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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml,v 1.25 2007/03/15 19:24:34 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 <guide link="/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml">
5 <title>Power Management Guide</title>
6
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="earthwings@gentoo.org">Dennis Nienhüser</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Editor">
11 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
15 </author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 Power Management is the key to extend battery run time on mobile systems like
19 laptops. This guide assists you setting it up on your laptop.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
23 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
24 <license/>
25
26 <version>1.32</version>
27 <date>2007-04-15</date>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>Introduction</title>
31 <section>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 Capacity and lifetime of laptop batteries have improved much in the last years.
36 Nevertheless modern processors consume much more energy than older ones and
37 each laptop generation introduces more devices hungry for energy. That's why
38 Power Management is more important than ever. Increasing battery run time
39 doesn't necessarily mean buying another battery. Much can be achieved applying
40 intelligent Power Management policies.
41 </p>
42
43 </body>
44 </section>
45 <section>
46 <title>A Quick Overview</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 Please notice that this guide describes Power Management for <e>laptops</e>.
51 While some sections might also suite for <e>servers</e>, others do not and may
52 even cause harm. Please do not apply anything from this guide to a server
53 unless you really know what you are doing.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 As this guide has become rather long, here's a short overview helping you to
58 find your way through it.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 The <uri link="#doc_chap2">Prerequisites</uri> chapter talks about some
63 requirements that should be met before any of the following device individual
64 sections will work. This includes BIOS settings, kernel configuration and some
65 simplifications in user land. The following three chapters focus on devices
66 that typically consume most energy - processor, display and hard drive. Each
67 can be configured seperately. <uri link="#doc_chap3">CPU Power Management</uri>
68 shows how to adjust the processor's frequency to save a maximum of energy
69 without losing too much performance. A few different tricks prevent your hard
70 drive from working unnecessarily often in <uri link="#doc_chap5">Disk Power
71 Management</uri> (decreasing noise level as a nice side effect). Some notes on
72 graphics cards, Wireless LAN and USB finish the device section in <uri
73 link="#doc_chap6">Power Management For Other Devices</uri> while another
74 chapter is dedicated to the (rather experimental) <uri link="#doc_chap7">sleep
75 states</uri>. Last not least <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri> lists
76 common pitfalls.
77 </p>
78
79 </body>
80 </section>
81 <section>
82 <title>Power Budget For Each Component</title>
83 <body>
84
85 <figure link="/images/energy-budget.png" short="Which component consumes how
86 much energy?" caption="Power budget for each component"/>
87
88 <p>
89 Nearly every component can operate in different states - off, sleep, idle,
90 active to name a few - consuming a different amount of energy. Major parts are
91 consumed by the LCD display, CPU, chipset and hard drives. Often one is able to
92 activate OS-independent Power Management in the BIOS, but an intelligent setup
93 in the operating system adapting to different situations can achieve much more.
94 </p>
95
96 </body>
97 </section>
98 </chapter>
99
100 <chapter>
101 <title>Prerequisites</title>
102 <section>
103 <body>
104
105 <p>
106 Before discussing the details of making individual devices Power Management
107 aware, make sure certain requirements are met. After controlling BIOS settings,
108 some kernel options want to be enabled - these are in short ACPI, sleep states
109 and CPU frequency scaling. As power saving most of the time comes along with
110 performance loss or increased latency, it should only be enabled when running
111 on batteries. That's where a new runlevel <e>battery</e> comes in handy.
112 </p>
113
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 <section>
117 <title>The BIOS Part</title>
118 <body>
119
120 <p>
121 First have a look into your BIOS Power Management settings. The best way is to
122 combine BIOS and operating system policies, but for the moment it's better to
123 disable most of the BIOS part. This makes sure it doesn't interfere with your
124 policies. Don't forget to re-check BIOS settings after you configured
125 everything else.
126 </p>
127
128 </body>
129 </section>
130 <section>
131 <title>Setting USE Flags</title>
132 <body>
133
134 <p>
135 Please check that the <c>acpi</c> USE flag is set in
136 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Other USE flags that might be interesting for your
137 system are <c>apm</c>, <c>lm_sensors</c>, <c>nforce2</c>, <c>nvidia</c>,
138 <c>pmu</c>. See <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use*.desc</path> for details. If
139 you forgot to set one of these flags, you can recompile affected packages using
140 the <c>--newuse</c> flag in <c>emerge</c>, see <c>man emerge</c>.
141 </p>
142
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>Configuring The Kernel</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support in the kernel is
151 still work in progress. Using a recent kernel will make sure you'll get the
152 most out of it.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 There are different kernel sources in Portage. I'd recommend using
157 <c>gentoo-sources</c> or <c>suspend2-sources</c>. The latter contains patches
158 for Software Suspend 2, see the chapter about <uri link="#doc_chap7">sleep
159 states</uri> for more details. When configuring the kernel, activate at least
160 these options:
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Minimum kernel setup for Power Management (Kernel 2.6)">
164 Power Management Options ---&gt;
165 [*] Power Management Support
166 [ ] Software Suspend
167
168 ACPI( Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ) Support ---&gt;
169 [*] ACPI Support
170 [ ] Sleep States
171 [ ] /proc/acpi/sleep (deprecated)
172 [*] AC Adapter
173 [*] Battery
174 &lt;M&gt; Button
175 &lt;M&gt; Video
176 [ ] Generic Hotkey
177 &lt;M&gt; Fan
178 &lt;M&gt; Processor
179 &lt;M&gt; Thermal Zone
180 &lt; &gt; ASUS/Medion Laptop Extras
181 &lt; &gt; IBM ThinkPad Laptop Extras
182 &lt; &gt; Toshiba Laptop Extras
183 (0) Disable ACPI for systems before Jan 1st this year
184 [ ] Debug Statements
185 [*] Power Management Timer Support
186 &lt; &gt; ACPI0004,PNP0A05 and PNP0A06 Container Driver (EXPERIMENTAL)
187
188 CPU Frequency Scaling ---&gt;
189 [*] CPU Frequency scaling
190 [ ] Enable CPUfreq debugging
191 &lt; &gt; CPU frequency translation statistics
192 [ ] CPU frequency translation statistics details
193 Default CPUFreq governor (userspace)
194 &lt;*&gt; 'performance' governor
195 &lt;*&gt; 'powersave' governor
196 &lt;*&gt; 'ondemand' cpufreq policy governor
197 &lt;*&gt; 'conservative' cpufreq governor
198 &lt;*&gt; CPU frequency table helpers
199 &lt;M&gt; ACPI Processor P-States driver
200 &lt;*&gt; <i>CPUFreq driver for your processor</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 Decide yourself whether you want to enable Software Suspend, and Sleep States
205 (see below). If you own an ASUS, Medion, IBM Thinkpad or Toshiba laptop, enable
206 the appropriate section.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 The kernel has to know how to enable CPU frequency scaling on your processor.
211 As each type of CPU has a different interface, you've got to choose the right
212 driver for your processor. Be careful here - enabling <c>Intel Pentium 4 clock
213 modulation</c> on a Pentium M system will lead to strange results for example.
214 Consult the kernel documentation if you're unsure which one to take.
215 </p>
216
217 <p>
218 Compile your kernel, make sure the right modules get loaded at startup and boot
219 into your new ACPI-enabled kernel. Next run <c>emerge sys-power/acpid</c> to
220 get the acpi daemon. This one informs you about events like switching from AC
221 to battery or closing the lid. Make sure the modules are loaded if you didn't
222 compile them into the kernel and start acpid by executing <c>/etc/init.d/acpid
223 start</c>. Run <c>rc-update add acpid default</c> to load it on startup. You'll
224 soon see how to use it.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Installing acpid">
228 # <i>emerge sys-power/acpid</i>
229 # <i>/etc/init.d/acpid start</i>
230 # <i>rc-update add acpid default</i>
231 </pre>
232
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>Creating A "battery" Runlevel</title>
237 <body>
238
239 <p>
240 The default policy will be to enable Power Management only when needed -
241 running on batteries. To make the switch between AC and battery convenient,
242 create a runlevel <c>battery</c> that holds all the scripts starting and
243 stopping Power Management.
244 </p>
245
246 <note>
247 You can safely skip this section if you don't like the idea of having another
248 runlevel. However, skipping this step will make the rest a bit trickier to set
249 up. The next sections assume a runlevel <c>battery</c> exists.
250 </note>
251
252 <pre caption="Creating a battery runlevel">
253 # <i>cd /etc/runlevels</i>
254 # <i>cp -a default battery</i>
255 </pre>
256
257 <p>
258 Finished. Your new runlevel <c>battery</c> contains everything like
259 <c>default</c>, but there is no automatic switch between both yet. Time to
260 change it.
261 </p>
262
263 </body>
264 </section>
265 <section>
266 <title>Reacting On ACPI Events</title>
267 <body>
268
269 <p>
270 Typical ACPI events are closing the lid, changing the power source or pressing
271 the sleep button. An important event is changing the power source, which should
272 cause a runlevel switch. A small script will take care of it.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 First you need a script which changes the runlevel to <c>default</c>
277 respectively <c>battery</c> depending on the power source. The script uses the
278 <c>on_ac_power</c> command from <c>sys-power/powermgmt-base</c> - make sure the
279 package is installed on your system.
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="Installing powermgt-base">
283 # <i>emerge powermgmt-base</i>
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>
287 You are now able to determine the power source by executing <c>on_ac_power
288 &amp;&amp; echo AC available || echo Running on batteries</c> in a shell. The
289 script below is responsible for changing runlevels. Save it as
290 <path>/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</path>.
291 </p>
292
293 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh">
294 #!/bin/bash
295
296 <comment># BEGIN configuration</comment>
297 RUNLEVEL_AC="default"
298 RUNLEVEL_BATTERY="battery"
299 <comment># END configuration</comment>
300
301
302 if [ ! -d "/etc/runlevels/${RUNLEVEL_AC}" ]
303 then
304 logger "${0}: Runlevel ${RUNLEVEL_AC} does not exist. Aborting."
305 exit 1
306 fi
307
308 if [ ! -d "/etc/runlevels/${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}" ]
309 then
310 logger "${0}: Runlevel ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY} does not exist. Aborting."
311 exit 1
312 fi
313
314 if on_ac_power
315 then
316 if [[ "$(&lt;/var/lib/init.d/softlevel)" != "${RUNLEVEL_AC}" ]]
317 then
318 logger "Switching to ${RUNLEVEL_AC} runlevel"
319 /sbin/rc ${RUNLEVEL_AC}
320 fi
321 elif [[ "$(&lt;/var/lib/init.d/softlevel)" != "${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}" ]]
322 then
323 logger "Switching to ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY} runlevel"
324 /sbin/rc ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}
325 fi
326 </pre>
327
328 <p>
329 Dont forget to run <c>chmod +x /etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</c> to
330 make the script executable. The last thing that needs to be done is calling the
331 script whenever the power source changes. That's done by catching ACPI events
332 with the help of <c>acpid</c>. First you need to know which events are
333 generated when the power source changes. The events are called
334 <c>ac_adapter</c> and <c>battery</c> on most laptops, but it might be different
335 on yours.
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Determining ACPI events for changing the power source">
339 # <i>tail -f /var/log/acpid | grep "received event"</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 Run the command above and pull the power cable. You should see something like
344 this:
345 </p>
346
347 <pre caption="Sample output for power source changes">
348 [Tue Sep 20 17:39:06 2005] received event "ac_adapter AC 00000080 00000000"
349 [Tue Sep 20 17:39:06 2005] received event "battery BAT0 00000080 00000001"
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 The interesting part is the quoted string after <c>received event</c>. It will
354 be matched by the event line in the files you are going to create below. Don't
355 worry if your system generates multiple events or always the same. As long as
356 any event is generated, runlevel changing will work.
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/events/pmg_ac_adapter">
360 <comment># replace "ac_adapter" below with the event generated on your laptop</comment>
361 <comment># For example, ac_adapter.* will match ac_adapter AC 00000080 00000000</comment>
362 event=ac_adapter.*
363 action=/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh %e
364 </pre>
365
366 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/events/pmg_battery">
367 <comment># replace "battery" below with the event generated on your laptop</comment>
368 <comment># For example, battery.* will match battery BAT0 00000080 00000001</comment>
369 event=battery.*
370 action=/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh %e
371 </pre>
372
373 <p>
374 Finally acpid has to be restarted to recognize the changes.
375 </p>
376
377 <pre caption="Finishing runlevel switching with acpid">
378 # <i>/etc/init.d/acpid restart</i>
379 </pre>
380
381 <p>
382 Give it a try: Plug AC in and out and watch syslog for the "Switching to AC
383 mode" or "Switching to battery mode" messages. See the <uri
384 link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting section</uri> if the script is not able to
385 detect the power source correctly.
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 Due to the nature of the event mechanism, your laptop will boot into runlevel
390 <c>default</c> regardless of the AC/battery state. This is fine when running
391 from AC, but we'd like to boot into the battery runlevel otherwise. One
392 solution would be to add another entry to the boot loader with the parameter
393 <c>softlevel=battery</c>, but it's likely to forget choosing it. A better way
394 is faking an ACPI event in the end of the boot process and letting
395 <path>pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</path> script decide whether a runlevel change is
396 necessary. Open <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> in your favourite editor
397 and add these lines:
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Runlevel adjustment at boot time by editing local.start">
401 <comment># Fake acpi event to switch runlevel if running on batteries</comment>
402 /etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh "battery/battery"
403 </pre>
404
405 <p>
406 Prepared like this you can activate Power Management policies for individual
407 devices.
408 </p>
409
410 </body>
411 </section>
412 </chapter>
413
414 <chapter>
415 <title>CPU Power Management</title>
416 <section>
417 <body>
418
419 <p>
420 Mobile processors can operate at different frequencies. Some allow changing
421 voltage as well. Most of the time your CPU doesn't need to run at full speed
422 and scaling it down will save much energy - often without any performance
423 decrease.
424 </p>
425
426 </body>
427 </section>
428 <section>
429 <title>Some Technical Terms</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 CPU frequency scaling brings up some technical terms that might be unknown to
434 you. Here's a quick introduction.
435 </p>
436
437 <p>
438 First of all, the kernel has to be able to change the processor's frequency.
439 The <b>CPUfreq processor driver</b> knows the commands to do it on your CPU.
440 Thus it's important to choose the right one in your kernel. You should already
441 have done it above. Once the kernel knows how to change frequencies, it has to
442 know which frequency it should set. This is done according to the <b>policy</b>
443 which consists of a <b>CPUfreq policy</b> and a <b>governor</b>. A CPUfreq
444 policy are just two numbers which define a range the frequency has to stay
445 between - minimal and maximal frequency. The governor now decides which of the
446 available frequencies in between minimal and maximal frequency to choose. For
447 example, the <b>powersave governor</b> always chooses the lowest frequency
448 available, the <b>performance governor</b> the highest one. The <b>userspace
449 governor</b> makes no decision but chooses whatever the user (or a program in
450 userspace) wants - which means it reads the frequency from
451 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_setspeed</path>.
452 </p>
453
454 <p>
455 This doesn't sound like dynamic frequency changes yet and in fact it isn't.
456 Dynamics however can be accomplished with various approaches. For example, the
457 <b>ondemand governor</b> makes its decisions depending on the current CPU load.
458 The same is done by various userland tools like <c>cpudyn</c>, <c>cpufreqd</c>,
459 <c>powernowd</c> and many more. ACPI events can be used to enable or disable
460 dynamic frequency changes depending on power source.
461 </p>
462
463 </body>
464 </section>
465 <section>
466 <title>Setting The Frequency Manually</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 Decreasing CPU speed and voltage has two advantages: On the one hand less
471 energy is consumed, on the other hand there is thermal improvement as your
472 system doesn't get as hot as running on full speed. The main disadvantage is
473 obviously the loss of performance. Decreasing processor speed is a trade off
474 between performance loss and energy saving.
475 </p>
476
477 <note>
478 Not every laptop supports frequency scaling. If unsure, have a look at the list
479 of supported processors in the <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri>
480 section to verify yours is supported.
481 </note>
482
483 <p>
484 It's time to test whether CPU frequency changing works. Let's install another
485 tool which is very handy for debugging purposes: <c>sys-power/cpufrequtils</c>
486 </p>
487
488 <pre caption="Checking CPU frequency">
489 # <i>emerge cpufrequtils</i>
490 # <i>cpufreq-info</i>
491 </pre>
492
493 <p>
494 Here is an example output:
495 </p>
496
497 <pre caption="Sample output from cpufreq-info">
498 cpufrequtils 0.3: cpufreq-info (C) Dominik Brodowski 2004
499 Report errors and bugs to linux@brodo.de, please.
500 analyzing CPU 0:
501 driver: centrino
502 CPUs which need to switch frequency at the same time: 0
503 hardware limits: 600 MHz - 1.40 GHz
504 available frequency steps: 600 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz, 1.20 GHz, 1.40 GHz
505 available cpufreq governors: conservative, ondemand, powersave, userspace, performance
506 current policy: frequency should be within 924 MHz and 1.40 GHz.
507 The governor "performance" may decide which speed to use
508 within this range.
509 current CPU frequency is 1.40 GHz.
510 </pre>
511
512 <p>
513 Now play around with <c>cpufreq-set</c> to make sure frequency switching works.
514 Run <c>cpufreq-set -g ondemand</c> for example to activate the ondemand
515 governor and verify the change with <c>cpufreq-info</c>. If it doesn't work as
516 expected, you might find help in the <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting
517 section</uri> in the end of this guide.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </section>
522 <section>
523 <title>Automated frequency adaption</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 The above is quite nice, but not doable in daily life. Better let your system
528 set the appropriate frequency automatically. There are many different
529 approaches to do this. The following table gives a quick overview to help you
530 decide on one of them. It's roughly separated in three categories <b>kernel</b>
531 for approaches that only need kernel support, <b>daemon</b> for programs that
532 run in the background and <b>graphical</b> for programs that provide a GUI for
533 easy configuration and changes.
534 </p>
535
536 <table>
537 <tr>
538 <th>Name</th>
539 <th>Category</th>
540 <th>Switch decision</th>
541 <th>Kernel governors</th>
542 <th>Further governors</th>
543 <th>Comments</th>
544 </tr>
545 <tr>
546 <ti>'ondemand' governor</ti>
547 <ti>Kernel</ti>
548 <ti>CPU load</ti>
549 <ti>N.A.</ti>
550 <ti>N.A.</ti>
551 <ti>
552 Chooses maximal frequency on CPU load and slowly steps down when the CPU is
553 idle. Further tuning through files in
554 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/</path>. Still requires
555 userland tools (programs, scripts) if governor switching or similar is
556 desired.
557 </ti>
558 </tr>
559 <tr>
560 <ti>'conservative' governor</ti>
561 <ti>Kernel</ti>
562 <ti>CPU load</ti>
563 <ti>N.A.</ti>
564 <ti>N.A.</ti>
565 <ti>
566 Unlike the ondemand governor, conversative doesn't jump to maximum
567 frequency when CPU load is high, but increases the frequency step by step.
568 Further tuning through files in
569 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/</path>. Still requires
570 userland tools (programs, scripts) if governor switching or similar is
571 desired.
572 </ti>
573 </tr>
574 <tr>
575 <ti><uri link="http://mnm.uib.es/~gallir/cpudyn/">cpudyn</uri></ti>
576 <ti>Daemon</ti>
577 <ti>CPU load</ti>
578 <ti>Performance, powersave</ti>
579 <ti>Dynamic</ti>
580 <ti>
581 Also supports disk standby - notice however that <e>laptop mode</e> in most
582 cases will do a better job.
583 </ti>
584 </tr>
585 <tr>
586 <ti><uri link="http://sourceforge.net/projects/cpufreqd/">cpufreqd</uri></ti>
587 <ti>Daemon</ti>
588 <ti>Battery state, CPU load, temperature, running programs and more</ti>
589 <ti>All available</ti>
590 <ti>None</ti>
591 <ti>
592 Sophisticated (but somewhat complicated) setup. Extendible through plugins
593 like sensor monitoring (lm_sensors) or coordinating some NVidia based
594 graphics card memory and core. Cpufreqd is SMP aware and can optionally be
595 controlled manually at runtime.
596 </ti>
597 </tr>
598 <tr>
599 <ti>
600 <uri link="http://www.deater.net/john/powernowd.html">powernowd</uri>
601 </ti>
602 <ti>Daemon</ti>
603 <ti>CPU load</ti>
604 <ti>None</ti>
605 <ti>Passive, sine, aggressive</ti>
606 <ti>
607 Supports SMP.
608 </ti>
609 </tr>
610 <tr>
611 <ti>
612 <uri
613 link="http://fatcat.ftj.agh.edu.pl/~nelchael/index.php?cat=projs&amp;subcat=ncpufreqd&amp;language=en">ncpufreqd</uri>
614 </ti>
615 <ti>Daemon</ti>
616 <ti>Temperature</ti>
617 <ti>None</ti>
618 <ti>Powersave, performance</ti>
619 <ti>
620 Toggles the used governor between performance and powersave depending on
621 system temperature. Very useful on laptops with notorious heat problems.
622 </ti>
623 </tr>
624 <tr>
625 <ti><uri link="http://www.goop.org/~jeremy/speedfreq/">speedfreq</uri></ti>
626 <ti>Daemon</ti>
627 <ti>CPU load</ti>
628 <ti>None</ti>
629 <ti>Dynamic, powersave, performance, fixed speed</ti>
630 <ti>
631 Easy to configure with a nice client/server interface. Requires a 2.6
632 kernel. Unmaintained, broken and thus removed from Portage. Please switch
633 to cpufreqd if you're still using it.
634 </ti>
635 </tr>
636 <tr>
637 <ti><uri link="http://cpuspeedy.sourceforge.net/">gtk-cpuspeedy</uri></ti>
638 <ti>Graphical</ti>
639 <ti>None</ti>
640 <ti>None</ti>
641 <ti>None</ti>
642 <ti>
643 Gnome application, a graphical tool to set CPU frequency manually. It does
644 not offer any automation.
645 </ti>
646 </tr>
647 <tr>
648 <ti>klaptopdaemon</ti>
649 <ti>Graphical</ti>
650 <ti>Battery state</ti>
651 <ti>All available</ti>
652 <ti>None</ti>
653 <ti>
654 KDE only, 'ondemand' governor required for dynamic frequency scaling.
655 </ti>
656 </tr>
657 </table>
658
659 <p>
660 While adjusting the frequency to the current load looks simple at a first
661 glance, it's not such a trivial task. A bad algorithm can cause switching
662 between two frequencies all the time or wasting energy when setting frequency
663 to an unnecessary high level.
664 </p>
665
666 <p>
667 Which one to choose? If you have no idea about it, try <c>cpufreqd</c>:
668 </p>
669
670 <pre caption="Installing cpufreqd">
671 # <i>emerge cpufreqd</i>
672 </pre>
673
674 <p>
675 <c>cpufreqd</c> can be configured by editing <path>/etc/cpufreqd.conf</path>.
676 The default one that ships with cpufreqd may look a bit confusing. I recommend
677 replacing it with the one from former Gentoo developer Henrik Brix Andersen
678 (see below). Please notice that you need cpufreqd-2.0.0 or later. Earlier
679 versions have a different syntax for the config file.
680 </p>
681
682 <pre caption="/etc/cpufreqd.conf (cpufreqd-2.0.0 and later)">
683 [General]
684 pidfile=/var/run/cpufreqd.pid
685 poll_interval=3
686 enable_plugins=acpi_ac, acpi_battery
687 enable_remote=1
688 remote_group=wheel
689 verbosity=5
690 [/General]
691
692 [Profile]
693 name=ondemand
694 minfreq=0%
695 maxfreq=100%
696 policy=ondemand
697 [/Profile]
698
699 [Profile]
700 name=conservative
701 minfreq=0%
702 maxfreq=100%
703 policy=conservative
704 [/Profile]
705
706 [Profile]
707 name=powersave
708 minfreq=0%
709 maxfreq=100%
710 policy=powersave
711 [/Profile]
712
713 [Profile]
714 name=performance
715 minfreq=0%
716 maxfreq=100%
717 policy=performance
718 [/Profile]
719
720 [Rule]
721 name=battery
722 ac=off
723 profile=conservative
724 [/Rule]
725
726 [Rule]
727 name=battery_low
728 ac=off
729 battery_interval=0-10
730 profile=powersave
731 [/Rule]
732
733 [Rule]
734 name=ac
735 ac=on
736 profile=ondemand
737 [/Rule]
738 </pre>
739
740 <p>
741 Now you can start the cpufreqd daemon. Add it to the <c>default</c> and
742 <c>battery</c> runlevel as well.
743 </p>
744
745 <pre caption="Starting cpufreqd">
746 # <i>rc-update add cpufreqd default battery</i>
747 # <i>rc</i>
748 </pre>
749
750 <p>
751 Sometimes it can be desirable to select another policy than the daemon chooses,
752 for example when battery power is low, but you know that AC will be available
753 soon. In that case you can turn on cpufreqd's manual mode with <c>cpufreqd-set
754 manual</c> and select one of your configured policies (as listed by
755 <c>cpufreqd-get</c>). You can leave manual mode by executing <c>cpufreqd-set
756 dynamic</c>.
757 </p>
758
759 <warn>
760 Do not run more than one of the above programs at the same time. It may cause
761 confusion like switching between two frequencies all the time.
762 </warn>
763
764 </body>
765 </section>
766 <section>
767 <title>Verifying the result</title>
768 <body>
769
770 <p>
771 The last thing to check is that your new policies do a good job. An easy way to
772 do so is monitoring CPU speed while working with your laptop:
773 </p>
774
775 <pre caption="Monitoring CPU speed">
776 # <i>watch grep \"cpu MHz\" /proc/cpuinfo</i>
777 </pre>
778
779 <p>
780 If <path>/proc/cpuinfo</path> doesn't get updated (see <uri
781 link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri>), monitor the CPU frequency with:
782 </p>
783
784 <pre caption="Alternative CPU speed monitoring">
785 # <i>watch x86info -mhz</i>
786 </pre>
787
788 <p>
789 Depending on your setup, CPU speed should increase on heavy load, decrease on
790 no activity or just stay at the same level. When using <c>cpufreqd</c> and
791 verbosity set to 5 or higher in <path>cpufreqd.conf</path> you'll get
792 additional information about what's happening reported to <c>syslog</c>.
793 </p>
794
795 </body>
796 </section>
797 </chapter>
798
799 <chapter>
800 <title>LCD Power Management</title>
801 <section>
802 <body>
803
804 <p>
805 As you can see in <uri link="#doc_chap1_fig1">figure 1.1</uri>, the LCD
806 display consumes the biggest part of energy (might not be the case for
807 non-mobile CPU's). Thus it's quite important not only to shut the display off
808 when not needed, but also to reduce it's backlight if possible. Most laptops
809 offer the possibility to control the backlight dimming.
810 </p>
811
812 </body>
813 </section>
814 <section>
815 <title>Standby settings</title>
816 <body>
817
818 <p>
819 The first thing to check is the standby/suspend/off timings of the display. As
820 this depends heavily on your windowmanager, I'll let you figure it out
821 yourself. Just two common places: Blanking the terminal can be done with
822 <c>setterm -blank &lt;number-of-minutesM&gt;</c>, <c>setterm -powersave on</c>
823 and <c>setterm -powerdown &lt;number-of-minutesM&gt;</c>. For X.org, modify
824 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> similar to this:
825 </p>
826
827 <pre caption="LCD suspend settings in X.org and XFree86">
828 Section "ServerLayout"
829 Identifier [...]
830 [...]
831 Option "BlankTime" "5" <comment># Blank the screen after 5 minutes (Fake)</comment>
832 Option "StandbyTime" "10" <comment># Turn off screen after 10 minutes (DPMS)</comment>
833 Option "SuspendTime" "20" <comment># Full suspend after 20 minutes</comment>
834 Option "OffTime" "30" <comment># Turn off after half an hour</comment>
835 [...]
836 EndSection
837
838 [...]
839
840 Section "Monitor"
841 Identifier [...]
842 Option "DPMS" "true"
843 [...]
844 EndSection
845 </pre>
846
847 <p>
848 This is the same for XFree86 and <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path>.
849 </p>
850
851 </body>
852 </section>
853 <section>
854 <title>Backlight dimming</title>
855 <body>
856
857 <p>
858 Probably more important is the backlight dimming. If you have access to the
859 dimming settings via a tool, write a small script that dims the backlight in
860 battery mode and place it in your <c>battery</c> runlevel. The following script
861 should work on most IBM Thinkpads and Toshiba laptops. You've got to enable the
862 appropriate option in your kernel (IBM Thinkpads only). For Toshiba laptops,
863 install <c>sys-power/acpitool</c> and skip configuration of <c>ibm_acpi</c> as
864 described below.
865 </p>
866
867 <warn>
868 Support for setting brightness is marked experimental in ibm-acpi. It accesses
869 hardware directly and may cause severe harm to your system. Please read the
870 <uri link="http://ibm-acpi.sourceforge.net/">ibm-acpi website</uri>
871 </warn>
872
873 <p>
874 To be able to set the brightness level, the ibm_acpi module has to be loaded
875 with the experimental parameter.
876 </p>
877
878 <pre caption="automatically loading the ibm_acpi module">
879 <comment>(Please read the warnings above before doing this!)</comment>
880 # <i>echo "options ibm_acpi experimental=1" >> /etc/modules.d/ibm_acpi</i>
881 # <i>/sbin/update-modules</i>
882 # <i>echo ibm_acpi >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
883 # <i>modprobe ibm_acpi</i>
884 </pre>
885
886 <p>
887 This should work without error messages and a file
888 <path>/proc/acpi/ibm/brightness</path> should be created after loading the
889 module. An init script will take care of choosing the brightness according to
890 the power source.
891 </p>
892
893 <pre caption="/etc/conf.d/lcd-brightness">
894 <comment># See /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness for available values</comment>
895 <comment># Please read /usr/src/linux/Documentation/ibm-acpi.txt</comment>
896
897 <comment># brightness level in ac mode. Default is 7.</comment>
898 BRIGHTNESS_AC=7
899
900 <comment># brightness level in battery mode. Default is 4.</comment>
901 BRIGHTNESS_BATTERY=4
902 </pre>
903
904 <pre caption="/etc/init.d/lcd-brightness">
905 #!/sbin/runscript
906
907 set_brightness() {
908 if on_ac_power
909 then
910 LEVEL=${BRIGHTNESS_AC:-7}
911 else
912 LEVEL=${BRIGHTNESS_BATTERY:-4}
913 fi
914
915 if [ -f /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness ]
916 then
917 ebegin "Setting LCD brightness"
918 echo "level ${LEVEL}" > /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
919 eend $?
920 elif [[ -e /usr/bin/acpitool &amp;&amp; -n $(acpitool -T | grep "LCD brightness") ]]
921 then
922 ebegin "Setting LCD brightness"
923 acpitool -l $LEVEL >/dev/null || ewarn "Unable to set lcd brightness"
924 eend $?
925 else
926 ewarn "Setting LCD brightness is not supported."
927 ewarn "For IBM Thinkpads, check that ibm_acpi is loaded into the kernel"
928 ewarn "For Toshiba laptops, you've got to install sys-power/acpitool"
929 fi
930 }
931
932 start() {
933 set_brightness
934 }
935
936 stop () {
937 set_brightness
938 }
939 </pre>
940
941 <p>
942 When done, make sure brightness is adjusted automatically by adding it to the
943 battery runlevel.
944 </p>
945
946 <pre caption="Enabling automatic brightness adjustment">
947 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/lcd-brightness</i>
948 # <i>rc-update add lcd-brightness battery</i>
949 # <i>rc</i>
950 </pre>
951
952 </body>
953 </section>
954 </chapter>
955
956 <chapter>
957 <title>Disk Power Management</title>
958 <section>
959 <body>
960
961 <p>
962 Hard disks consume less energy in sleep mode. Therefore it makes sense to
963 activate power saving features whenever the hard disk is not used for a certain
964 amount of time. I'll show you two alternative possibilities to do it. First,
965 laptop-mode will save most energy due to several measures which prevent or at
966 least delay write accesses. The drawback is that due to the delayed write
967 accesses a power outage or kernel crash will be more dangerous for data loss.
968 If you don't like this, you have to make sure that there are no processes which
969 write to your hard disk frequently. Afterwards you can enable power saving
970 features of your hard disk with <c>hdparm</c> as the second alternative.
971 </p>
972
973 </body>
974 </section>
975 <section>
976 <title>Increasing idle time - laptop-mode</title>
977 <body>
978
979 <p>
980 Recent kernels (2.6.6 and greater, recent 2.4 ones and others with patches)
981 include the so-called <c>laptop-mode</c>. When activated, dirty buffers are
982 written to disk on read calls or after 10 minutes (instead of 30 seconds). This
983 minimizes the time the hard disk needs to be spun up.
984 </p>
985
986 <pre caption="Automated start of laptop-mode">
987 # <i>emerge laptop-mode-tools</i>
988 </pre>
989
990 <p>
991 <c>laptop-mode-tools</c> has its configuration file in
992 <path>/etc/laptop-mode/laptop-mode.conf</path>. Adjust it the way you like it,
993 it's well commented. Run <c>rc-update add laptop_mode battery</c> to start it
994 automatically.
995 </p>
996
997 <p>
998 Recent versions (1.11 and later) of laptop-mode-tools include a new tool
999 <c>lm-profiler</c>. It will monitor your system's disk usage and running
1000 network services and suggests to disable unneeded ones. You can either disable
1001 them through laptop-mode-tools builtin runlevel support (which will be reverted
1002 by Gentoo's <c>/sbin/rc</c>) or use your <c>default</c>/<c>battery</c>
1003 runlevels (recommended).
1004 </p>
1005
1006 <pre caption="Sample output from running lm-profiler">
1007 # <i>lm-profiler</i>
1008 Profiling session started.
1009 Time remaining: 600 seconds
1010 [4296896.602000] amarokapp
1011 Time remaining: 599 seconds
1012 [4296897.714000] sort
1013 [4296897.970000] mv
1014 Time remaining: 598 seconds
1015 Time remaining: 597 seconds
1016 [4296900.482000] reiserfs/0
1017 </pre>
1018
1019 <p>
1020 After profiling your system for ten minutes, lm-profiler will present a list of
1021 services which might have caused disk accesses during that time.
1022 </p>
1023
1024 <pre caption="lm-profiler suggests to disable some services">
1025 Program: "atd"
1026 Reason: standard recommendation (program may not be running)
1027 Init script: /etc/init.d/atd (GUESSED)
1028
1029 Do you want to disable this service in battery mode? [y/N]: <i>n</i>
1030 </pre>
1031
1032 <p>
1033 To disable atd as suggested in the example above, you would run <c>rc-update
1034 del atd battery</c>. Be careful not to disable services that are needed for
1035 your system to run properly - <c>lm-profiler</c> is likely to generate some
1036 false positives. Do not disable a service if you are unsure whether it's
1037 needed.
1038 </p>
1039
1040 </body>
1041 </section>
1042 <section>
1043 <title>Limiting Write Accesses</title>
1044 <body>
1045
1046 <p>
1047 If you don't want to use laptop-mode, you must take special care to disable
1048 services that write to your disk frequently - <c>syslogd</c> is a good
1049 candidate, for example. You probably don't want to shut it down completely, but
1050 it's possible to modify the config file so that "unnecessary" things don't get
1051 logged and thus don't create disk traffic. <c>Cups</c> writes to disk
1052 periodically, so consider shutting it down and only enable it manually when
1053 needed.
1054 </p>
1055
1056 <pre caption="Disabling cups in battery mode">
1057 # <i>rc-update del cupsd battery</i>
1058 </pre>
1059
1060 <p>
1061 You can also use <c>lm-profiler</c> from laptop-mode-tools (see above) to find
1062 services to disable. Once you eliminated all of them, go on with configuring
1063 hdparm.
1064 </p>
1065
1066 </body>
1067 </section>
1068 <section>
1069 <title>hdparm</title>
1070 <body>
1071
1072 <p>
1073 The second possibility is using a small script and <c>hdparm</c>. Skip this if
1074 you are using laptop-mode. Otherwise, create <path>/etc/init.d/pmg_hda</path>:
1075 </p>
1076
1077 <pre caption="Using hdparm for disk standby">
1078 #!/sbin/runscript
1079
1080 depend() {
1081 after hdparm
1082 }
1083
1084 start() {
1085 ebegin "Activating Power Management for Hard Drives"
1086 hdparm -q -S12 /dev/hda
1087 eend $?
1088 }
1089
1090 stop () {
1091 ebegin "Deactivating Power Management for Hard Drives"
1092 hdparm -q -S253 /dev/hda
1093 eend $?
1094 }
1095 </pre>
1096
1097 <p>
1098 See <c>man hdparm</c> for the options. If your script is ready, add it to the
1099 battery runlevel.
1100 </p>
1101
1102 <pre caption="Automate disk standby settings">
1103 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/pmg_hda</i>
1104 # <i>/sbin/depscan.sh</i>
1105 # <i>rc-update add pmg_hda battery</i>
1106 </pre>
1107
1108 <impo>
1109 Be careful with sleep/spin down settings of your hard drive. Setting it to
1110 small values might wear out your drive and lose warranty.
1111 </impo>
1112
1113 </body>
1114 </section>
1115 <section>
1116 <title>Other tricks</title>
1117 <body>
1118
1119 <p>
1120 Another possibility is to deactivate swap in battery mode. Before writing a
1121 swapon/swapoff switcher, make sure there is enough RAM and swap isn't used
1122 heavily, otherwise you'll be in big problems.
1123 </p>
1124
1125 <p>
1126 If you don't want to use laptop-mode, it's still possible to minimize disk
1127 access by mounting certain directories as <c>tmpfs</c> - write accesses are not
1128 stored on a disk, but in main memory and get lost with unmounting. Often it's
1129 useful to mount <path>/tmp</path> like this - you don't have to pay special
1130 attention as it gets cleared on every reboot regardless whether it was mounted
1131 on disk or in RAM. Just make sure you have enough RAM and no program (like a
1132 download client or compress utility) needs extraordinary much space in
1133 <path>/tmp</path>. To activate this, enable tmpfs support in your kernel and
1134 add a line to <path>/etc/fstab</path> like this:
1135 </p>
1136
1137 <pre caption="Editing /etc/fstab to make /tmp even more volatile">
1138 none /tmp tmpfs size=32m 0 0
1139 </pre>
1140
1141 <warn>
1142 Pay attention to the size parameter and modify it for your system. If you're
1143 unsure, don't try this at all, it can become a performance bottleneck easily. In
1144 case you want to mount <path>/var/log</path> like this, make sure to merge the
1145 log files to disk before unmounting. They are essential. Don't attempt to mount
1146 <path>/var/tmp</path> like this. Portage uses it for compiling...
1147 </warn>
1148
1149 </body>
1150 </section>
1151 </chapter>
1152
1153 <chapter>
1154 <title>Power Management For Other Devices</title>
1155 <section>
1156 <title>Graphics Cards</title>
1157 <body>
1158
1159 <p>
1160 In case you own an ATI graphics card supporting PowerPlay (dynamic clock
1161 scaling for the graphics processing unit GPU), you can activate this
1162 feature in X.org. Open <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> and add (or enable) the
1163 <c>DynamicClocks</c> option in the Device section. Please notice that this
1164 feature will lead to crashes on some systems.
1165 </p>
1166
1167 <pre caption="Enabling ATI PowerPlay support in X.org">
1168 Section "Device"
1169 [...]
1170 Option "DynamicClocks" "on"
1171 EndSection
1172 </pre>
1173
1174 </body>
1175 </section>
1176 <section>
1177 <title>Wireless Power Management</title>
1178 <body>
1179
1180 <p>
1181 Wireless LAN cards consume quite a bit of energy. Put them in Power Management
1182 mode in analogy to the <c>pmg_hda</c> script.
1183 </p>
1184
1185 <note>
1186 This script assumes your wireless interface is called <c>wlan0</c>; replace
1187 this with the actual name of your interface.
1188 </note>
1189
1190 <pre caption="WLAN Power Management automated">
1191 #!/sbin/runscript
1192 start() {
1193 ebegin "Activating Power Management for Wireless LAN"
1194 iwconfig wlan0 power on
1195 eend $?
1196 }
1197
1198 stop () {
1199 ebegin "Deactivating Power Management for Wireless LAN"
1200 iwconfig wlan0 power off
1201 eend $?
1202 }
1203 </pre>
1204
1205 <p>
1206 Starting this script will activate power saving features for wlan0. Save it as
1207 <path>/etc/init.d/pmg_wlan0</path> and add it to the battery runlevel like the
1208 disk script above. See <c>man iwconfig</c> for details and more options like
1209 the period between wakeups or timeout settings. If your driver and access point
1210 support changing the beacon time, this is a good starting point to save even
1211 more energy.
1212 </p>
1213
1214 <pre caption="Power Management for WLAN">
1215 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/pmg_wlan0</i>
1216 # <i>/sbin/depscan.sh</i>
1217 # <i>rc-update add pmg_wlan0 battery</i>
1218 </pre>
1219
1220 </body>
1221 </section>
1222 <section>
1223 <title>USB Power Management</title>
1224 <body>
1225
1226 <p>
1227 There are two problems with USB devices regarding energy consumption: First,
1228 devices like USB mice, digital cameras or USB sticks consume energy while
1229 plugged in. You cannot avoid this (nevertheless remove them in case they're not
1230 needed). Second, when there are USB devices plugged in, the USB host controller
1231 periodically accesses the bus which in turn prevents the CPU from going into
1232 sleep mode. The kernel offers an experimental option to enable suspension of
1233 USB devices through driver calls or one of the <path>power/state</path> files
1234 in <path>/sys</path>.
1235 </p>
1236
1237 <pre caption="Enabling USB suspend support in the kernel">
1238 Device Drivers
1239 USB support
1240 [*] Support for Host-side USB
1241 [*] USB suspend/resume (EXPERIMENTAL)
1242 </pre>
1243
1244 </body>
1245 </section>
1246 </chapter>
1247
1248 <chapter>
1249 <title>Sleep States: sleep, standby, and suspend to disk</title>
1250 <section>
1251 <body>
1252
1253 <p>
1254 ACPI defines different sleep states. The more important ones are
1255 </p>
1256
1257 <ul>
1258 <li>S1 aka Standby</li>
1259 <li>S3 aka Suspend to RAM aka Sleep</li>
1260 <li>S4 aka Suspend to Disk aka Hibernate</li>
1261 </ul>
1262
1263 <p>
1264 They can be called whenever the system is not in use, but a shutdown is not
1265 wanted due to the long boot time.
1266 </p>
1267
1268 </body>
1269 </section>
1270 <section>
1271 <title>Sleep (S3)</title>
1272 <body>
1273
1274 <p>
1275 The ACPI support for these sleep states is marked experimental for good reason.
1276 APM sleep states seem to be more stable, however you can't use APM and ACPI
1277 together.
1278 </p>
1279
1280 <pre caption="Kernel configuration for the various suspend types">
1281 Power Management Options ---&gt;
1282 [*] Power Management support
1283 ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) Support ---&gt;
1284 [*] ACPI Support
1285 [*] Sleep States
1286 </pre>
1287
1288 <p>
1289 Once your kernel is properly configured, you can use the
1290 <c>hibernate-script</c> to activate suspend or sleep mode. Let's install that
1291 first.
1292 </p>
1293
1294 <pre caption="Installing the hibernate-script">
1295 # <i>emerge hibernate-script</i>
1296 </pre>
1297
1298 <p>
1299 Some configuration has to be done in <path>/etc/hibernate</path>. The default
1300 package introduces a few configuration files for each sleep state. Options that
1301 are common to all suspend methods are placed in <path>common.conf</path>; make
1302 sure this file is properly set up for your system.
1303 </p>
1304
1305 <p>
1306 To configure sleep, edit <path>sysfs-ram.conf</path> in
1307 <path>/etc/hibernate</path>. <c>UseSysfsPowerState mem</c> is already setup
1308 correctly, but if you need to make further changes to this particular sleep
1309 state (or any other sleep state) you should add them to
1310 <path>/etc/hibernate/hibernate.conf</path>. The comments and option names will
1311 guide you. If you use nfs or samba shares over the network, make sure to
1312 shutdown the appropriate init scripts to avoid timeouts.
1313 </p>
1314
1315 <note>
1316 For more information on setting up sleep states, read <c>man
1317 hibernate.conf</c>.
1318 </note>
1319
1320 <p>
1321 Ready? Now is the last chance to backup any data you want to keep after
1322 executing the next command. Notice that you probably have to hit a special key
1323 like <c>Fn</c> to resume from sleep.
1324 </p>
1325
1326 <pre caption="Calling sleep">
1327 # <i>hibernate-ram</i>
1328 </pre>
1329
1330 <p>
1331 If you're still reading, it seems to work. You can also setup standby (S1) in a
1332 similar way by editing <path>sysfs-ram.conf</path> and changing
1333 "UseSysfsPowerState mem" to "UseSysfsPowerState standby". S3 and S4 are the more
1334 interesting sleep states due to greater energy savings however.
1335 </p>
1336
1337 </body>
1338 </section>
1339 <section>
1340 <title>Hibernate (S4)</title>
1341 <body>
1342
1343 <p>
1344 This section introduces hibernation, where a snapshot of the running system is
1345 written to disk before powering off. On resume, the snapshot is loaded and you
1346 can go on working at exactly the point you called hibernate before.
1347 </p>
1348
1349 <warn>
1350 Don't exchange non hot-pluggable hardware when suspended. Don't attempt to load
1351 a snapshot with a different kernel image than the one it was created with.
1352 Shutdown any NFS or samba server/client before hibernating.
1353 </warn>
1354
1355 <p>
1356 There are two different implementations for S4. The original one is swsusp,
1357 then there is the newer suspend2 with a nicer interface (including fbsplash
1358 support). A <uri link="http://suspend2.net/features.html#compare"> feature
1359 comparison</uri> is available at the <uri link="http://suspend2.net"> suspend2
1360 Homepage</uri>. There used to be Suspend-to-Disk (pmdisk), a fork of swsusp,
1361 but it has been merged back.
1362 </p>
1363
1364 <p>
1365 Suspend2 is not included in the mainline kernel yet, therefore you either have
1366 to patch your kernel sources with the patches provided by <uri
1367 link="http://suspend2.net">suspend2.net</uri> or use
1368 <c>sys-kernel/suspend2-sources</c>.
1369 </p>
1370
1371 <p>
1372 The kernel part for both swusp and suspend2 is as follows:
1373 </p>
1374
1375 <pre caption="Kernel configuration for the various suspend types">
1376 Power Management Options ---&gt;
1377 <comment>(hibernate with swsusp)</comment>
1378 [*] Software Suspend
1379 <comment>(replace /dev/SWAP with your swap partition)</comment>
1380 (/dev/SWAP) Default resume partition
1381
1382 <comment>(hibernate with suspend2)</comment>
1383 Software Suspend 2
1384 --- Image Storage (you need at least one writer)
1385 [*] File Writer
1386 [*] Swap Writer
1387 --- General Options
1388 [*] LZF image compression
1389 <comment>(replace /dev/SWAP with your swap partition)</comment>
1390 (swap:/dev/SWAP) Default resume device name
1391 [ ] Allow Keep Image Mode
1392 </pre>
1393
1394 <p>
1395 The configuration for swsusp is rather easy. If you didn't store the location
1396 of your swap partition in the kernel config, you can also pass it as a
1397 parameter with the <c>resume=/dev/SWAP</c> directive. If booting is not
1398 possible due to a broken image, use the <c>noresume</c> kernel parameter. The
1399 <c>hibernate-cleanup</c> init script invalidates swsusp images during the boot
1400 process.
1401 </p>
1402
1403 <pre caption="Invalidating swsusp images during the boot process">
1404 # <i>rc-update add hibernate-cleanup boot</i>
1405 </pre>
1406
1407 <p>
1408 To activate hibernate with swsusp, use the hibernate script and set
1409 <c>UseSysfsPowerState disk</c> in <path>/etc/hibernate/sysfs-disk</path>.
1410 </p>
1411
1412 <warn>
1413 Backup your data before doing this. Run <c>sync</c> before executing one of the
1414 commands to have cached data written to disk. First try it outside of X, then
1415 with X running, but not logged in.
1416 </warn>
1417
1418 <p>
1419 If you experience kernel panics due to uhci or similar, try to compile USB
1420 support as module and unload the modules before sending your laptop to sleep
1421 mode. There are configuration options for this in <path>common.conf</path>
1422 </p>
1423
1424 <pre caption="Hibernating with swsusp">
1425 # <i>nano -w /etc/hibernate/common.conf</i>
1426 <comment>(Make sure you have a backup of your data)</comment>
1427 # <i>hibernate</i>
1428 </pre>
1429
1430 <p>
1431 The following section discusses the setup of suspend2 including fbsplash
1432 support for a nice graphical progress bar during suspend and resume.
1433 </p>
1434
1435 <p>
1436 The first part of the configuration is similar to the configuration of swsusp.
1437 In case you didn't store the location of your swap partition in the kernel
1438 config, you have to pass it as a kernel parameter with the
1439 <c>resume2=swap:/dev/SWAP</c> directive. If booting is not possible due to a
1440 broken image, append the <c>noresume2</c> parameter. Additionally, the
1441 <c>hibernate-cleanup</c> init script invalidates suspend2 images during the
1442 boot process.
1443 </p>
1444
1445 <pre caption="Invalidating suspend2 images during the boot process">
1446 # <i>rc-update add hibernate-cleanup boot</i>
1447 </pre>
1448
1449 <p>
1450 Now edit <path>/etc/hibernate/suspend2.conf</path>, enable the <c>suspend2</c>
1451 options you need. Do not enable the <c>fbsplash</c> options in
1452 <c>common.conf</c> just yet.
1453 </p>
1454
1455 <pre caption="Hibernating with suspend2">
1456 # <i>nano -w /etc/hibernate/suspend2.conf</i>
1457 <comment>(Make sure you have a backup of your data)</comment>
1458 # <i>hibernate</i>
1459 </pre>
1460
1461 <p>
1462 Please configure <c>fbsplash</c> now if you didn't do already. To enable
1463 fbsplash support during hibernation, the <c>sys-apps/suspend2-userui</c>
1464 package is needed. Additionally, you've got to enable the <c>fbsplash</c> USE
1465 flag.
1466 </p>
1467
1468 <pre caption="Installing suspend2-userui">
1469 # <i>echo "sys-apps/suspend2-userui fbsplash" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
1470 <comment>(It may be marked ~arch, so first it must be keyworded)</comment>
1471 # <i>echo "sys-apps/suspend2-userui" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
1472 # <i>emerge suspend2-userui</i>
1473 </pre>
1474
1475 <p>
1476 The ebuild tells you to make a symlink to the theme you want to use. For
1477 example, to use the <c>livecd-2005.1</c> theme, run the following command:
1478 </p>
1479
1480 <pre caption="Using the livecd-2005.1 theme during hibernation">
1481 # <i>ln -sfn /etc/splash/livecd-2005.1 /etc/splash/suspend2</i>
1482 </pre>
1483
1484 <p>
1485 If you don't want a black screen in the first part of the resume process, you
1486 have to add the <c>suspend2ui_fbsplash</c> tool to your initrd image. Assuming
1487 you created the initrd image with <c>splash_geninitramfs</c> and saved it as
1488 <path>/boot/fbsplash-emergence-1024x768</path>, here's how to do that.
1489 </p>
1490
1491 <pre caption="Adding suspend2ui_fbsplash to an initrd image">
1492 # <i>mount /boot</i>
1493 # <i>mkdir ~/initrd.d</i>
1494 # <i>cp /boot/fbsplash-emergence-1024x768 ~/initrd.d/</i>
1495 # <i>cd ~/initrd.d</i>
1496 # <i>gunzip -c fbsplash-emergence-1024x768 | cpio -idm --quiet -H newc</i>
1497 # <i>rm fbsplash-emergence-1024x768</i>
1498 # <i>cp /usr/sbin/suspend2ui_fbsplash sbin/</i>
1499 # <i>find . | cpio --quiet --dereference -o -H newc | gzip -9 > /boot/fbsplash-suspend2-emergence-1024x768</i>
1500 </pre>
1501
1502 <p>
1503 Afterwards adjust <path>grub.conf</path> (or <path>lilo.conf</path>) so that
1504 your suspend2 kernel uses
1505 <path>/boot/fbsplash-suspend2-emergence-1024x768</path> as initrd image. You can
1506 now test a dry run to see if everything is setup correctly.
1507 </p>
1508
1509 <pre caption="Test run for fbsplash hibernation">
1510 # <i>suspend2ui_fbsplash -t</i>
1511 </pre>
1512
1513 <p>
1514 Afterwards open <path>/etc/hibernate/common.conf</path> and activate the
1515 fbsplash options. Execute <c>hibernate</c> and enjoy.
1516 </p>
1517
1518 </body>
1519 </section>
1520 </chapter>
1521
1522 <chapter>
1523 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1524 <section>
1525 <body>
1526
1527 <p>
1528 <e>Q:</e> I'm trying to change the CPU frequency, but
1529 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_governor</path> does not
1530 exist.
1531 </p>
1532
1533 <p>
1534 <e>A:</e> Make sure your processor supports CPU frequency scaling and you chose
1535 the right CPUFreq driver for your processor. Here is a list of processors that
1536 are supported by cpufreq (kernel 2.6.7): ARM Integrator, ARM-SA1100,
1537 ARM-SA1110, AMD Elan - SC400, SC410, AMD mobile K6-2+, AMD mobile K6-3+, AMD
1538 mobile Duron, AMD mobile Athlon, AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon 64, Cyrix Media GXm,
1539 Intel mobile PIII and Intel mobile PIII-M on certain chipsets, Intel Pentium 4,
1540 Intel Xeon, Intel Pentium M (Centrino), National Semiconductors Geode GX,
1541 Transmeta Crusoe, VIA Cyrix 3 / C3, UltraSPARC-III, SuperH SH-3, SH-4, several
1542 "PowerBook" and "iBook2" and various processors on some ACPI 2.0-compatible
1543 systems (only if "ACPI Processor Performance States" are available to the
1544 ACPI/BIOS interface).
1545 </p>
1546
1547 <p>
1548 <e>Q:</e> My laptop supports frequency scaling, but
1549 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/</path> is empty.
1550 </p>
1551
1552 <p>
1553 <e>A:</e> Look for ACPI related error messages with <c>dmesg | grep ACPI</c>.
1554 Try to update the BIOS, especially if a broken DSDT is reported. You can also
1555 try to fix it yourself (which is beyond the scope of this guide).
1556 </p>
1557
1558 <p>
1559 <e>Q:</e> My laptop supports frequency scaling, but according to
1560 <path>/proc/cpuinfo</path> the speed never changes.
1561 </p>
1562
1563 <p>
1564 <e>A:</e> Probably you have activated symmetric multiprocessing support
1565 (CONFIG_SMP) in your kernel. Deactivate it and it should work. Some older
1566 kernels had a bug causing this. In that case, run <c>emerge x86info</c>, update
1567 your kernel as asked and check the current frequency with
1568 <c>x86info -mhz</c>.
1569 </p>
1570
1571 <p>
1572 <e>Q:</e> I can change the CPU frequency, but the range is not as wide as in
1573 another OS.
1574 </p>
1575
1576 <p>
1577 <e>A:</e> You can combine frequency scaling with ACPI throttling to get a lower
1578 minimum frequency. Notice that throttling doesn't save much energy and is
1579 mainly used for thermal management (keeping your laptop cool and quiet). You
1580 can read the current throttling state with <c>cat
1581 /proc/acpi/processor/CPU/throttling</c> and change it with <c>echo -n "0:x" >
1582 /proc/acpi/processor/CPU/limit</c>, where x is one of the Tx states listed in
1583 <path>/proc/acpi/processor/CPU/throttling</path>.
1584 </p>
1585
1586 <p>
1587 <e>Q:</e> When configuring the kernel, powersave, performance and userspace
1588 governors show up, but that ondemand thing is missing. Where do I get it?
1589 </p>
1590
1591 <p>
1592 <e>A:</e> The ondemand governor is only included in recent kernel sources. Try
1593 updating them.
1594 </p>
1595
1596 <p>
1597 <e>Q:</e> Battery life time seems to be worse than before.
1598 </p>
1599
1600 <p>
1601 <e>A:</e> Check your BIOS settings. Maybe you forgot to re-enable some of the
1602 settings.
1603 </p>
1604
1605 <p>
1606 <e>Q:</e> My battery is charged, but KDE reports there would be 0% left and
1607 immediately shuts down.
1608 </p>
1609
1610 <p>
1611 <e>A:</e> Check that battery support is compiled into your kernel. If you use
1612 it as a module, make sure the module is loaded.
1613 </p>
1614
1615 <p>
1616 <e>Q:</e> My system logger reports things like "logger: ACPI group battery /
1617 action battery is not defined".
1618 </p>
1619
1620 <p>
1621 <e>A:</e> This message is generated by the <path>/etc/acpi/default.sh</path>
1622 script that is shipped with acpid. You can safely ignore it. If you like to get
1623 rid of it, you can comment the appropriate line in
1624 <path>/etc/acpi/default.sh</path> as shown below:
1625 </p>
1626
1627 <pre caption="Disabling warnings about unknown acpi events">
1628 *) # logger "ACPI action $action is not defined"
1629 </pre>
1630
1631 <p>
1632 <e>Q:</e> I have a Dell Inspiron 51XX and I don't get any ACPI events.
1633 </p>
1634
1635 <p>
1636 <e>A:</e> This seems to be a kernel bug. Read on <uri
1637 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/show_bug.cgi?id=1752">here</uri>.
1638 </p>
1639
1640 <p>
1641 <e>Q:</e> I activated the <c>DynamicClocks</c> option in <path>xorg.conf</path>
1642 and now X.org crashes / the screen stays black / my laptop doesn't shutdown
1643 properly.
1644 </p>
1645
1646 <p>
1647 <e>A:</e> This happens on some systems. You have to disable
1648 <c>DynamicClocks</c>.
1649 </p>
1650
1651 <p>
1652 <e>Q:</e> I want to use suspend2, but it tells me my swap partition is too
1653 small. Resizing is not an option.
1654 </p>
1655
1656 <p>
1657 <e>A:</e> If there is enough free space on your system, you can use the
1658 filewriter instead of the swapwriter. The <c>hibernate-script</c> supports it
1659 as well. More information can be found in
1660 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/power/suspend2.txt</path>.
1661 </p>
1662
1663 <p>
1664 <e>Q:</e> I just bought a brand new battery, but it only lasts for some
1665 minutes! What am I doing wrong?
1666 </p>
1667
1668 <p>
1669 <e>A:</e> First follow your manufacturer's advice on how to charge the battery
1670 correctly.
1671 </p>
1672
1673 <p>
1674 <e>Q:</e> The above didn't help. What should I do then?
1675 </p>
1676
1677 <p>
1678 <e>A:</e> Some batteries sold as "new" are in fact old ones. Try the following:
1679 </p>
1680
1681 <pre caption="Querying battery state">
1682 $ <i>grep capacity /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info</i>
1683 design capacity: 47520 mWh
1684 last full capacity: 41830 mWh
1685 </pre>
1686
1687 <p>
1688 If the "last full capacity" differs significantly from the design capacity,
1689 your battery is probably broken. Try to claim your warranty.
1690 </p>
1691
1692 <p>
1693 <e>Q:</e> My problem is not listed above. Where should I go next?
1694 </p>
1695
1696 <p>
1697 <e>A:</e> Don't fear to contact me, <mail link="earthwings@gentoo.org">Dennis
1698 Nienhüser</mail>, directly. The <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1699 Forums</uri> are a good place to get help as well. If you prefer IRC, try the
1700 <c>#gentoo-laptop</c> channel at <uri
1701 link="irc://irc.freenode.net">irc.freenode.net</uri>.
1702 </p>
1703
1704 </body>
1705 </section>
1706 </chapter>
1707 </guide>

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