrictions are that the name
244 cannot include uppercase letters or more than 64 characters. Remember that
245 your cell name will show up under <path>/afs</path>, so you might want to choose
246 a short one.</impo>
247 </p>
248 <p>
249 <note>In the following and every instruction in this guide, for the <i>&lt;server name&gt;</i>
250 argument substitute the full-qualified hostname
251 (such as <b>afs.gentoo.org</b>) of the machine you are installing.
252 For the <i>&lt;cell name&gt;</i>
253 argument substitute your cell's complete name (such as <b>gentoo</b>)</note>
254 </p>
255 <p>
256 Run the <b>bos setcellname</b> command to set the cell name:
257 </p>
258 <pre>
259 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos setcellname &lt;server name&gt; &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
260 </pre>
261 </body>
262 </section>
263 <section>
264 <title>Starting the Database Server Process</title>
265 <body><p>
266 Next use the <b>bos create</b> command to create entries for the four database
267 server processes in the
268 <path>/usr/afs/local/BosConfig</path> file. The four processes run on database
269 server machines only.
270 </p>
271 <p>
272 <table>
273 <tr>
274 <ti>kaserver</ti>
275 <ti>The Authentification Server maintains the Authentification Database.
276 This can be replaced by a Kerberos 5 daemon. If anybody want's to try that
277 feel free to update this document :)</ti>
278 </tr>
279 <tr>
280 <ti>buserver</ti>
281 <ti>The Backup Server maintains the Backup Database</ti>
282 </tr>
283 <tr>
284 <ti>ptserver</ti>
285 <ti>The Protection Server maintains the Protection Database</ti>
286 </tr>
287 <tr>
288 <ti>vlserver</ti>
289 <ti>The Volume Location Server maintains the Volume Location Database (VLDB).
290 Very important :)</ti>
291 </tr>
292 </table>
293 </p>
294 <pre>
295 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos create &lt;server name&gt; kaserver simple
296 /usr/afs/bin/kaserver -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
297 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos create &lt;server name&gt; buserver simple
298 /usr/afs/bin/buserver -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
299 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos create &lt;server name&gt; ptserver simple
300 /usr/afs/bin/ptserver -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
301 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos create &lt;server name&gt; vlserver simple
302 /usr/afs/bin/vlserver -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
303 </pre>
304 <p>
305 You can verify that all servers are running with the <b>bos status</b> command:
306 </p>
307 <pre>
308 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos status &lt;server name&gt; -noauth</i>
309 Instance kaserver, currently running normally.
310 Instance buserver, currently running normally.
311 Instance ptserver, currently running normally.
312 Instance vlserver, currently running normally.
313 </pre>
314
315 </body>
316 </section>
317 <section>
318 <title>Initializing Cell Security</title>
319 <body>
320 <p>
321 Now we'll initialize the cell's security mechanisms. We'll begin by creating the
322 following two initial entries in the
323 Authentification Database: The main administrative account, called <b>admin</b> by
324 convention and an entry for
325 the AFS server processes, called <b>afs</b>. No user logs in under the
326 identity <b>afs</b>, but the Authentication
327 Server's Ticket Granting Service (TGS) module uses the account
328 to encrypt the server tickets that it grants to AFS clients. This sounds
329 pretty much like Kerberos :)
330 </p>
331 <p>
332 Enter <b>kas</b> interactive mode
333 </p>
334 <pre>
335 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/kas -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
336 ka&gt; <i>create afs</i>
337 initial_password:
338 Verifying, please re-enter initial_password:
339 ka&gt; <i>create admin</i>
340 initial_password:
341 Verifying, please re-enter initial_password:
342 ka&gt; <i>examine afs</i>
343
344 User data for afs
345 key (0) cksum is 2651715259, last cpw: Mon Jun 4 20:49:30 2001
346 password will never expire.
347 An unlimited number of unsuccessful authentications is permitted.
348 entry never expires. Max ticket lifetime 100.00 hours.
349 last mod on Mon Jun 4 20:49:30 2001 by $lt;none&gt;
350 permit password reuse
351 ka&gt; <i>setfields admin -flags admin</i>
352 ka&gt; <i>examine admin</i>
353
354 User data for admin (ADMIN)
355 key (0) cksum is 2651715259, last cpw: Mon Jun 4 20:49:59 2001
356 password will never expire.
357 An unlimited number of unsuccessful authentications is permitted.
358 entry never expires. Max ticket lifetime 25.00 hours.
359 last mod on Mon Jun 4 20:51:10 2001 by $lt;none&gt;
360 permit password reuse
361 ka&gt;
362 </pre>
363 <p>
364 Run the <b>bos adduser</b> command, to add the <b>admin</b> user to
365 the <path>/usr/afs/etc/UserList</path>.
366 </p>
367 <pre>
368 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos adduser &lt;server name&gt; admin -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
369 </pre>
370 <p>
371 Issue the <b>bos addkey</b> command to define the AFS Server
372 encryption key in <path>/usr/afs/etc/KeyFile</path>
373 </p>
374 <note>
375 If asked for the input key, give the password you entered when creating
376 the afs entry with <b>kas</b>
377 </note>
378 <pre>
379 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos addkey &lt;server name&gt; -kvno 0 -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
380 input key:
381 Retype input key:
382 </pre>
383 <p>
384 Issue the <b>pts createuser</b> command to create a Protection Database
385 entry for the admin user
386 </p>
387 <note>
388 By default, the Protection Server assigns AFS UID 1 to the <b>admin</b> user, because
389 it is the first user
390 entry you are creating. If the local password file (/etc/passwd or equivalent)
391 already has an entry for
392 <b>admin</b> that assigns a different UID use the <b>-id</b> argument
393 to create matching UID's
394 </note>
395 <pre>
396 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/pts createuser -name admin -cell &lt;cell name&gt; [-id &lt;AFS UID&gt;] -noauth</i>
397 </pre>
398 <p>
399 Issue the <b>pts adduser</b> command to make the <b>admin</b> user a member
400 of the system:administrators group,
401 and the <b>pts membership</b> command to verify the new membership>
402 </p>
403 <pre>
404 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/pts adduser admin system:administrators -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
405 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/pts membership admin -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
406 Groups admin (id: 1) is a member of:
407 system:administrators
408 </pre>
409 <p>
410 Restart all AFS Server processes
411 </p>
412 <pre>
413 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos restart &lt;server name&gt; -all -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
414 </pre>
415 </body>
416 </section>
417 <section>
418 <title>Starting the File Server, Volume Server and Salvager</title>
419 <body>
420 <p>
421 Start the <b>fs</b> process, which consists of the File Server, Volume Server and Salavager (fileserver,
422 volserver and salvager processes).
423 </p>
424 <pre>
425 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos create &lt;server name&gt; fs fs /usr/afs/bin/fileserver
426 /usr/afs/bin/volserver
427 /usr/afs/bin/salvager
428 -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
429 </pre>
430 <p>
431 Verify that all processes are running
432 </p>
433 <pre>
434 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos status &lt;server name&gt; -long -noauth</i>
435 Instance kaserver, (type is simple) currently running normally.
436 Process last started at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001 (2 proc starts)
437 Last exit at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001
438 Command 1 is '/usr/afs/bin/kaserver'
439
440 Instance buserver, (type is simple) currently running normally.
441 Process last started at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001 (2 proc starts)
442 Last exit at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001
443 Command 1 is '/usr/afs/bin/buserver'
444
445 Instance ptserver, (type is simple) currently running normally.
446 Process last started at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001 (2 proc starts)
447 Last exit at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001
448 Command 1 is '/usr/afs/bin/ptserver'
449
450 Instance vlserver, (type is simple) currently running normally.
451 Process last started at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001 (2 proc starts)
452 Last exit at Mon Jun 4 21:07:17 2001
453 Command 1 is '/usr/afs/bin/vlserver'
454
455 Instance fs, (type is fs) currently running normally.
456 Auxiliary status is: file server running.
457 Process last started at Mon Jun 4 21:09:30 2001 (2 proc starts)
458 Command 1 is '/usr/afs/bin/fileserver'
459 Command 2 is '/usr/afs/bin/volserver'
460 Command 3 is '/usr/afs/bin/salvager'
461 </pre>
462 <p>
463 Your next action depends on whether you have ever run AFS file server machines
464 in the cell:
465 </p>
466 <p>
467 If you are installing the first AFS Server ever in the cell create the
468 first AFS volume, <b>root.afs</b>
469 </p>
470 <note>
471 For the partition name argument, substitute the name of one of the machine's
472 AFS Server partitions. By convention
473 these partitions are named <path>/vicex</path>, where x is in the range of a-z.
474 </note>
475 <pre>
476 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/vos create &lt;server name&gt;
477 &lt;partition name&gt; root.afs
478 -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
479 </pre>
480 <p>
481 If there are existing AFS file server machines and volumes in the cell
482 issue the <b>vos sncvldb</b> and <b>vos
483 syncserv</b> commands to synchronize the VLDB (Volume Location Database) with
484 the actual state of volumes on the local machine. This will copy all necessary data to your
485 new server.
486 </p>
487 <pre>
488 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/vos syncvldb &lt;server name&gt; -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -verbose -noauth</i>
489 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/vos syncserv &lt;server name&gt; -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -verbose -noauth</i>
490 </pre>
491 </body>
492 </section>
493 <section>
494 <title>Starting the Server Portion of the Update Server</title>
495 <body>
496 <pre>
497 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/bos create &lt;server name&gt;
498 upserver simple "/usr/afs/bin/upserver
499 -crypt /usr/afs/etc -clear /usr/afs/bin"
500 -cell &lt;cell name&gt; -noauth</i>
501 </pre>
502 </body>
503 </section>
504 <section>
505 <title>Configuring the Top Level of the AFS filespace</title>
506 <body>
507 <p>
508 First you need to set some acl's, so that any user can lookup <path>/afs</path>.
509 </p>
510 <pre>
511 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/fs setacl /afs system:anyuser rl</i>
512 </pre>
513 <p>
514 The you need to create the root volume, mount it readonly on <path>/afs/&lt;cell name&gt;</path> and read/write
515 on <path>/afs/.&lt;cell name&gt;</path>
516 <pre>
517 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/vos create &lt;server name&gt;&lt;partition name&gt; root.cell</i>
518 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/fs mkmount /afs/&lt;cell name&gt; root.cell </i>
519 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/fs setacl /afs/&lt;cell name&gt; system:anyuser rl</i>
520 # <i>/usr/afs/bin/fs mkmount /afs/.&lt;cell name&gt; root.cell -rw</i>
521 </pre>
522 </p>
523 <p>
524 Finally you're done !!! You should now have a working AFS file server
525 on your local network. Time to get a big
526 cup of coffee and print out the AFS documentation !!!
527 </p>
528 <note>
529 It is very important for the AFS server to function properly, that all system
530 clock's are synchronized.
531 This is best
532 accomplished by installing a ntp server on one machine (e.g. the AFS server)
533 and synchronize all client clock's
534 with the ntp client. This can also be done by the afs client.
535 </note>
536 </body>
537 </section>
538
539 </chapter>
540
541 <chapter>
542 <title>Basic Administration</title>
543 <section>
544 <title></title>
545 <body>
546 <p>To be done ... For now read the AFS Documentation :)</p>
547 </body>
548 </section>
549 </chapter>
550 </guide>

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