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1 vapier 1.7 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 yoswink 1.33 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml,v 1.32 2007/07/29 22:14:39 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 neysx 1.21 <guide link="/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml">
5 swift 1.16 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/ClamAV HOWTO</title>
6 swift 1.1 <author title="Author">
7     <mail link="daff at dword dot org">Andreas "daff" Ntaflos</mail>
8     </author>
9     <author title="Author">
10     <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
11     </author>
12 nightmorph 1.30 <author title="Editor">
13     <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
14     </author>
15 swift 1.1
16     <abstract>
17 nightmorph 1.29 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares files,
18     printers without the need to install drivers and provides automatic virus
19     scanning.
20 swift 1.1 </abstract>
21    
22     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
23     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
24     <license/>
25    
26 nightmorph 1.32 <version>1.20</version>
27     <date>2007-07-29</date>
28 swift 1.1
29     <chapter>
30     <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
31     <section>
32     <title>Purpose</title>
33     <body>
34    
35     <p>
36 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different clients
37     speaking different languages, to many different machines that speak a common
38     language. The ultimate goal is to help differing architectures and technologies,
39     come together in a productive, happily coexisting environment.
40 swift 1.1 </p>
41    
42     <p>
43 nightmorph 1.29 Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an excellent
44     step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and virtually all known
45     variations of *nix.
46 swift 1.1 </p>
47    
48     <p>
49 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was intended to
50     explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system, portage and the
51     flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects, it was quickly discovered
52     what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered
53     for Gentoo users. These users are more demanding than most; they require
54     performance, flexibility and customization. This does not however imply that
55     this HOWTO was not intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed
56     to work with a highly customized version of Samba.
57 swift 1.1 </p>
58    
59     <p>
60 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows PCs and
61     *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual File System)
62     feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection. As a finale, it will
63     show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
64 swift 1.1 </p>
65    
66     <p>
67 nightmorph 1.29 There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the scope of this
68     HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
69 swift 1.1 </p>
70    
71     <p>
72 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO provided in
73     the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri> by Andreas "daff"
74     Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston. The link to this
75     discussion is provided below for your reference:
76 swift 1.1 </p>
77    
78     <ul>
79     <li>
80     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
81     CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
82     </li>
83     </ul>
84    
85     </body>
86     </section>
87     <section>
88     <title>Before you use this guide</title>
89     <body>
90    
91     <p>
92 neysx 1.5 There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba, please read
93 nightmorph 1.29 them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this HOWTO (intentional or
94     otherwise). One such document is the very useful and well written <uri
95 neysx 1.5 link="/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration
96     issues and specific printer setup is not discussed here.
97 swift 1.1 </p>
98    
99     </body>
100     </section>
101     <section>
102     <title>Brief Overview</title>
103     <body>
104    
105     <p>
106 nightmorph 1.29 After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline all of
107     the topics covered as they are presented:
108 swift 1.1 </p>
109    
110     <ul>
111     <li>On the Samba server:
112     <ul>
113 swift 1.16 <li>Install and configure ClamAV</li>
114 swift 1.1 <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
115     <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
116     <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
117     <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
118     </ul>
119     </li>
120     <li>On the Unix clients:
121     <ul>
122     <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
123     <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
124     <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
125     </ul>
126     </li>
127     <li>On the Windows Clients:
128     <ul>
129     <li>Configuring the printer</li>
130     <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
131     </ul>
132     </li>
133     </ul>
134    
135     </body>
136     </section>
137     <section>
138     <title>Requirements</title>
139     <body>
140    
141     <p>
142     We will need the following:
143     </p>
144    
145     <ul>
146     <li>net-fs/samba</li>
147 swift 1.6 <li>app-antivirus/clamav</li>
148 swift 1.1 <li>net-print/cups</li>
149     <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
150 nightmorph 1.28 <li>net-print/hplip (if you have an HP printer)</li>
151     <li>A kernel of sorts (2.6)</li>
152 swift 1.1 <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
153     <li>
154     A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
155     </li>
156     </ul>
157    
158     <p>
159 nightmorph 1.29 The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need a kernel
160 nightmorph 1.31 with cifs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows share from
161 nightmorph 1.29 another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
162     app-antivirus/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted to
163     work with Samba. Gentoo's samba ebuild supports all kinds of virus scanning
164 swift 1.17 technologies, such as Sophos, FProt, Fsav, Trend, Icap, Nai, ...
165 swift 1.1 </p>
166    
167     </body>
168     </section>
169     </chapter>
170 neysx 1.5
171 swift 1.1 <chapter>
172     <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
173     <section>
174     <title>The USE Flags</title>
175     <body>
176    
177     <p>
178 nightmorph 1.28 Before emerging anything, take a look at some of the various USE flags available
179     to Samba.
180 swift 1.1 </p>
181    
182     <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
183 nightmorph 1.28 kerberos acl cups ldap pam readline python oav
184 swift 1.1 </pre>
185    
186     <p>
187 nightmorph 1.29 Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of the server,
188     the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or exclude from the
189     emerging of Samba.
190 swift 1.1 </p>
191    
192     <table>
193     <tr>
194     <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
195     <th>Description</th>
196     </tr>
197     <tr>
198     <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
199     <ti>
200     Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is
201     intended to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note
202     below for more information.
203     </ti>
204     </tr>
205     <tr>
206     <th><b>acl</b></th>
207     <ti>
208     Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
209     ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
210     detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
211     GID/UID schemas.
212     </ti>
213     </tr>
214     <tr>
215     <th><b>cups</b></th>
216     <ti>
217 nightmorph 1.29 This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This provides an
218     interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to other systems in the
219     network.
220 swift 1.1 </ti>
221     </tr>
222     <tr>
223     <th><b>ldap</b></th>
224     <ti>
225 nightmorph 1.29 Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
226     expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would be
227     used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to a
228     Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for proper
229     functioning of this option.
230 swift 1.1 </ti>
231     </tr>
232     <tr>
233     <th><b>pam</b></th>
234     <ti>
235 nightmorph 1.29 Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This provides
236     the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is required if
237     users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag is recommended
238     along with this option.
239 swift 1.1 </ti>
240     </tr>
241     <tr>
242     <th><b>readline</b></th>
243     <ti>
244 nightmorph 1.29 Link Samba against libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
245     probably not be disabled.
246 swift 1.1 </ti>
247     </tr>
248     <tr>
249     <th><b>python</b></th>
250     <ti>
251 nightmorph 1.29 Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to interface
252     with Samba.
253 swift 1.1 </ti>
254     </tr>
255     <tr>
256     <th><b>oav</b></th>
257     <ti>
258 nightmorph 1.29 Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot Daemon,
259     Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep (SAVI),
260     Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
261 swift 1.1 </ti>
262     </tr>
263     </table>
264    
265     <p>
266     A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
267     Samba functions include:
268     </p>
269    
270     <ul>
271     <li>
272     ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
273     ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled
274     (depending on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
275     </li>
276     <li>
277     While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
278     scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
279     <ul>
280     <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
281     <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
282     </ul>
283     </li>
284     </ul>
285    
286     </body>
287     </section>
288     </chapter>
289 neysx 1.5
290 swift 1.1 <chapter>
291     <title>Server Software Installation</title>
292     <section>
293     <title>Emerging Samba</title>
294     <body>
295    
296     <p>
297 nightmorph 1.29 First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly. Either have a
298     working domain name system running on your network or appropriate entries in
299     your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file. <c>cupsaddsmb</c> often borks if hostnames
300     don't point to the correct machines.
301 swift 1.1 </p>
302    
303     <p>
304 nightmorph 1.29 Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in order
305     to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this HOWTO is:
306 swift 1.1 </p>
307    
308     <ul>
309     <li>oav</li>
310     <li>cups</li>
311     <li>readline</li>
312     <li>pam</li>
313     </ul>
314    
315     <p>
316 nightmorph 1.29 To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the USE flags are
317     specifically included or excluded.
318 swift 1.1 </p>
319    
320     <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
321 swift 1.17 # <i>echo "net-fs/samba oav readline cups pam" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
322     # <i>emerge net-fs/samba</i>
323 swift 1.1 </pre>
324    
325     <note>
326 nightmorph 1.29 The following arches will need to add <e>~</e> to their <e>KEYWORDS</e>: x86,
327 swift 1.1 ppc, sparc, hppa, ia64 and alpha
328     </note>
329    
330     <p>
331     This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
332     </p>
333    
334     </body>
335     </section>
336     <section>
337 swift 1.16 <title>Emerging ClamAV</title>
338 swift 1.1 <body>
339    
340     <p>
341 nightmorph 1.29 Because the <e>oav</e> USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
342     virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner used in
343     this HOWTO is ClamAV.
344 swift 1.1 </p>
345    
346 swift 1.16 <pre caption="Emerge Clamav">
347 swift 1.6 # <i>emerge app-antivirus/clamav</i>
348 swift 1.1 </pre>
349    
350     </body>
351     </section>
352     <section>
353     <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
354     <body>
355    
356     <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
357     # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
358     </pre>
359    
360     </body>
361     </section>
362     <section>
363 nightmorph 1.28 <title>Emerging net-print/hplip</title>
364 swift 1.1 <body>
365    
366     <p>
367     You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
368     </p>
369    
370 nightmorph 1.28 <pre caption="Emerge hplip">
371     # <i>emerge net-print/hplip</i>
372 swift 1.1 </pre>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376     </chapter>
377 neysx 1.5
378 swift 1.1 <chapter>
379     <title>Server Configuration</title>
380     <section>
381     <title>Configuring Samba</title>
382     <body>
383    
384     <p>
385 nightmorph 1.29 The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>. It is
386     divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
387     # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
388     suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the man page
389     for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed <path>smb.conf.example</path>, the
390     Samba Web site or any of the numerous Samba books available.
391 swift 1.1 </p>
392    
393     <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
394     [global]
395     <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
396     workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
397     <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
398 neysx 1.15 # everyone knows it's not Windows!
399 swift 1.1 # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
400     server string = Samba Server %v
401     <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
402     printcap name = cups
403     printing = cups
404     load printers = yes
405     <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
406     log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
407     max log size = 50
408     <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
409     socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
410     <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
411     # samba server to our local network.
412     # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
413     interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
414     bind interfaces only = yes
415     <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
416     # very security conscience, since this configuration does
417     # not use passwords!</comment>
418     hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
419     hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
420     <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
421     # The default is user</comment>
422     security = share
423     <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
424     guest account = samba
425     guest ok = yes
426     <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
427     # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
428     # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
429     # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
430 swift 1.8
431 swift 1.16 <comment># For Samba 3.x. This enables ClamAV on access scanning.</comment>
432 swift 1.8 vfs object = vscan-clamav
433     vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
434    
435 swift 1.1 <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
436     [print$]
437     comment = Printer Drivers
438     path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
439 swift 1.10 guest ok = yes
440 swift 1.1 browseable = yes
441     read only = yes
442     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
443     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
444     write list = <i>root</i>
445    
446     <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
447     # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
448     [HPDeskJet930C]
449     comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
450     printable = yes
451     path = /var/spool/samba
452     public = yes
453     guest ok = yes
454     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
455     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
456     printer admin = <i>root</i>
457    
458     <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
459     # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
460     [printers]
461     comment = All Printers
462 swift 1.10 browseable = no
463 swift 1.1 printable = yes
464 swift 1.10 writable = no
465 swift 1.1 public = yes
466     guest ok = yes
467     path = /var/spool/samba
468     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
469     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
470     printer admin = <i>root</i>
471    
472     <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
473     # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
474     # they want here.</comment>
475     [public]
476     comment = Public Files
477     browseable = yes
478     public = yes
479     create mode = 0766
480     guest ok = yes
481     path = /home/samba/public
482     </pre>
483    
484 swift 1.3 <warn>
485 nightmorph 1.29 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning printing from
486     Windows clients: don't set <c>guest only = yes</c> in the <c>[global]</c>
487     section. The guest account seems to cause problems when running
488     <c>cupsaddsmb</c> sometimes when trying to connect from Windows machines. See
489     below, too, when we talk about <c>cupsaddsmb</c> and the problems that can
490     arise. Use a dedicated printer user, like <c>printeruser</c> or <c>printer</c>
491     or <c>printme</c> or whatever. It doesn't hurt and it will certainly protect you
492     from a lot of problems.
493 swift 1.3 </warn>
494 swift 1.1
495 swift 1.16 <warn>
496     Turning on ClamAV on access scanning in the <c>[global]</c> section will slow
497     down the performance of your Samba server dramatically.
498     </warn>
499    
500 swift 1.1 <p>
501 nightmorph 1.29 Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of Samba to
502     share the installed printer throughout the network.
503 swift 1.1 </p>
504    
505     <pre caption="Create the directories">
506     # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
507     # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
508     # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
509     </pre>
510    
511     <p>
512 nightmorph 1.29 At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer drivers and
513     to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must exist in the system's
514     <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
515 swift 1.1 </p>
516    
517     <pre caption="Creating the users">
518     # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
519    
520     <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
521     # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
522     </pre>
523    
524     <p>
525     The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
526     in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
527     </p>
528    
529 swift 1.9 <p>
530     You will also need to update <path>/etc/nsswitch.conf</path> so that Windows
531     systems can be found easily using NetBIOS:
532     </p>
533    
534     <pre caption="Editing /etc/nsswitch.conf">
535     # <i>nano -w /etc/nsswitch.conf</i>
536     <comment>(Edit the hosts: line)</comment>
537     hosts: files dns <i>wins</i>
538     </pre>
539    
540 swift 1.1 </body>
541     </section>
542     <section>
543 swift 1.16 <title>Configuring ClamAV</title>
544 swift 1.1 <body>
545    
546     <p>
547 nightmorph 1.29 The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
548     <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set to the
549     defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
550 swift 1.1 </p>
551    
552     <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
553     [samba-vscan]
554     <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
555     ; clamd
556     ; all options are set to default values</comment>
557    
558     <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
559     ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
560     max file size = 0
561    
562     <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
563     ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
564     ; will be logged</comment>
565     verbose file logging = no
566    
567     <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
568     scan on open = yes
569     <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
570     scan on close = yes
571    
572     <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
573     ; (default: yes)</comment>
574     deny access on error = yes
575    
576 neysx 1.5 <comment>; if daemon fails with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
577 swift 1.1 ; should access to file denied?
578     ; (default: yes)</comment>
579     deny access on minor error = yes
580    
581     <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
582     ; when virus is found?
583     ; (default: yes)</comment>
584     send warning message = yes
585    
586     <comment>; what to do with an infected file
587     ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
588     ; delete: delete infected file
589     ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
590     infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
591    
592     <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
593     ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
594     quarantine directory = /tmp
595     <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
596     quarantine prefix = vir-
597    
598     <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
599     ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
600     ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
601     ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
602     max lru files entries = 100
603    
604 neysx 1.5 <comment>; an entry is invalidated after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
605 swift 1.1 ; (Default: 5)</comment>
606     lru file entry lifetime = 5
607    
608     <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
609 swift 1.16 clamd socket name = /tmp/clamd
610    
611     <comment>; port number the ScannerDaemon listens on</comment>
612     oav port = 8127
613 swift 1.1 </pre>
614    
615     <p>
616 nightmorph 1.29 It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add it to
617     the <e>default</e> runlevel and then start the <c>clamd</c> service immediately.
618     The service has two processes: freshclam keeps the virus definition database up
619     to date while clamd is the actual anti-virus daemon. First you may want to set
620     the paths of the logfiles so that it fits your needs.
621 swift 1.16 </p>
622    
623     <pre caption="Checking the location of the logfiles">
624     # <i>vim /etc/clamd.conf</i>
625     <comment>(Check the line "LogFile /var/log/clamd.log")</comment>
626     # <i>vim /etc/freshclam.conf</i>
627     <comment>(Check the line "UpdateLogFile /var/log/freshclam.log")</comment>
628     # <i>vim /etc/conf.d/clamd</i>
629     <comment>(Set "START_CLAMD=yes" and "START_FRESHCLAM=yes")</comment>
630     </pre>
631    
632     <p>
633     Now fire up the virus scanner.
634 swift 1.1 </p>
635    
636     <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
637     # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
638     # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
639     </pre>
640    
641     </body>
642     </section>
643     <section>
644     <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
645     <body>
646    
647     <p>
648 nightmorph 1.29 This is a little more complicated. CUPS' main config file is
649     <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
650     <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined in the
651     example are the directives that need to be changed:
652 swift 1.1 </p>
653    
654     <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
655     ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
656 flammie 1.25 ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, e.g. you</comment>
657 swift 1.1
658     AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
659     ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
660    
661     LogLevel debug <comment># only while isntalling and testing, should later be
662 neysx 1.20 # changed to 'info'</comment>
663 swift 1.1
664     MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
665     # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
666     # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
667     # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
668    
669     BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
670    
671     &lt;Location /&gt;
672     Order Deny,Allow
673     Deny From All
674     Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
675 flammie 1.25 # e.g. 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
676 swift 1.1 # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
677     &lt;/Location&gt;
678    
679     &lt;Location /admin&gt;
680     AuthType Basic
681     AuthClass System
682     Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
683     # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
684     # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
685     Order Deny,Allow
686     Deny From All
687     &lt;/Location&gt;
688     </pre>
689    
690     <p>
691     Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
692 swift 1.3 The changes to <path>mime.convs</path> and <path>mime.types</path> are
693     needed to make CUPS print Microsoft Office document files.
694 swift 1.1 </p>
695    
696     <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
697     <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
698     application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
699     </pre>
700    
701     <p>
702 neysx 1.12 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.types</path> to uncomment some lines.
703 swift 1.1 </p>
704    
705     <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
706     <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
707     application/octet-stream
708     </pre>
709    
710     <p>
711     CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
712     </p>
713    
714     <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
715     <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
716     # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
717 neysx 1.14 <comment>(To start or restart CUPS now)</comment>
718 swift 1.1 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
719     </pre>
720    
721     </body>
722     </section>
723     <section>
724     <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
725     <body>
726    
727     <p>
728 neysx 1.5 First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri> to
729     find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To do so,
730     click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your printers manufacturer
731 flammie 1.25 and the model in the pulldown menu, e.g. HP and DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On
732 nightmorph 1.29 the page coming up click the "recommended driver" link after reading the various
733     notes and information. Then fetch the PPD file from the next page, again after
734     reading the notes and introductions there. You may have to select your printers
735     manufacturer and model again. Reading the <uri
736     link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS quickstart guide</uri> is
737     also very helpful when working with CUPS.
738 swift 1.1 </p>
739    
740     <p>
741 nightmorph 1.29 Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
742     <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was named
743     <path>HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</path>. You should now install the printer.
744     This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
745 swift 1.3 interface is found at <path>http://PrintServer:631</path> once CUPS is running.
746 swift 1.1 </p>
747    
748     <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
749     # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
750 nightmorph 1.22 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
751 swift 1.1 </pre>
752    
753     <p>
754 nightmorph 1.29 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name (<c>-p</c>
755     argument) right (the name you set above during the Samba configuration!) and to
756     put in the correct <c>usb:/dev/usb/blah</c>, <c>parallel:/dev/blah</c> or
757     whatever device you are using for your printer.
758 swift 1.1 </p>
759    
760     <p>
761 nightmorph 1.29 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface and be able
762     to print a test page.
763 swift 1.1 </p>
764    
765     </body>
766     </section>
767     <section>
768     <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
769     <body>
770    
771     <p>
772 nightmorph 1.29 Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers for the
773     Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality. Browsing to
774     the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking on the
775     printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate drivers
776     automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of manually
777     installing printer drivers locally.
778 swift 1.1 </p>
779    
780     <p>
781 nightmorph 1.26 There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS drivers
782     which can be obtained from <uri
783     link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri> (PostScript
784 nightmorph 1.30 printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers, to be obtained by
785     emerging <c>net-print/cups-windows</c>. Note that it may still be marked ~arch,
786     so you may need to add it to <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. There
787     doesn't seem to be a difference between the functionality of the two, but the
788     Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted on a Windows System since it's a Windows
789     binary. Also the whole procedure of finding and copying the correct files is a
790     bit more hassle. The CUPS drivers seem to support some options the Adobe drivers
791     don't.
792 nightmorph 1.26 </p>
793 swift 1.1
794     <p>
795 nightmorph 1.30 This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. Install them as shown:
796 swift 1.1 </p>
797    
798 nightmorph 1.30 <pre caption="Install the drivers and restart CUPS">
799     # <i>emerge -av cups-windows</i>
800 nightmorph 1.22 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
801 swift 1.1 </pre>
802    
803     <p>
804 nightmorph 1.23 Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS distribution.
805     Its man page is an interesting read.
806 swift 1.1 </p>
807    
808     <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
809     # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
810     <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
811     "export all known printers".)</comment>
812     # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
813     </pre>
814    
815     <warn>
816 nightmorph 1.26 The execution of this command often causes the most trouble. Read through the
817     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
818     thread</uri> for some troubleshooting tips.
819 swift 1.1 </warn>
820    
821     <p>
822     Here are common errors that may happen:
823     </p>
824    
825     <ul>
826     <li>
827 swift 1.3 The hostname given as a parameter for <c>-h</c> and <c>-H</c>
828 nightmorph 1.29 (<c>PrintServer</c>) often does not resolve correctly and doesn't identify
829     the print server for CUPS/Samba interaction. If an error like: <b>Warning:
830     No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" - skipping!</b> occurs, the
831     first thing you should do is substitute <c>PrintServer</c> with
832     <c>localhost</c> and try it again.
833 swift 1.1 </li>
834     <li>
835 nightmorph 1.29 The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
836     is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
837     not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <c>security =
838     user</c> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
839     successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
840 swift 1.1 before.
841     </li>
842     </ul>
843    
844     <p>
845 nightmorph 1.29 This should install the correct driver directory structure under
846     <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
847     <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should be the 3
848     driver files and the PPD file, renamed to <path>YourPrinterName.ppd</path> (the
849     name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
850 swift 1.1 </p>
851    
852     <p>
853 nightmorph 1.29 Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now installed.
854 swift 1.1 </p>
855    
856     </body>
857     </section>
858     <section>
859     <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
860     <body>
861    
862     <p>
863     Lastly, setup our directories.
864     </p>
865    
866     <pre caption="Final changes needed">
867     # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
868     # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
869     # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
870     # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
871     </pre>
872    
873     </body>
874     </section>
875     <section>
876     <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
877     <body>
878    
879     <p>
880     We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
881 nightmorph 1.29 properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do this we
882     run <c>testparm</c>.
883 swift 1.1 </p>
884    
885     <pre caption="Running the testparm">
886     <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
887     # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
888     Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
889     Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
890     Global parameter guest account found in service section!
891     Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
892     Global parameter guest account found in service section!
893     Loaded services file OK.
894     Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
895     Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
896     ...
897     ...
898     </pre>
899    
900     </body>
901     </section>
902     <section>
903     <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
904     <body>
905    
906     <p>
907     Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
908     </p>
909    
910     <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
911     # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
912     # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
913     </pre>
914    
915     </body>
916     </section>
917     <section>
918     <title>Checking our services</title>
919     <body>
920    
921     <p>
922 nightmorph 1.29 It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also. We will also
923     want to take a peak at our Samba shares using <c>smbclient</c>.
924 swift 1.1 </p>
925    
926     <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
927     # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
928     Password:
929     <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
930     </pre>
931    
932     </body>
933     </section>
934     </chapter>
935 neysx 1.5
936 swift 1.1 <chapter>
937     <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
938     <section>
939     <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
940     <body>
941    
942     <p>
943 nightmorph 1.29 Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS. Do the
944 neysx 1.11 equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
945 swift 1.1 </p>
946    
947 neysx 1.5 <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system">
948 swift 1.1 # <i>emerge cups</i>
949 neysx 1.11 # <i>nano -w /etc/cups/client.conf</i>
950     ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
951 swift 1.1 </pre>
952    
953     <p>
954 neysx 1.11 That should be it. Nothing else will be needed.
955 swift 1.1 </p>
956    
957     <p>
958 neysx 1.11 If you use only one printer, it will be your default printer. If your print
959     server manages several printers, your administrator will have defined a default
960     printer on the server. If you want to define a different default printer for
961     yourself, use the <c>lpoptions</c> command.
962 swift 1.1 </p>
963    
964 neysx 1.11 <pre caption="Setting your default printer">
965     <comment>(List available printers)</comment>
966     # <i>lpstat -a</i>
967     <comment>(Sample output, yours will differ)</comment>
968     HPDeskJet930C accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
969     laser accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
970     <comment>(Define HPDeskJet930C as your default printer)</comment>
971     # <i>lpoptions -d HPDeskJet930C</i>
972 swift 1.1 </pre>
973    
974 neysx 1.11 <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
975     <comment>(Specify the printer to be used)</comment>
976     # <i>lp -d HPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
977     <comment>(Use your default printer)</comment>
978     # <i>lp foobar.whatever.ps</i>
979 swift 1.1 </pre>
980    
981     <p>
982 neysx 1.11 Just point your web browser to <c>http://printserver:631</c> on the client if
983     you want to manage your printers and their jobs with a nice web interface.
984 nightmorph 1.29 Replace <c>printserver</c> with the name of the <e>machine</e> that acts as your
985     print server, not the name you gave to the cups print server if you used
986 neysx 1.11 different names.
987 swift 1.1 </p>
988    
989     </body>
990     </section>
991     <section>
992     <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
993     <body>
994    
995 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
996 yoswink 1.33 Don't forget to first <c>emerge samba</c> on the client(s) that will be
997 nightmorph 1.32 accessing the shares.
998     </note>
999    
1000 swift 1.1 <p>
1001 nightmorph 1.31 Now is time to configure our kernel to support cifs. Since I'm assuming
1002     we've all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make sure we have all the
1003     right options selected in our kernel. For simplicity's sake, make it a module
1004     for ease of use. It is the author's opinion that kernel modules are a good thing
1005     and should be used whenever possible.
1006 swift 1.1 </p>
1007    
1008 nightmorph 1.31 <pre caption="Kernel support" >
1009     CONFIG_CIFS=m
1010 swift 1.1 </pre>
1011    
1012     <p>
1013 nightmorph 1.31 Then make the module/install it; insert it with:
1014 swift 1.1 </p>
1015    
1016     <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1017 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>modprobe cifs</i>
1018 swift 1.1 </pre>
1019    
1020     <p>
1021 nightmorph 1.29 Once the module is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is possible. Use
1022     <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1023 swift 1.1 </p>
1024    
1025     <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1026     <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1027 nightmorph 1.31 mount -t cifs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1028 swift 1.1 If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1029    
1030 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>mount -t cifs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1031 swift 1.1
1032     <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1033 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>mount -t cifs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1034 swift 1.1 </pre>
1035    
1036     <p>
1037 nightmorph 1.29 After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local drive.
1038 swift 1.1 </p>
1039    
1040     </body>
1041     </section>
1042     <section>
1043     <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1044     <body>
1045    
1046     <p>
1047 nightmorph 1.29 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to <path>\\PrintServer</path> and
1048     right click on the printer (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will download
1049     the drivers to the Windows client and now every application (such as Word or
1050     Acrobat) will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available printer to print to. :-)
1051 swift 1.1 </p>
1052    
1053     </body>
1054     </section>
1055     </chapter>
1056 neysx 1.5
1057 swift 1.1 <chapter>
1058     <title>Final Notes</title>
1059     <section>
1060     <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1061     <body>
1062    
1063     <p>
1064 nightmorph 1.29 That should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment that is
1065     friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working share!
1066 swift 1.1 </p>
1067    
1068     </body>
1069     </section>
1070     </chapter>
1071 neysx 1.5
1072 swift 1.1 <chapter>
1073     <title>Links and Resources</title>
1074     <section>
1075     <title>Links</title>
1076     <body>
1077    
1078     <p>
1079     These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1080     troubleshooting your installation:
1081     </p>
1082    
1083     <ul>
1084     <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1085 nightmorph 1.27 <li>
1086     <uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri>, especially the <uri
1087     link="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/CUPS-printing.html">chapter
1088     on Samba/CUPS configuration</uri>
1089     </li>
1090 swift 1.1 <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1091     <li>
1092     <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1093 nightmorph 1.29 Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> ( This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e>
1094     and <e>EVERYTHING</e> I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and
1095     Samba, and generally printing support on networks. A really interesting
1096     read, with lots and lots of details.)
1097 swift 1.1 </li>
1098     <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1099     </ul>
1100    
1101     </body>
1102     </section>
1103     <section>
1104     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1105     <body>
1106    
1107     <p>
1108 nightmorph 1.29 See <uri
1109     link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1110     page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0" manual. Lots of
1111     useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up first, before posting questions
1112     and problems! Maybe the solution you're looking for is right there.
1113 swift 1.1 </p>
1114    
1115     </body>
1116     </section>
1117     </chapter>
1118     </guide>

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