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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml,v 1.26 2007/04/16 05:39:54 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 <guide link="/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml">
5 <title>Power Management Guide</title>
6
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="earthwings@gentoo.org">Dennis Nienhüser</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Editor">
11 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
15 </author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 Power Management is the key to extend battery run time on mobile systems like
19 laptops. This guide assists you setting it up on your laptop.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
23 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
24 <license/>
25
26 <version>1.33</version>
27 <date>2007-05-30</date>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>Introduction</title>
31 <section>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 Capacity and lifetime of laptop batteries have improved much in the last years.
36 Nevertheless modern processors consume much more energy than older ones and
37 each laptop generation introduces more devices hungry for energy. That's why
38 Power Management is more important than ever. Increasing battery run time
39 doesn't necessarily mean buying another battery. Much can be achieved applying
40 intelligent Power Management policies.
41 </p>
42
43 </body>
44 </section>
45 <section>
46 <title>A Quick Overview</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <p>
50 Please notice that this guide describes Power Management for <e>laptops</e>.
51 While some sections might also suite for <e>servers</e>, others do not and may
52 even cause harm. Please do not apply anything from this guide to a server
53 unless you really know what you are doing.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 As this guide has become rather long, here's a short overview helping you to
58 find your way through it.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 The <uri link="#doc_chap2">Prerequisites</uri> chapter talks about some
63 requirements that should be met before any of the following device individual
64 sections will work. This includes BIOS settings, kernel configuration and some
65 simplifications in user land. The following three chapters focus on devices
66 that typically consume most energy - processor, display and hard drive. Each
67 can be configured seperately. <uri link="#doc_chap3">CPU Power Management</uri>
68 shows how to adjust the processor's frequency to save a maximum of energy
69 without losing too much performance. A few different tricks prevent your hard
70 drive from working unnecessarily often in <uri link="#doc_chap5">Disk Power
71 Management</uri> (decreasing noise level as a nice side effect). Some notes on
72 graphics cards, Wireless LAN and USB finish the device section in <uri
73 link="#doc_chap6">Power Management For Other Devices</uri> while another
74 chapter is dedicated to the (rather experimental) <uri link="#doc_chap7">sleep
75 states</uri>. Last not least <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri> lists
76 common pitfalls.
77 </p>
78
79 </body>
80 </section>
81 <section>
82 <title>Power Budget For Each Component</title>
83 <body>
84
85 <figure link="/images/energy-budget.png" short="Which component consumes how
86 much energy?" caption="Power budget for each component"/>
87
88 <p>
89 Nearly every component can operate in different states - off, sleep, idle,
90 active to name a few - consuming a different amount of energy. Major parts are
91 consumed by the LCD display, CPU, chipset and hard drives. Often one is able to
92 activate OS-independent Power Management in the BIOS, but an intelligent setup
93 in the operating system adapting to different situations can achieve much more.
94 </p>
95
96 </body>
97 </section>
98 </chapter>
99
100 <chapter>
101 <title>Prerequisites</title>
102 <section>
103 <body>
104
105 <p>
106 Before discussing the details of making individual devices Power Management
107 aware, make sure certain requirements are met. After controlling BIOS settings,
108 some kernel options want to be enabled - these are in short ACPI, sleep states
109 and CPU frequency scaling. As power saving most of the time comes along with
110 performance loss or increased latency, it should only be enabled when running
111 on batteries. That's where a new runlevel <e>battery</e> comes in handy.
112 </p>
113
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 <section>
117 <title>The BIOS Part</title>
118 <body>
119
120 <p>
121 First have a look into your BIOS Power Management settings. The best way is to
122 combine BIOS and operating system policies, but for the moment it's better to
123 disable most of the BIOS part. This makes sure it doesn't interfere with your
124 policies. Don't forget to re-check BIOS settings after you configured
125 everything else.
126 </p>
127
128 </body>
129 </section>
130 <section>
131 <title>Setting USE Flags</title>
132 <body>
133
134 <p>
135 Please check that the <c>acpi</c> USE flag is set in
136 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Other USE flags that might be interesting for your
137 system are <c>apm</c>, <c>lm_sensors</c>, <c>nforce2</c>, <c>nvidia</c>,
138 <c>pmu</c>. See <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use*.desc</path> for details. If
139 you forgot to set one of these flags, you can recompile affected packages using
140 the <c>--newuse</c> flag in <c>emerge</c>, see <c>man emerge</c>.
141 </p>
142
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>Configuring The Kernel</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support in the kernel is
151 still work in progress. Using a recent kernel will make sure you'll get the
152 most out of it.
153 </p>
154
155 <p>
156 There are different kernel sources in Portage. I'd recommend using
157 <c>gentoo-sources</c> or <c>suspend2-sources</c>. The latter contains patches
158 for Software Suspend 2, see the chapter about <uri link="#doc_chap7">sleep
159 states</uri> for more details. When configuring the kernel, activate at least
160 these options:
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Minimum kernel setup for Power Management (Kernel 2.6)">
164 Power Management Options ---&gt;
165 [*] Power Management Support
166 [ ] Software Suspend
167
168 ACPI( Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ) Support ---&gt;
169 [*] ACPI Support
170 [ ] Sleep States
171 [ ] /proc/acpi/sleep (deprecated)
172 [*] AC Adapter
173 [*] Battery
174 &lt;M&gt; Button
175 &lt;M&gt; Video
176 [ ] Generic Hotkey
177 &lt;M&gt; Fan
178 &lt;M&gt; Processor
179 &lt;M&gt; Thermal Zone
180 &lt; &gt; ASUS/Medion Laptop Extras
181 &lt; &gt; IBM ThinkPad Laptop Extras
182 &lt; &gt; Toshiba Laptop Extras
183 (0) Disable ACPI for systems before Jan 1st this year
184 [ ] Debug Statements
185 [*] Power Management Timer Support
186 &lt; &gt; ACPI0004,PNP0A05 and PNP0A06 Container Driver (EXPERIMENTAL)
187
188 CPU Frequency Scaling ---&gt;
189 [*] CPU Frequency scaling
190 [ ] Enable CPUfreq debugging
191 &lt; &gt; CPU frequency translation statistics
192 [ ] CPU frequency translation statistics details
193 Default CPUFreq governor (userspace)
194 &lt;*&gt; 'performance' governor
195 &lt;*&gt; 'powersave' governor
196 &lt;*&gt; 'ondemand' cpufreq policy governor
197 &lt;*&gt; 'conservative' cpufreq governor
198 &lt;*&gt; CPU frequency table helpers
199 &lt;M&gt; ACPI Processor P-States driver
200 &lt;*&gt; <i>CPUFreq driver for your processor</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 Decide yourself whether you want to enable Software Suspend, and Sleep States
205 (see below). If you own an ASUS, Medion, IBM Thinkpad or Toshiba laptop, enable
206 the appropriate section.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 The kernel has to know how to enable CPU frequency scaling on your processor.
211 As each type of CPU has a different interface, you've got to choose the right
212 driver for your processor. Be careful here - enabling <c>Intel Pentium 4 clock
213 modulation</c> on a Pentium M system will lead to strange results for example.
214 Consult the kernel documentation if you're unsure which one to take.
215 </p>
216
217 <p>
218 Compile your kernel, make sure the right modules get loaded at startup and boot
219 into your new ACPI-enabled kernel. Next run <c>emerge sys-power/acpid</c> to
220 get the acpi daemon. This one informs you about events like switching from AC
221 to battery or closing the lid. Make sure the modules are loaded if you didn't
222 compile them into the kernel and start acpid by executing <c>/etc/init.d/acpid
223 start</c>. Run <c>rc-update add acpid default</c> to load it on startup. You'll
224 soon see how to use it.
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Installing acpid">
228 # <i>emerge sys-power/acpid</i>
229 # <i>/etc/init.d/acpid start</i>
230 # <i>rc-update add acpid default</i>
231 </pre>
232
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>Creating A "battery" Runlevel</title>
237 <body>
238
239 <p>
240 The default policy will be to enable Power Management only when needed -
241 running on batteries. To make the switch between AC and battery convenient,
242 create a runlevel <c>battery</c> that holds all the scripts starting and
243 stopping Power Management.
244 </p>
245
246 <note>
247 You can safely skip this section if you don't like the idea of having another
248 runlevel. However, skipping this step will make the rest a bit trickier to set
249 up. The next sections assume a runlevel <c>battery</c> exists.
250 </note>
251
252 <pre caption="Creating a battery runlevel">
253 # <i>cd /etc/runlevels</i>
254 # <i>cp -a default battery</i>
255 </pre>
256
257 <p>
258 Finished. Your new runlevel <c>battery</c> contains everything like
259 <c>default</c>, but there is no automatic switch between both yet. Time to
260 change it.
261 </p>
262
263 </body>
264 </section>
265 <section>
266 <title>Reacting On ACPI Events</title>
267 <body>
268
269 <p>
270 Typical ACPI events are closing the lid, changing the power source or pressing
271 the sleep button. An important event is changing the power source, which should
272 cause a runlevel switch. A small script will take care of it.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 First you need a script which changes the runlevel to <c>default</c>
277 respectively <c>battery</c> depending on the power source. The script uses the
278 <c>on_ac_power</c> command from <c>sys-power/powermgmt-base</c> - make sure the
279 package is installed on your system.
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="Installing powermgt-base">
283 # <i>emerge powermgmt-base</i>
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>
287 You are now able to determine the power source by executing <c>on_ac_power
288 &amp;&amp; echo AC available || echo Running on batteries</c> in a shell. The
289 script below is responsible for changing runlevels. Save it as
290 <path>/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</path>.
291 </p>
292
293 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh">
294 #!/bin/bash
295
296 <comment># BEGIN configuration</comment>
297 RUNLEVEL_AC="default"
298 RUNLEVEL_BATTERY="battery"
299 <comment># END configuration</comment>
300
301
302 if [ ! -d "/etc/runlevels/${RUNLEVEL_AC}" ]
303 then
304 logger "${0}: Runlevel ${RUNLEVEL_AC} does not exist. Aborting."
305 exit 1
306 fi
307
308 if [ ! -d "/etc/runlevels/${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}" ]
309 then
310 logger "${0}: Runlevel ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY} does not exist. Aborting."
311 exit 1
312 fi
313
314 if on_ac_power
315 then
316 if [[ "$(&lt;/var/lib/init.d/softlevel)" != "${RUNLEVEL_AC}" ]]
317 then
318 logger "Switching to ${RUNLEVEL_AC} runlevel"
319 /sbin/rc ${RUNLEVEL_AC}
320 fi
321 elif [[ "$(&lt;/var/lib/init.d/softlevel)" != "${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}" ]]
322 then
323 logger "Switching to ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY} runlevel"
324 /sbin/rc ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}
325 fi
326 </pre>
327
328 <p>
329 Dont forget to run <c>chmod +x /etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</c> to
330 make the script executable. The last thing that needs to be done is calling the
331 script whenever the power source changes. That's done by catching ACPI events
332 with the help of <c>acpid</c>. First you need to know which events are
333 generated when the power source changes. The events are called
334 <c>ac_adapter</c> and <c>battery</c> on most laptops, but it might be different
335 on yours.
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Determining ACPI events for changing the power source">
339 # <i>tail -f /var/log/acpid | grep "received event"</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 Run the command above and pull the power cable. You should see something like
344 this:
345 </p>
346
347 <pre caption="Sample output for power source changes">
348 [Tue Sep 20 17:39:06 2005] received event "ac_adapter AC 00000080 00000000"
349 [Tue Sep 20 17:39:06 2005] received event "battery BAT0 00000080 00000001"
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 The interesting part is the quoted string after <c>received event</c>. It will
354 be matched by the event line in the files you are going to create below. Don't
355 worry if your system generates multiple events or always the same. As long as
356 any event is generated, runlevel changing will work.
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/events/pmg_ac_adapter">
360 <comment># replace "ac_adapter" below with the event generated on your laptop</comment>
361 <comment># For example, ac_adapter.* will match ac_adapter AC 00000080 00000000</comment>
362 event=ac_adapter.*
363 action=/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh %e
364 </pre>
365
366 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/events/pmg_battery">
367 <comment># replace "battery" below with the event generated on your laptop</comment>
368 <comment># For example, battery.* will match battery BAT0 00000080 00000001</comment>
369 event=battery.*
370 action=/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh %e
371 </pre>
372
373 <p>
374 Finally acpid has to be restarted to recognize the changes.
375 </p>
376
377 <pre caption="Finishing runlevel switching with acpid">
378 # <i>/etc/init.d/acpid restart</i>
379 </pre>
380
381 <p>
382 Give it a try: Plug AC in and out and watch syslog for the "Switching to AC
383 mode" or "Switching to battery mode" messages. See the <uri
384 link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting section</uri> if the script is not able to
385 detect the power source correctly.
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 Due to the nature of the event mechanism, your laptop will boot into runlevel
390 <c>default</c> regardless of the AC/battery state. This is fine when running
391 from AC, but we'd like to boot into the battery runlevel otherwise. One
392 solution would be to add another entry to the boot loader with the parameter
393 <c>softlevel=battery</c>, but it's likely to forget choosing it. A better way
394 is faking an ACPI event in the end of the boot process and letting
395 <path>pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</path> script decide whether a runlevel change is
396 necessary. Open <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> in your favourite editor
397 and add these lines:
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Runlevel adjustment at boot time by editing local.start">
401 <comment># Fake acpi event to switch runlevel if running on batteries</comment>
402 /etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh "battery/battery"
403 </pre>
404
405 <p>
406 Prepared like this you can activate Power Management policies for individual
407 devices.
408 </p>
409
410 </body>
411 </section>
412 </chapter>
413
414 <chapter>
415 <title>CPU Power Management</title>
416 <section>
417 <body>
418
419 <p>
420 Mobile processors can operate at different frequencies. Some allow changing
421 voltage as well. Most of the time your CPU doesn't need to run at full speed
422 and scaling it down will save much energy - often without any performance
423 decrease.
424 </p>
425
426 </body>
427 </section>
428 <section>
429 <title>Some Technical Terms</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 CPU frequency scaling brings up some technical terms that might be unknown to
434 you. Here's a quick introduction.
435 </p>
436
437 <p>
438 First of all, the kernel has to be able to change the processor's frequency.
439 The <b>CPUfreq processor driver</b> knows the commands to do it on your CPU.
440 Thus it's important to choose the right one in your kernel. You should already
441 have done it above. Once the kernel knows how to change frequencies, it has to
442 know which frequency it should set. This is done according to the <b>policy</b>
443 which consists of a <b>CPUfreq policy</b> and a <b>governor</b>. A CPUfreq
444 policy are just two numbers which define a range the frequency has to stay
445 between - minimal and maximal frequency. The governor now decides which of the
446 available frequencies in between minimal and maximal frequency to choose. For
447 example, the <b>powersave governor</b> always chooses the lowest frequency
448 available, the <b>performance governor</b> the highest one. The <b>userspace
449 governor</b> makes no decision but chooses whatever the user (or a program in
450 userspace) wants - which means it reads the frequency from
451 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_setspeed</path>.
452 </p>
453
454 <p>
455 This doesn't sound like dynamic frequency changes yet and in fact it isn't.
456 Dynamics however can be accomplished with various approaches. For example, the
457 <b>ondemand governor</b> makes its decisions depending on the current CPU load.
458 The same is done by various userland tools like <c>cpudyn</c>, <c>cpufreqd</c>,
459 <c>powernowd</c> and many more. ACPI events can be used to enable or disable
460 dynamic frequency changes depending on power source.
461 </p>
462
463 </body>
464 </section>
465 <section>
466 <title>Setting The Frequency Manually</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 Decreasing CPU speed and voltage has two advantages: On the one hand less
471 energy is consumed, on the other hand there is thermal improvement as your
472 system doesn't get as hot as running on full speed. The main disadvantage is
473 obviously the loss of performance. Decreasing processor speed is a trade off
474 between performance loss and energy saving.
475 </p>
476
477 <note>
478 Not every laptop supports frequency scaling. If unsure, have a look at the list
479 of supported processors in the <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri>
480 section to verify yours is supported.
481 </note>
482
483 <p>
484 It's time to test whether CPU frequency changing works. Let's install another
485 tool which is very handy for debugging purposes: <c>sys-power/cpufrequtils</c>
486 </p>
487
488 <pre caption="Checking CPU frequency">
489 # <i>emerge cpufrequtils</i>
490 # <i>cpufreq-info</i>
491 </pre>
492
493 <p>
494 Here is an example output:
495 </p>
496
497 <pre caption="Sample output from cpufreq-info">
498 cpufrequtils 0.3: cpufreq-info (C) Dominik Brodowski 2004
499 Report errors and bugs to linux@brodo.de, please.
500 analyzing CPU 0:
501 driver: centrino
502 CPUs which need to switch frequency at the same time: 0
503 hardware limits: 600 MHz - 1.40 GHz
504 available frequency steps: 600 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz, 1.20 GHz, 1.40 GHz
505 available cpufreq governors: conservative, ondemand, powersave, userspace, performance
506 current policy: frequency should be within 924 MHz and 1.40 GHz.
507 The governor "performance" may decide which speed to use
508 within this range.
509 current CPU frequency is 1.40 GHz.
510 </pre>
511
512 <p>
513 Now play around with <c>cpufreq-set</c> to make sure frequency switching works.
514 Run <c>cpufreq-set -g ondemand</c> for example to activate the ondemand
515 governor and verify the change with <c>cpufreq-info</c>. If it doesn't work as
516 expected, you might find help in the <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting
517 section</uri> in the end of this guide.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </section>
522 <section>
523 <title>Automated frequency adaption</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 The above is quite nice, but not doable in daily life. Better let your system
528 set the appropriate frequency automatically. There are many different
529 approaches to do this. The following table gives a quick overview to help you
530 decide on one of them. It's roughly separated in three categories <b>kernel</b>
531 for approaches that only need kernel support, <b>daemon</b> for programs that
532 run in the background and <b>graphical</b> for programs that provide a GUI for
533 easy configuration and changes.
534 </p>
535
536 <table>
537 <tr>
538 <th>Name</th>
539 <th>Category</th>
540 <th>Switch decision</th>
541 <th>Kernel governors</th>
542 <th>Further governors</th>
543 <th>Comments</th>
544 </tr>
545 <tr>
546 <ti>'ondemand' governor</ti>
547 <ti>Kernel</ti>
548 <ti>CPU load</ti>
549 <ti>N.A.</ti>
550 <ti>N.A.</ti>
551 <ti>
552 Chooses maximal frequency on CPU load and slowly steps down when the CPU is
553 idle. Further tuning through files in
554 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/</path>. Still requires
555 userland tools (programs, scripts) if governor switching or similar is
556 desired.
557 </ti>
558 </tr>
559 <tr>
560 <ti>'conservative' governor</ti>
561 <ti>Kernel</ti>
562 <ti>CPU load</ti>
563 <ti>N.A.</ti>
564 <ti>N.A.</ti>
565 <ti>
566 Unlike the ondemand governor, conversative doesn't jump to maximum
567 frequency when CPU load is high, but increases the frequency step by step.
568 Further tuning through files in
569 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/</path>. Still requires
570 userland tools (programs, scripts) if governor switching or similar is
571 desired.
572 </ti>
573 </tr>
574 <tr>
575 <ti><uri link="http://mnm.uib.es/~gallir/cpudyn/">cpudyn</uri></ti>
576 <ti>Daemon</ti>
577 <ti>CPU load</ti>
578 <ti>Performance, powersave</ti>
579 <ti>Dynamic</ti>
580 <ti>
581 Also supports disk standby - notice however that <e>laptop mode</e> in most
582 cases will do a better job.
583 </ti>
584 </tr>
585 <tr>
586 <ti><uri link="http://sourceforge.net/projects/cpufreqd/">cpufreqd</uri></ti>
587 <ti>Daemon</ti>
588 <ti>Battery state, CPU load, temperature, running programs and more</ti>
589 <ti>All available</ti>
590 <ti>None</ti>
591 <ti>
592 Sophisticated (but somewhat complicated) setup. Extendible through plugins
593 like sensor monitoring (lm_sensors) or coordinating some NVidia based
594 graphics card memory and core. Cpufreqd is SMP aware and can optionally be
595 controlled manually at runtime.
596 </ti>
597 </tr>
598 <tr>
599 <ti>
600 <uri link="http://www.deater.net/john/powernowd.html">powernowd</uri>
601 </ti>
602 <ti>Daemon</ti>
603 <ti>CPU load</ti>
604 <ti>None</ti>
605 <ti>Passive, sine, aggressive</ti>
606 <ti>
607 Supports SMP.
608 </ti>
609 </tr>
610 <tr>
611 <ti>
612 <uri
613 link="http://fatcat.ftj.agh.edu.pl/~nelchael/index.php?cat=projs&amp;subcat=ncpufreqd&amp;language=en">ncpufreqd</uri>
614 </ti>
615 <ti>Daemon</ti>
616 <ti>Temperature</ti>
617 <ti>None</ti>
618 <ti>Powersave, performance</ti>
619 <ti>
620 Toggles the used governor between performance and powersave depending on
621 system temperature. Very useful on laptops with notorious heat problems.
622 </ti>
623 </tr>
624 <tr>
625 <ti><uri link="http://www.goop.org/~jeremy/speedfreq/">speedfreq</uri></ti>
626 <ti>Daemon</ti>
627 <ti>CPU load</ti>
628 <ti>None</ti>
629 <ti>Dynamic, powersave, performance, fixed speed</ti>
630 <ti>
631 Easy to configure with a nice client/server interface. Requires a 2.6
632 kernel. Unmaintained, broken and thus removed from Portage. Please switch
633 to cpufreqd if you're still using it.
634 </ti>
635 </tr>
636 <tr>
637 <ti><uri link="http://cpuspeedy.sourceforge.net/">gtk-cpuspeedy</uri></ti>
638 <ti>Graphical</ti>
639 <ti>None</ti>
640 <ti>None</ti>
641 <ti>None</ti>
642 <ti>
643 Gnome application, a graphical tool to set CPU frequency manually. It does
644 not offer any automation.
645 </ti>
646 </tr>
647 <tr>
648 <ti>klaptopdaemon</ti>
649 <ti>Graphical</ti>
650 <ti>Battery state</ti>
651 <ti>All available</ti>
652 <ti>None</ti>
653 <ti>
654 KDE only, 'ondemand' governor required for dynamic frequency scaling.
655 </ti>
656 </tr>
657 </table>
658
659 <p>
660 While adjusting the frequency to the current load looks simple at a first
661 glance, it's not such a trivial task. A bad algorithm can cause switching
662 between two frequencies all the time or wasting energy when setting frequency
663 to an unnecessary high level.
664 </p>
665
666 <p>
667 Which one to choose? If you have no idea about it, try <c>cpufreqd</c>:
668 </p>
669
670 <pre caption="Installing cpufreqd">
671 # <i>emerge cpufreqd</i>
672 </pre>
673
674 <p>
675 <c>cpufreqd</c> can be configured by editing <path>/etc/cpufreqd.conf</path>.
676 The default one that ships with cpufreqd may look a bit confusing. I recommend
677 replacing it with the one from former Gentoo developer Henrik Brix Andersen
678 (see below). Please notice that you need cpufreqd-2.0.0 or later. Earlier
679 versions have a different syntax for the config file.
680 </p>
681
682 <pre caption="/etc/cpufreqd.conf (cpufreqd-2.0.0 and later)">
683 [General]
684 pidfile=/var/run/cpufreqd.pid
685 poll_interval=3
686 enable_plugins=acpi_ac, acpi_battery
687 enable_remote=1
688 remote_group=wheel
689 verbosity=5
690 [/General]
691
692 [Profile]
693 name=ondemand
694 minfreq=0%
695 maxfreq=100%
696 policy=ondemand
697 [/Profile]
698
699 [Profile]
700 name=conservative
701 minfreq=0%
702 maxfreq=100%
703 policy=conservative
704 [/Profile]
705
706 [Profile]
707 name=powersave
708 minfreq=0%
709 maxfreq=100%
710 policy=powersave
711 [/Profile]
712
713 [Profile]
714 name=performance
715 minfreq=0%
716 maxfreq=100%
717 policy=performance
718 [/Profile]
719
720 [Rule]
721 name=battery
722 ac=off
723 profile=conservative
724 [/Rule]
725
726 [Rule]
727 name=battery_low
728 ac=off
729 battery_interval=0-10
730 profile=powersave
731 [/Rule]
732
733 [Rule]
734 name=ac
735 ac=on
736 profile=ondemand
737 [/Rule]
738 </pre>
739
740 <p>
741 Now you can start the cpufreqd daemon. Add it to the <c>default</c> and
742 <c>battery</c> runlevel as well.
743 </p>
744
745 <pre caption="Starting cpufreqd">
746 # <i>rc-update add cpufreqd default battery</i>
747 # <i>rc</i>
748 </pre>
749
750 <p>
751 Sometimes it can be desirable to select another policy than the daemon chooses,
752 for example when battery power is low, but you know that AC will be available
753 soon. In that case you can turn on cpufreqd's manual mode with <c>cpufreqd-set
754 manual</c> and select one of your configured policies (as listed by
755 <c>cpufreqd-get</c>). You can leave manual mode by executing <c>cpufreqd-set
756 dynamic</c>.
757 </p>
758
759 <warn>
760 Do not run more than one of the above programs at the same time. It may cause
761 confusion like switching between two frequencies all the time.
762 </warn>
763
764 </body>
765 </section>
766 <section>
767 <title>Verifying the result</title>
768 <body>
769
770 <p>
771 The last thing to check is that your new policies do a good job. An easy way to
772 do so is monitoring CPU speed while working with your laptop:
773 </p>
774
775 <pre caption="Monitoring CPU speed">
776 # <i>watch grep \"cpu MHz\" /proc/cpuinfo</i>
777 </pre>
778
779 <p>
780 If <path>/proc/cpuinfo</path> doesn't get updated (see <uri
781 link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri>), monitor the CPU frequency with:
782 </p>
783
784 <pre caption="Alternative CPU speed monitoring">
785 # <i>watch x86info -mhz</i>
786 </pre>
787
788 <p>
789 Depending on your setup, CPU speed should increase on heavy load, decrease on
790 no activity or just stay at the same level. When using <c>cpufreqd</c> and
791 verbosity set to 5 or higher in <path>cpufreqd.conf</path> you'll get
792 additional information about what's happening reported to <c>syslog</c>.
793 </p>
794
795 </body>
796 </section>
797 </chapter>
798
799 <chapter>
800 <title>LCD Power Management</title>
801 <section>
802 <body>
803
804 <p>
805 As you can see in <uri link="#doc_chap1_fig1">figure 1.1</uri>, the LCD
806 display consumes the biggest part of energy (might not be the case for
807 non-mobile CPU's). Thus it's quite important not only to shut the display off
808 when not needed, but also to reduce it's backlight if possible. Most laptops
809 offer the possibility to control the backlight dimming.
810 </p>
811
812 </body>
813 </section>
814 <section>
815 <title>Standby settings</title>
816 <body>
817
818 <p>
819 The first thing to check is the standby/suspend/off timings of the display. As
820 this depends heavily on your windowmanager, I'll let you figure it out
821 yourself. Just two common places: Blanking the terminal can be done with
822 <c>setterm -blank &lt;number-of-minutesM&gt;</c>, <c>setterm -powersave on</c>
823 and <c>setterm -powerdown &lt;number-of-minutesM&gt;</c>. For X.org, modify
824 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> similar to this:
825 </p>
826
827 <pre caption="LCD suspend settings in X.org and XFree86">
828 Section "ServerLayout"
829 Identifier [...]
830 [...]
831 Option "BlankTime" "5" <comment># Blank the screen after 5 minutes (Fake)</comment>
832 Option "StandbyTime" "10" <comment># Turn off screen after 10 minutes (DPMS)</comment>
833 Option "SuspendTime" "20" <comment># Full suspend after 20 minutes</comment>
834 Option "OffTime" "30" <comment># Turn off after half an hour</comment>
835 [...]
836 EndSection
837
838 [...]
839
840 Section "Monitor"
841 Identifier [...]
842 Option "DPMS" "true"
843 [...]
844 EndSection
845 </pre>
846
847 <p>
848 This is the same for XFree86 and <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path>.
849 </p>
850
851 </body>
852 </section>
853 <section>
854 <title>Backlight dimming</title>
855 <body>
856
857 <p>
858 Probably more important is the backlight dimming. If you have access to the
859 dimming settings via a tool, write a small script that dims the backlight in
860 battery mode and place it in your <c>battery</c> runlevel. The following script
861 should work on most IBM Thinkpads and Toshiba laptops. You've got to enable the
862 appropriate option in your kernel (IBM Thinkpads only). For Toshiba laptops,
863 install <c>sys-power/acpitool</c> and skip configuration of <c>ibm_acpi</c> as
864 described below.
865 </p>
866
867 <warn>
868 Support for setting brightness is marked experimental in ibm-acpi. It accesses
869 hardware directly and may cause severe harm to your system. Please read the
870 <uri link="http://ibm-acpi.sourceforge.net/">ibm-acpi website</uri>
871 </warn>
872
873 <p>
874 To be able to set the brightness level, the ibm_acpi module has to be loaded
875 with the experimental parameter.
876 </p>
877
878 <pre caption="automatically loading the ibm_acpi module">
879 <comment>(Please read the warnings above before doing this!)</comment>
880 # <i>echo "options ibm_acpi experimental=1" >> /etc/modules.d/ibm_acpi</i>
881 # <i>/sbin/update-modules</i>
882 # <i>echo ibm_acpi >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
883 # <i>modprobe ibm_acpi</i>
884 </pre>
885
886 <p>
887 This should work without error messages and a file
888 <path>/proc/acpi/ibm/brightness</path> should be created after loading the
889 module. An init script will take care of choosing the brightness according to
890 the power source.
891 </p>
892
893 <pre caption="/etc/conf.d/lcd-brightness">
894 <comment># See /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness for available values</comment>
895 <comment># Please read /usr/src/linux/Documentation/ibm-acpi.txt</comment>
896
897 <comment># brightness level in ac mode. Default is 7.</comment>
898 BRIGHTNESS_AC=7
899
900 <comment># brightness level in battery mode. Default is 4.</comment>
901 BRIGHTNESS_BATTERY=4
902 </pre>
903
904 <pre caption="/etc/init.d/lcd-brightness">
905 #!/sbin/runscript
906
907 set_brightness() {
908 if on_ac_power
909 then
910 LEVEL=${BRIGHTNESS_AC:-7}
911 else
912 LEVEL=${BRIGHTNESS_BATTERY:-4}
913 fi
914
915 if [ -f /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness ]
916 then
917 ebegin "Setting LCD brightness"
918 echo "level ${LEVEL}" > /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
919 eend $?
920 elif [[ -e /usr/bin/acpitool &amp;&amp; -n $(acpitool -T | grep "LCD brightness") ]]
921 then
922 ebegin "Setting LCD brightness"
923 acpitool -l $LEVEL >/dev/null || ewarn "Unable to set lcd brightness"
924 eend $?
925 else
926 ewarn "Setting LCD brightness is not supported."
927 ewarn "For IBM Thinkpads, check that ibm_acpi is loaded into the kernel"
928 ewarn "For Toshiba laptops, you've got to install sys-power/acpitool"
929 fi
930 }
931
932 start() {
933 set_brightness
934 }
935
936 stop () {
937 set_brightness
938 }
939 </pre>
940
941 <p>
942 When done, make sure brightness is adjusted automatically by adding it to the
943 battery runlevel.
944 </p>
945
946 <pre caption="Enabling automatic brightness adjustment">
947 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/lcd-brightness</i>
948 # <i>rc-update add lcd-brightness battery</i>
949 # <i>rc</i>
950 </pre>
951
952 </body>
953 </section>
954 </chapter>
955
956 <chapter>
957 <title>Disk Power Management</title>
958 <section>
959 <body>
960
961 <p>
962 Hard disks consume less energy in sleep mode. Therefore it makes sense to
963 activate power saving features whenever the hard disk is not used for a certain
964 amount of time. I'll show you two alternative possibilities to do it. First,
965 laptop-mode will save most energy due to several measures which prevent or at
966 least delay write accesses. The drawback is that due to the delayed write
967 accesses a power outage or kernel crash will be more dangerous for data loss.
968 If you don't like this, you have to make sure that there are no processes which
969 write to your hard disk frequently. Afterwards you can enable power saving
970 features of your hard disk with <c>hdparm</c> as the second alternative.
971 </p>
972
973 </body>
974 </section>
975 <section>
976 <title>Increasing idle time - laptop-mode</title>
977 <body>
978
979 <p>
980 Recent 2.6 kernels include the so-called <c>laptop-mode</c>. When activated,
981 dirty buffers are written to disk on read calls or after 10 minutes (instead of
982 30 seconds). This minimizes the time the hard disk needs to be spun up.
983 </p>
984
985 <pre caption="Automated start of laptop-mode">
986 # <i>emerge laptop-mode-tools</i>
987 </pre>
988
989 <p>
990 <c>laptop-mode-tools</c> has its configuration file in
991 <path>/etc/laptop-mode/laptop-mode.conf</path>. Adjust it the way you like it,
992 it's well commented. Run <c>rc-update add laptop_mode battery</c> to start it
993 automatically.
994 </p>
995
996 <p>
997 Recent versions (1.11 and later) of laptop-mode-tools include a new tool
998 <c>lm-profiler</c>. It will monitor your system's disk usage and running
999 network services and suggests to disable unneeded ones. You can either disable
1000 them through laptop-mode-tools builtin runlevel support (which will be reverted
1001 by Gentoo's <c>/sbin/rc</c>) or use your <c>default</c>/<c>battery</c>
1002 runlevels (recommended).
1003 </p>
1004
1005 <pre caption="Sample output from running lm-profiler">
1006 # <i>lm-profiler</i>
1007 Profiling session started.
1008 Time remaining: 600 seconds
1009 [4296896.602000] amarokapp
1010 Time remaining: 599 seconds
1011 [4296897.714000] sort
1012 [4296897.970000] mv
1013 Time remaining: 598 seconds
1014 Time remaining: 597 seconds
1015 [4296900.482000] reiserfs/0
1016 </pre>
1017
1018 <p>
1019 After profiling your system for ten minutes, lm-profiler will present a list of
1020 services which might have caused disk accesses during that time.
1021 </p>
1022
1023 <pre caption="lm-profiler suggests to disable some services">
1024 Program: "atd"
1025 Reason: standard recommendation (program may not be running)
1026 Init script: /etc/init.d/atd (GUESSED)
1027
1028 Do you want to disable this service in battery mode? [y/N]: <i>n</i>
1029 </pre>
1030
1031 <p>
1032 To disable atd as suggested in the example above, you would run <c>rc-update
1033 del atd battery</c>. Be careful not to disable services that are needed for
1034 your system to run properly - <c>lm-profiler</c> is likely to generate some
1035 false positives. Do not disable a service if you are unsure whether it's
1036 needed.
1037 </p>
1038
1039 </body>
1040 </section>
1041 <section>
1042 <title>Limiting Write Accesses</title>
1043 <body>
1044
1045 <p>
1046 If you don't want to use laptop-mode, you must take special care to disable
1047 services that write to your disk frequently - <c>syslogd</c> is a good
1048 candidate, for example. You probably don't want to shut it down completely, but
1049 it's possible to modify the config file so that "unnecessary" things don't get
1050 logged and thus don't create disk traffic. <c>Cups</c> writes to disk
1051 periodically, so consider shutting it down and only enable it manually when
1052 needed.
1053 </p>
1054
1055 <pre caption="Disabling cups in battery mode">
1056 # <i>rc-update del cupsd battery</i>
1057 </pre>
1058
1059 <p>
1060 You can also use <c>lm-profiler</c> from laptop-mode-tools (see above) to find
1061 services to disable. Once you eliminated all of them, go on with configuring
1062 hdparm.
1063 </p>
1064
1065 </body>
1066 </section>
1067 <section>
1068 <title>hdparm</title>
1069 <body>
1070
1071 <p>
1072 The second possibility is using a small script and <c>hdparm</c>. Skip this if
1073 you are using laptop-mode. Otherwise, create <path>/etc/init.d/pmg_hda</path>:
1074 </p>
1075
1076 <pre caption="Using hdparm for disk standby">
1077 #!/sbin/runscript
1078
1079 depend() {
1080 after hdparm
1081 }
1082
1083 start() {
1084 ebegin "Activating Power Management for Hard Drives"
1085 hdparm -q -S12 /dev/hda
1086 eend $?
1087 }
1088
1089 stop () {
1090 ebegin "Deactivating Power Management for Hard Drives"
1091 hdparm -q -S253 /dev/hda
1092 eend $?
1093 }
1094 </pre>
1095
1096 <p>
1097 See <c>man hdparm</c> for the options. If your script is ready, add it to the
1098 battery runlevel.
1099 </p>
1100
1101 <pre caption="Automate disk standby settings">
1102 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/pmg_hda</i>
1103 # <i>/sbin/depscan.sh</i>
1104 # <i>rc-update add pmg_hda battery</i>
1105 </pre>
1106
1107 <impo>
1108 Be careful with sleep/spin down settings of your hard drive. Setting it to
1109 small values might wear out your drive and lose warranty.
1110 </impo>
1111
1112 </body>
1113 </section>
1114 <section>
1115 <title>Other tricks</title>
1116 <body>
1117
1118 <p>
1119 Another possibility is to deactivate swap in battery mode. Before writing a
1120 swapon/swapoff switcher, make sure there is enough RAM and swap isn't used
1121 heavily, otherwise you'll be in big problems.
1122 </p>
1123
1124 <p>
1125 If you don't want to use laptop-mode, it's still possible to minimize disk
1126 access by mounting certain directories as <c>tmpfs</c> - write accesses are not
1127 stored on a disk, but in main memory and get lost with unmounting. Often it's
1128 useful to mount <path>/tmp</path> like this - you don't have to pay special
1129 attention as it gets cleared on every reboot regardless whether it was mounted
1130 on disk or in RAM. Just make sure you have enough RAM and no program (like a
1131 download client or compress utility) needs extraordinary much space in
1132 <path>/tmp</path>. To activate this, enable tmpfs support in your kernel and
1133 add a line to <path>/etc/fstab</path> like this:
1134 </p>
1135
1136 <pre caption="Editing /etc/fstab to make /tmp even more volatile">
1137 none /tmp tmpfs size=32m 0 0
1138 </pre>
1139
1140 <warn>
1141 Pay attention to the size parameter and modify it for your system. If you're
1142 unsure, don't try this at all, it can become a performance bottleneck easily. In
1143 case you want to mount <path>/var/log</path> like this, make sure to merge the
1144 log files to disk before unmounting. They are essential. Don't attempt to mount
1145 <path>/var/tmp</path> like this. Portage uses it for compiling...
1146 </warn>
1147
1148 </body>
1149 </section>
1150 </chapter>
1151
1152 <chapter>
1153 <title>Power Management For Other Devices</title>
1154 <section>
1155 <title>Graphics Cards</title>
1156 <body>
1157
1158 <p>
1159 In case you own an ATI graphics card supporting PowerPlay (dynamic clock
1160 scaling for the graphics processing unit GPU), you can activate this
1161 feature in X.org. Open <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> and add (or enable) the
1162 <c>DynamicClocks</c> option in the Device section. Please notice that this
1163 feature will lead to crashes on some systems.
1164 </p>
1165
1166 <pre caption="Enabling ATI PowerPlay support in X.org">
1167 Section "Device"
1168 [...]
1169 Option "DynamicClocks" "on"
1170 EndSection
1171 </pre>
1172
1173 </body>
1174 </section>
1175 <section>
1176 <title>Wireless Power Management</title>
1177 <body>
1178
1179 <p>
1180 Wireless LAN cards consume quite a bit of energy. Put them in Power Management
1181 mode in analogy to the <c>pmg_hda</c> script.
1182 </p>
1183
1184 <note>
1185 This script assumes your wireless interface is called <c>wlan0</c>; replace
1186 this with the actual name of your interface.
1187 </note>
1188
1189 <pre caption="WLAN Power Management automated">
1190 #!/sbin/runscript
1191 start() {
1192 ebegin "Activating Power Management for Wireless LAN"
1193 iwconfig wlan0 power on
1194 eend $?
1195 }
1196
1197 stop () {
1198 ebegin "Deactivating Power Management for Wireless LAN"
1199 iwconfig wlan0 power off
1200 eend $?
1201 }
1202 </pre>
1203
1204 <p>
1205 Starting this script will activate power saving features for wlan0. Save it as
1206 <path>/etc/init.d/pmg_wlan0</path> and add it to the battery runlevel like the
1207 disk script above. See <c>man iwconfig</c> for details and more options like
1208 the period between wakeups or timeout settings. If your driver and access point
1209 support changing the beacon time, this is a good starting point to save even
1210 more energy.
1211 </p>
1212
1213 <pre caption="Power Management for WLAN">
1214 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/pmg_wlan0</i>
1215 # <i>/sbin/depscan.sh</i>
1216 # <i>rc-update add pmg_wlan0 battery</i>
1217 </pre>
1218
1219 </body>
1220 </section>
1221 <section>
1222 <title>USB Power Management</title>
1223 <body>
1224
1225 <p>
1226 There are two problems with USB devices regarding energy consumption: First,
1227 devices like USB mice, digital cameras or USB sticks consume energy while
1228 plugged in. You cannot avoid this (nevertheless remove them in case they're not
1229 needed). Second, when there are USB devices plugged in, the USB host controller
1230 periodically accesses the bus which in turn prevents the CPU from going into
1231 sleep mode. The kernel offers an experimental option to enable suspension of
1232 USB devices through driver calls or one of the <path>power/state</path> files
1233 in <path>/sys</path>.
1234 </p>
1235
1236 <pre caption="Enabling USB suspend support in the kernel">
1237 Device Drivers
1238 USB support
1239 [*] Support for Host-side USB
1240 [*] USB suspend/resume (EXPERIMENTAL)
1241 </pre>
1242
1243 </body>
1244 </section>
1245 </chapter>
1246
1247 <chapter>
1248 <title>Sleep States: sleep, standby, and suspend to disk</title>
1249 <section>
1250 <body>
1251
1252 <p>
1253 ACPI defines different sleep states. The more important ones are
1254 </p>
1255
1256 <ul>
1257 <li>S1 aka Standby</li>
1258 <li>S3 aka Suspend to RAM aka Sleep</li>
1259 <li>S4 aka Suspend to Disk aka Hibernate</li>
1260 </ul>
1261
1262 <p>
1263 They can be called whenever the system is not in use, but a shutdown is not
1264 wanted due to the long boot time.
1265 </p>
1266
1267 </body>
1268 </section>
1269 <section>
1270 <title>Sleep (S3)</title>
1271 <body>
1272
1273 <p>
1274 The ACPI support for these sleep states is marked experimental for good reason.
1275 APM sleep states seem to be more stable, however you can't use APM and ACPI
1276 together.
1277 </p>
1278
1279 <pre caption="Kernel configuration for the various suspend types">
1280 Power Management Options ---&gt;
1281 [*] Power Management support
1282 ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) Support ---&gt;
1283 [*] ACPI Support
1284 [*] Sleep States
1285 </pre>
1286
1287 <p>
1288 Once your kernel is properly configured, you can use the
1289 <c>hibernate-script</c> to activate suspend or sleep mode. Let's install that
1290 first.
1291 </p>
1292
1293 <pre caption="Installing the hibernate-script">
1294 # <i>emerge hibernate-script</i>
1295 </pre>
1296
1297 <p>
1298 Some configuration has to be done in <path>/etc/hibernate</path>. The default
1299 package introduces a few configuration files for each sleep state. Options that
1300 are common to all suspend methods are placed in <path>common.conf</path>; make
1301 sure this file is properly set up for your system.
1302 </p>
1303
1304 <p>
1305 To configure sleep, edit <path>sysfs-ram.conf</path> in
1306 <path>/etc/hibernate</path>. <c>UseSysfsPowerState mem</c> is already setup
1307 correctly, but if you need to make further changes to this particular sleep
1308 state (or any other sleep state) you should add them to
1309 <path>/etc/hibernate/hibernate.conf</path>. The comments and option names will
1310 guide you. If you use nfs or samba shares over the network, make sure to
1311 shutdown the appropriate init scripts to avoid timeouts.
1312 </p>
1313
1314 <note>
1315 For more information on setting up sleep states, read <c>man
1316 hibernate.conf</c>.
1317 </note>
1318
1319 <p>
1320 Ready? Now is the last chance to backup any data you want to keep after
1321 executing the next command. Notice that you probably have to hit a special key
1322 like <c>Fn</c> to resume from sleep.
1323 </p>
1324
1325 <pre caption="Calling sleep">
1326 # <i>hibernate-ram</i>
1327 </pre>
1328
1329 <p>
1330 If you're still reading, it seems to work. You can also setup standby (S1) in a
1331 similar way by editing <path>sysfs-ram.conf</path> and changing
1332 "UseSysfsPowerState mem" to "UseSysfsPowerState standby". S3 and S4 are the more
1333 interesting sleep states due to greater energy savings however.
1334 </p>
1335
1336 </body>
1337 </section>
1338 <section>
1339 <title>Hibernate (S4)</title>
1340 <body>
1341
1342 <p>
1343 This section introduces hibernation, where a snapshot of the running system is
1344 written to disk before powering off. On resume, the snapshot is loaded and you
1345 can go on working at exactly the point you called hibernate before.
1346 </p>
1347
1348 <warn>
1349 Don't exchange non hot-pluggable hardware when suspended. Don't attempt to load
1350 a snapshot with a different kernel image than the one it was created with.
1351 Shutdown any NFS or samba server/client before hibernating.
1352 </warn>
1353
1354 <p>
1355 There are two different implementations for S4. The original one is swsusp,
1356 then there is the newer suspend2 with a nicer interface (including fbsplash
1357 support). A <uri link="http://suspend2.net/features.html#compare"> feature
1358 comparison</uri> is available at the <uri link="http://suspend2.net"> suspend2
1359 Homepage</uri>. There used to be Suspend-to-Disk (pmdisk), a fork of swsusp,
1360 but it has been merged back.
1361 </p>
1362
1363 <p>
1364 Suspend2 is not included in the mainline kernel yet, therefore you either have
1365 to patch your kernel sources with the patches provided by <uri
1366 link="http://suspend2.net">suspend2.net</uri> or use
1367 <c>sys-kernel/suspend2-sources</c>.
1368 </p>
1369
1370 <p>
1371 The kernel part for both swusp and suspend2 is as follows:
1372 </p>
1373
1374 <pre caption="Kernel configuration for the various suspend types">
1375 Power Management Options ---&gt;
1376 <comment>(hibernate with swsusp)</comment>
1377 [*] Software Suspend
1378 <comment>(replace /dev/SWAP with your swap partition)</comment>
1379 (/dev/SWAP) Default resume partition
1380
1381 <comment>(hibernate with suspend2)</comment>
1382 Software Suspend 2
1383 --- Image Storage (you need at least one writer)
1384 [*] File Writer
1385 [*] Swap Writer
1386 --- General Options
1387 [*] LZF image compression
1388 <comment>(replace /dev/SWAP with your swap partition)</comment>
1389 (swap:/dev/SWAP) Default resume device name
1390 [ ] Allow Keep Image Mode
1391 </pre>
1392
1393 <p>
1394 The configuration for swsusp is rather easy. If you didn't store the location
1395 of your swap partition in the kernel config, you can also pass it as a
1396 parameter with the <c>resume=/dev/SWAP</c> directive. If booting is not
1397 possible due to a broken image, use the <c>noresume</c> kernel parameter. The
1398 <c>hibernate-cleanup</c> init script invalidates swsusp images during the boot
1399 process.
1400 </p>
1401
1402 <pre caption="Invalidating swsusp images during the boot process">
1403 # <i>rc-update add hibernate-cleanup boot</i>
1404 </pre>
1405
1406 <p>
1407 To activate hibernate with swsusp, use the hibernate script and set
1408 <c>UseSysfsPowerState disk</c> in <path>/etc/hibernate/sysfs-disk</path>.
1409 </p>
1410
1411 <warn>
1412 Backup your data before doing this. Run <c>sync</c> before executing one of the
1413 commands to have cached data written to disk. First try it outside of X, then
1414 with X running, but not logged in.
1415 </warn>
1416
1417 <p>
1418 If you experience kernel panics due to uhci or similar, try to compile USB
1419 support as module and unload the modules before sending your laptop to sleep
1420 mode. There are configuration options for this in <path>common.conf</path>
1421 </p>
1422
1423 <pre caption="Hibernating with swsusp">
1424 # <i>nano -w /etc/hibernate/common.conf</i>
1425 <comment>(Make sure you have a backup of your data)</comment>
1426 # <i>hibernate</i>
1427 </pre>
1428
1429 <p>
1430 The following section discusses the setup of suspend2 including fbsplash
1431 support for a nice graphical progress bar during suspend and resume.
1432 </p>
1433
1434 <p>
1435 The first part of the configuration is similar to the configuration of swsusp.
1436 In case you didn't store the location of your swap partition in the kernel
1437 config, you have to pass it as a kernel parameter with the
1438 <c>resume2=swap:/dev/SWAP</c> directive. If booting is not possible due to a
1439 broken image, append the <c>noresume2</c> parameter. Additionally, the
1440 <c>hibernate-cleanup</c> init script invalidates suspend2 images during the
1441 boot process.
1442 </p>
1443
1444 <pre caption="Invalidating suspend2 images during the boot process">
1445 # <i>rc-update add hibernate-cleanup boot</i>
1446 </pre>
1447
1448 <p>
1449 Now edit <path>/etc/hibernate/suspend2.conf</path>, enable the <c>suspend2</c>
1450 options you need. Do not enable the <c>fbsplash</c> options in
1451 <c>common.conf</c> just yet.
1452 </p>
1453
1454 <pre caption="Hibernating with suspend2">
1455 # <i>nano -w /etc/hibernate/suspend2.conf</i>
1456 <comment>(Make sure you have a backup of your data)</comment>
1457 # <i>hibernate</i>
1458 </pre>
1459
1460 <p>
1461 Please configure <c>fbsplash</c> now if you didn't do already. To enable
1462 fbsplash support during hibernation, the <c>sys-apps/suspend2-userui</c>
1463 package is needed. Additionally, you've got to enable the <c>fbsplash</c> USE
1464 flag.
1465 </p>
1466
1467 <pre caption="Installing suspend2-userui">
1468 # <i>echo "sys-apps/suspend2-userui fbsplash" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
1469 <comment>(It may be marked ~arch, so first it must be keyworded)</comment>
1470 # <i>echo "sys-apps/suspend2-userui" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
1471 # <i>emerge suspend2-userui</i>
1472 </pre>
1473
1474 <p>
1475 The ebuild tells you to make a symlink to the theme you want to use. For
1476 example, to use the <c>livecd-2005.1</c> theme, run the following command:
1477 </p>
1478
1479 <pre caption="Using the livecd-2005.1 theme during hibernation">
1480 # <i>ln -sfn /etc/splash/livecd-2005.1 /etc/splash/suspend2</i>
1481 </pre>
1482
1483 <p>
1484 If you don't want a black screen in the first part of the resume process, you
1485 have to add the <c>suspend2ui_fbsplash</c> tool to your initrd image. Assuming
1486 you created the initrd image with <c>splash_geninitramfs</c> and saved it as
1487 <path>/boot/fbsplash-emergence-1024x768</path>, here's how to do that.
1488 </p>
1489
1490 <pre caption="Adding suspend2ui_fbsplash to an initrd image">
1491 # <i>mount /boot</i>
1492 # <i>mkdir ~/initrd.d</i>
1493 # <i>cp /boot/fbsplash-emergence-1024x768 ~/initrd.d/</i>
1494 # <i>cd ~/initrd.d</i>
1495 # <i>gunzip -c fbsplash-emergence-1024x768 | cpio -idm --quiet -H newc</i>
1496 # <i>rm fbsplash-emergence-1024x768</i>
1497 # <i>cp /usr/sbin/suspend2ui_fbsplash sbin/</i>
1498 # <i>find . | cpio --quiet --dereference -o -H newc | gzip -9 > /boot/fbsplash-suspend2-emergence-1024x768</i>
1499 </pre>
1500
1501 <p>
1502 Afterwards adjust <path>grub.conf</path> (or <path>lilo.conf</path>) so that
1503 your suspend2 kernel uses
1504 <path>/boot/fbsplash-suspend2-emergence-1024x768</path> as initrd image. You can
1505 now test a dry run to see if everything is setup correctly.
1506 </p>
1507
1508 <pre caption="Test run for fbsplash hibernation">
1509 # <i>suspend2ui_fbsplash -t</i>
1510 </pre>
1511
1512 <p>
1513 Afterwards open <path>/etc/hibernate/common.conf</path> and activate the
1514 fbsplash options. Execute <c>hibernate</c> and enjoy.
1515 </p>
1516
1517 </body>
1518 </section>
1519 </chapter>
1520
1521 <chapter>
1522 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1523 <section>
1524 <body>
1525
1526 <p>
1527 <e>Q:</e> I'm trying to change the CPU frequency, but
1528 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_governor</path> does not
1529 exist.
1530 </p>
1531
1532 <p>
1533 <e>A:</e> Make sure your processor supports CPU frequency scaling and you chose
1534 the right CPUFreq driver for your processor. Here is a list of processors that
1535 are supported by cpufreq (kernel 2.6.7): ARM Integrator, ARM-SA1100,
1536 ARM-SA1110, AMD Elan - SC400, SC410, AMD mobile K6-2+, AMD mobile K6-3+, AMD
1537 mobile Duron, AMD mobile Athlon, AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon 64, Cyrix Media GXm,
1538 Intel mobile PIII and Intel mobile PIII-M on certain chipsets, Intel Pentium 4,
1539 Intel Xeon, Intel Pentium M (Centrino), National Semiconductors Geode GX,
1540 Transmeta Crusoe, VIA Cyrix 3 / C3, UltraSPARC-III, SuperH SH-3, SH-4, several
1541 "PowerBook" and "iBook2" and various processors on some ACPI 2.0-compatible
1542 systems (only if "ACPI Processor Performance States" are available to the
1543 ACPI/BIOS interface).
1544 </p>
1545
1546 <p>
1547 <e>Q:</e> My laptop supports frequency scaling, but
1548 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/</path> is empty.
1549 </p>
1550
1551 <p>
1552 <e>A:</e> Look for ACPI related error messages with <c>dmesg | grep ACPI</c>.
1553 Try to update the BIOS, especially if a broken DSDT is reported. You can also
1554 try to fix it yourself (which is beyond the scope of this guide).
1555 </p>
1556
1557 <p>
1558 <e>Q:</e> My laptop supports frequency scaling, but according to
1559 <path>/proc/cpuinfo</path> the speed never changes.
1560 </p>
1561
1562 <p>
1563 <e>A:</e> Probably you have activated symmetric multiprocessing support
1564 (CONFIG_SMP) in your kernel. Deactivate it and it should work. Some older
1565 kernels had a bug causing this. In that case, run <c>emerge x86info</c>, update
1566 your kernel as asked and check the current frequency with
1567 <c>x86info -mhz</c>.
1568 </p>
1569
1570 <p>
1571 <e>Q:</e> I can change the CPU frequency, but the range is not as wide as in
1572 another OS.
1573 </p>
1574
1575 <p>
1576 <e>A:</e> You can combine frequency scaling with ACPI throttling to get a lower
1577 minimum frequency. Notice that throttling doesn't save much energy and is
1578 mainly used for thermal management (keeping your laptop cool and quiet). You
1579 can read the current throttling state with <c>cat
1580 /proc/acpi/processor/CPU/throttling</c> and change it with <c>echo -n "0:x" >
1581 /proc/acpi/processor/CPU/limit</c>, where x is one of the Tx states listed in
1582 <path>/proc/acpi/processor/CPU/throttling</path>.
1583 </p>
1584
1585 <p>
1586 <e>Q:</e> When configuring the kernel, powersave, performance and userspace
1587 governors show up, but that ondemand thing is missing. Where do I get it?
1588 </p>
1589
1590 <p>
1591 <e>A:</e> The ondemand governor is only included in recent kernel sources. Try
1592 updating them.
1593 </p>
1594
1595 <p>
1596 <e>Q:</e> Battery life time seems to be worse than before.
1597 </p>
1598
1599 <p>
1600 <e>A:</e> Check your BIOS settings. Maybe you forgot to re-enable some of the
1601 settings.
1602 </p>
1603
1604 <p>
1605 <e>Q:</e> My battery is charged, but KDE reports there would be 0% left and
1606 immediately shuts down.
1607 </p>
1608
1609 <p>
1610 <e>A:</e> Check that battery support is compiled into your kernel. If you use
1611 it as a module, make sure the module is loaded.
1612 </p>
1613
1614 <p>
1615 <e>Q:</e> My system logger reports things like "logger: ACPI group battery /
1616 action battery is not defined".
1617 </p>
1618
1619 <p>
1620 <e>A:</e> This message is generated by the <path>/etc/acpi/default.sh</path>
1621 script that is shipped with acpid. You can safely ignore it. If you like to get
1622 rid of it, you can comment the appropriate line in
1623 <path>/etc/acpi/default.sh</path> as shown below:
1624 </p>
1625
1626 <pre caption="Disabling warnings about unknown acpi events">
1627 *) # logger "ACPI action $action is not defined"
1628 </pre>
1629
1630 <p>
1631 <e>Q:</e> I have a Dell Inspiron 51XX and I don't get any ACPI events.
1632 </p>
1633
1634 <p>
1635 <e>A:</e> This seems to be a kernel bug. Read on <uri
1636 link="http://bugme.osdl.org/show_bug.cgi?id=1752">here</uri>.
1637 </p>
1638
1639 <p>
1640 <e>Q:</e> I activated the <c>DynamicClocks</c> option in <path>xorg.conf</path>
1641 and now X.org crashes / the screen stays black / my laptop doesn't shutdown
1642 properly.
1643 </p>
1644
1645 <p>
1646 <e>A:</e> This happens on some systems. You have to disable
1647 <c>DynamicClocks</c>.
1648 </p>
1649
1650 <p>
1651 <e>Q:</e> I want to use suspend2, but it tells me my swap partition is too
1652 small. Resizing is not an option.
1653 </p>
1654
1655 <p>
1656 <e>A:</e> If there is enough free space on your system, you can use the
1657 filewriter instead of the swapwriter. The <c>hibernate-script</c> supports it
1658 as well. More information can be found in
1659 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/power/suspend2.txt</path>.
1660 </p>
1661
1662 <p>
1663 <e>Q:</e> I just bought a brand new battery, but it only lasts for some
1664 minutes! What am I doing wrong?
1665 </p>
1666
1667 <p>
1668 <e>A:</e> First follow your manufacturer's advice on how to charge the battery
1669 correctly.
1670 </p>
1671
1672 <p>
1673 <e>Q:</e> The above didn't help. What should I do then?
1674 </p>
1675
1676 <p>
1677 <e>A:</e> Some batteries sold as "new" are in fact old ones. Try the following:
1678 </p>
1679
1680 <pre caption="Querying battery state">
1681 $ <i>grep capacity /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info</i>
1682 design capacity: 47520 mWh
1683 last full capacity: 41830 mWh
1684 </pre>
1685
1686 <p>
1687 If the "last full capacity" differs significantly from the design capacity,
1688 your battery is probably broken. Try to claim your warranty.
1689 </p>
1690
1691 <p>
1692 <e>Q:</e> My problem is not listed above. Where should I go next?
1693 </p>
1694
1695 <p>
1696 <e>A:</e> Don't fear to contact me, <mail link="earthwings@gentoo.org">Dennis
1697 Nienhüser</mail>, directly. The <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1698 Forums</uri> are a good place to get help as well. If you prefer IRC, try the
1699 <c>#gentoo-laptop</c> channel at <uri
1700 link="irc://irc.freenode.net">irc.freenode.net</uri>.
1701 </p>
1702
1703 </body>
1704 </section>
1705 </chapter>
1706 </guide>

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