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1 vapier 1.7 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 neysx 1.37 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml,v 1.36 2007/12/01 11:25:01 neysx Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 neysx 1.36
5 neysx 1.21 <guide link="/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml">
6 neysx 1.36
7 swift 1.16 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/ClamAV HOWTO</title>
8 neysx 1.36
9 swift 1.1 <author title="Author">
10 neysx 1.36 <mail>Andreas "daff" Ntaflos</mail><!--daff at dword dot org-->
11 swift 1.1 </author>
12     <author title="Author">
13     <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
14     </author>
15 nightmorph 1.30 <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
17     </author>
18 swift 1.1
19     <abstract>
20 nightmorph 1.29 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares files,
21     printers without the need to install drivers and provides automatic virus
22     scanning.
23 swift 1.1 </abstract>
24    
25     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
26 neysx 1.36 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
27 swift 1.1 <license/>
28    
29 neysx 1.36 <version>1.23</version>
30     <date>2007-12-01</date>
31 swift 1.1
32     <chapter>
33     <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
34     <section>
35     <title>Purpose</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different clients
40     speaking different languages, to many different machines that speak a common
41     language. The ultimate goal is to help differing architectures and technologies,
42     come together in a productive, happily coexisting environment.
43 swift 1.1 </p>
44    
45     <p>
46 nightmorph 1.29 Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an excellent
47     step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and virtually all known
48     variations of *nix.
49 swift 1.1 </p>
50    
51     <p>
52 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was intended to
53     explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system, portage and the
54     flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects, it was quickly discovered
55     what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered
56     for Gentoo users. These users are more demanding than most; they require
57     performance, flexibility and customization. This does not however imply that
58     this HOWTO was not intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed
59     to work with a highly customized version of Samba.
60 swift 1.1 </p>
61    
62     <p>
63 nightmorph 1.29 This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows PCs and
64     *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual File System)
65     feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection. As a finale, it will
66     show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
67 swift 1.1 </p>
68    
69     <p>
70 nightmorph 1.29 There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the scope of this
71     HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
72 swift 1.1 </p>
73    
74     <p>
75 neysx 1.37 This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO provided
76     in the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri> by Andreas
77     "daff" Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston. The link to this
78 nightmorph 1.29 discussion is provided below for your reference:
79 swift 1.1 </p>
80    
81     <ul>
82     <li>
83 neysx 1.37 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
84 swift 1.1 CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
85     </li>
86     </ul>
87    
88     </body>
89     </section>
90     <section>
91     <title>Before you use this guide</title>
92     <body>
93    
94     <p>
95 neysx 1.5 There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba, please read
96 nightmorph 1.29 them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this HOWTO (intentional or
97     otherwise). One such document is the very useful and well written <uri
98 neysx 1.5 link="/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration
99     issues and specific printer setup is not discussed here.
100 swift 1.1 </p>
101    
102     </body>
103     </section>
104     <section>
105     <title>Brief Overview</title>
106     <body>
107    
108     <p>
109 nightmorph 1.29 After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline all of
110     the topics covered as they are presented:
111 swift 1.1 </p>
112    
113     <ul>
114     <li>On the Samba server:
115     <ul>
116 swift 1.16 <li>Install and configure ClamAV</li>
117 swift 1.1 <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
118     <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
119     <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
120     <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
121     </ul>
122     </li>
123     <li>On the Unix clients:
124     <ul>
125     <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
126     <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
127     <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
128     </ul>
129     </li>
130     <li>On the Windows Clients:
131     <ul>
132     <li>Configuring the printer</li>
133     <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
134     </ul>
135     </li>
136     </ul>
137    
138     </body>
139     </section>
140     <section>
141     <title>Requirements</title>
142     <body>
143    
144     <p>
145     We will need the following:
146     </p>
147    
148     <ul>
149     <li>net-fs/samba</li>
150 swift 1.6 <li>app-antivirus/clamav</li>
151 swift 1.1 <li>net-print/cups</li>
152     <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
153 nightmorph 1.28 <li>net-print/hplip (if you have an HP printer)</li>
154     <li>A kernel of sorts (2.6)</li>
155 swift 1.1 <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
156     <li>
157     A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
158     </li>
159     </ul>
160    
161     <p>
162 nightmorph 1.29 The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need a kernel
163 nightmorph 1.31 with cifs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows share from
164 nightmorph 1.29 another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
165     app-antivirus/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted to
166     work with Samba. Gentoo's samba ebuild supports all kinds of virus scanning
167 swift 1.17 technologies, such as Sophos, FProt, Fsav, Trend, Icap, Nai, ...
168 swift 1.1 </p>
169    
170     </body>
171     </section>
172     </chapter>
173 neysx 1.5
174 swift 1.1 <chapter>
175     <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
176     <section>
177     <title>The USE Flags</title>
178     <body>
179    
180     <p>
181 nightmorph 1.28 Before emerging anything, take a look at some of the various USE flags available
182     to Samba.
183 swift 1.1 </p>
184    
185     <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
186 nightmorph 1.28 kerberos acl cups ldap pam readline python oav
187 swift 1.1 </pre>
188    
189     <p>
190 nightmorph 1.29 Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of the server,
191     the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or exclude from the
192     emerging of Samba.
193 swift 1.1 </p>
194    
195     <table>
196     <tr>
197     <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
198     <th>Description</th>
199     </tr>
200     <tr>
201     <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
202     <ti>
203 neysx 1.37 Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is intended
204     to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note below for more
205     information.
206 swift 1.1 </ti>
207     </tr>
208     <tr>
209     <th><b>acl</b></th>
210     <ti>
211     Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
212 neysx 1.37 ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
213     detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
214 swift 1.1 GID/UID schemas.
215     </ti>
216     </tr>
217     <tr>
218     <th><b>cups</b></th>
219     <ti>
220 nightmorph 1.29 This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This provides an
221     interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to other systems in the
222     network.
223 swift 1.1 </ti>
224     </tr>
225     <tr>
226     <th><b>ldap</b></th>
227     <ti>
228 nightmorph 1.29 Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
229     expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would be
230     used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to a
231     Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for proper
232     functioning of this option.
233 swift 1.1 </ti>
234     </tr>
235     <tr>
236     <th><b>pam</b></th>
237     <ti>
238 neysx 1.37 Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This provides
239 nightmorph 1.29 the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is required if
240     users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag is recommended
241     along with this option.
242 swift 1.1 </ti>
243     </tr>
244     <tr>
245     <th><b>readline</b></th>
246     <ti>
247 nightmorph 1.29 Link Samba against libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
248     probably not be disabled.
249 swift 1.1 </ti>
250     </tr>
251     <tr>
252     <th><b>python</b></th>
253     <ti>
254 nightmorph 1.29 Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to interface
255     with Samba.
256 swift 1.1 </ti>
257     </tr>
258     <tr>
259     <th><b>oav</b></th>
260     <ti>
261 nightmorph 1.29 Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot Daemon,
262     Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep (SAVI),
263     Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
264 swift 1.1 </ti>
265     </tr>
266     </table>
267    
268     <p>
269     A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
270     Samba functions include:
271     </p>
272    
273     <ul>
274     <li>
275 neysx 1.37 ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
276     ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled (depending
277     on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
278 swift 1.1 </li>
279     <li>
280     While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
281     scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
282     <ul>
283     <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
284     <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
285     </ul>
286     </li>
287     </ul>
288    
289     </body>
290     </section>
291     </chapter>
292 neysx 1.5
293 swift 1.1 <chapter>
294     <title>Server Software Installation</title>
295     <section>
296     <title>Emerging Samba</title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <p>
300 nightmorph 1.29 First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly. Either have a
301     working domain name system running on your network or appropriate entries in
302     your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file. <c>cupsaddsmb</c> often borks if hostnames
303 neysx 1.37 don't point to the correct machines.
304 swift 1.1 </p>
305    
306     <p>
307 nightmorph 1.29 Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in order
308     to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this HOWTO is:
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311     <ul>
312     <li>oav</li>
313     <li>cups</li>
314     <li>readline</li>
315     <li>pam</li>
316     </ul>
317    
318     <p>
319 nightmorph 1.29 To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the USE flags are
320     specifically included or excluded.
321 swift 1.1 </p>
322    
323     <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
324 swift 1.17 # <i>echo "net-fs/samba oav readline cups pam" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
325     # <i>emerge net-fs/samba</i>
326 swift 1.1 </pre>
327    
328     <p>
329     This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
330     </p>
331    
332     </body>
333     </section>
334     <section>
335 swift 1.16 <title>Emerging ClamAV</title>
336 swift 1.1 <body>
337    
338     <p>
339 nightmorph 1.29 Because the <e>oav</e> USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
340     virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner used in
341     this HOWTO is ClamAV.
342 swift 1.1 </p>
343    
344 swift 1.16 <pre caption="Emerge Clamav">
345 swift 1.6 # <i>emerge app-antivirus/clamav</i>
346 swift 1.1 </pre>
347    
348     </body>
349     </section>
350     <section>
351     <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
352     <body>
353    
354     <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
355     # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
356     </pre>
357    
358     </body>
359     </section>
360     <section>
361 nightmorph 1.28 <title>Emerging net-print/hplip</title>
362 swift 1.1 <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
366     </p>
367    
368 nightmorph 1.28 <pre caption="Emerge hplip">
369     # <i>emerge net-print/hplip</i>
370 swift 1.1 </pre>
371    
372     </body>
373     </section>
374     </chapter>
375 neysx 1.5
376 swift 1.1 <chapter>
377     <title>Server Configuration</title>
378     <section>
379     <title>Configuring Samba</title>
380     <body>
381    
382     <p>
383 neysx 1.37 The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>. It is
384     divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
385     # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
386 nightmorph 1.29 suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the man page
387     for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed <path>smb.conf.example</path>, the
388 neysx 1.37 Samba Web site or any of the numerous Samba books available.
389 swift 1.1 </p>
390    
391     <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
392     [global]
393     <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
394     workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
395     <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
396 neysx 1.15 # everyone knows it's not Windows!
397 swift 1.1 # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
398     server string = Samba Server %v
399     <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
400     printcap name = cups
401     printing = cups
402     load printers = yes
403     <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
404     log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
405     max log size = 50
406     <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
407     socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
408     <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
409     # samba server to our local network.
410     # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
411     interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
412     bind interfaces only = yes
413     <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
414     # very security conscience, since this configuration does
415     # not use passwords!</comment>
416     hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
417     hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
418     <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
419     # The default is user</comment>
420     security = share
421     <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
422     guest ok = yes
423     <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
424     # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
425     # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
426     # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
427 swift 1.8
428 swift 1.16 <comment># For Samba 3.x. This enables ClamAV on access scanning.</comment>
429 swift 1.8 vfs object = vscan-clamav
430     vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
431    
432 swift 1.1 <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
433     [print$]
434     comment = Printer Drivers
435     path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
436 swift 1.10 guest ok = yes
437 swift 1.1 browseable = yes
438     read only = yes
439     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
440     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
441     write list = <i>root</i>
442    
443     <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
444     # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
445     [HPDeskJet930C]
446     comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
447     printable = yes
448     path = /var/spool/samba
449     public = yes
450     guest ok = yes
451     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
452     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
453     printer admin = <i>root</i>
454    
455 neysx 1.37 <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
456 swift 1.1 # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
457 neysx 1.37 [printers]
458 swift 1.1 comment = All Printers
459 neysx 1.37 browseable = no
460     printable = yes
461 swift 1.10 writable = no
462 neysx 1.37 public = yes
463 swift 1.1 guest ok = yes
464     path = /var/spool/samba
465     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
466     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
467     printer admin = <i>root</i>
468    
469     <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
470     # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
471     # they want here.</comment>
472     [public]
473     comment = Public Files
474     browseable = yes
475     public = yes
476     create mode = 0766
477     guest ok = yes
478     path = /home/samba/public
479     </pre>
480    
481 swift 1.3 <warn>
482 nightmorph 1.29 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning printing from
483     Windows clients: don't set <c>guest only = yes</c> in the <c>[global]</c>
484     section. The guest account seems to cause problems when running
485     <c>cupsaddsmb</c> sometimes when trying to connect from Windows machines. See
486     below, too, when we talk about <c>cupsaddsmb</c> and the problems that can
487     arise. Use a dedicated printer user, like <c>printeruser</c> or <c>printer</c>
488     or <c>printme</c> or whatever. It doesn't hurt and it will certainly protect you
489     from a lot of problems.
490 swift 1.3 </warn>
491 swift 1.1
492 swift 1.16 <warn>
493     Turning on ClamAV on access scanning in the <c>[global]</c> section will slow
494     down the performance of your Samba server dramatically.
495     </warn>
496    
497 swift 1.1 <p>
498 nightmorph 1.29 Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of Samba to
499     share the installed printer throughout the network.
500 swift 1.1 </p>
501    
502     <pre caption="Create the directories">
503     # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
504     # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
505     # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
506     </pre>
507    
508     <p>
509 nightmorph 1.29 At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer drivers and
510     to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must exist in the system's
511     <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
512 swift 1.1 </p>
513    
514     <pre caption="Creating the users">
515 neysx 1.37 # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
516 swift 1.1
517     <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
518     # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
519     </pre>
520    
521     <p>
522 neysx 1.37 The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
523 swift 1.1 in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
524     </p>
525    
526 swift 1.9 <p>
527     You will also need to update <path>/etc/nsswitch.conf</path> so that Windows
528     systems can be found easily using NetBIOS:
529     </p>
530    
531     <pre caption="Editing /etc/nsswitch.conf">
532     # <i>nano -w /etc/nsswitch.conf</i>
533     <comment>(Edit the hosts: line)</comment>
534     hosts: files dns <i>wins</i>
535     </pre>
536    
537 swift 1.1 </body>
538     </section>
539     <section>
540 swift 1.16 <title>Configuring ClamAV</title>
541 swift 1.1 <body>
542    
543     <p>
544 nightmorph 1.29 The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
545     <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set to the
546     defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
547 swift 1.1 </p>
548    
549     <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
550     [samba-vscan]
551     <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
552     ; clamd
553     ; all options are set to default values</comment>
554    
555     <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
556     ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
557     max file size = 0
558    
559     <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
560     ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
561     ; will be logged</comment>
562     verbose file logging = no
563    
564     <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
565     scan on open = yes
566     <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
567     scan on close = yes
568    
569     <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
570     ; (default: yes)</comment>
571     deny access on error = yes
572    
573 neysx 1.5 <comment>; if daemon fails with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
574 swift 1.1 ; should access to file denied?
575     ; (default: yes)</comment>
576     deny access on minor error = yes
577    
578     <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
579     ; when virus is found?
580     ; (default: yes)</comment>
581     send warning message = yes
582    
583     <comment>; what to do with an infected file
584     ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
585     ; delete: delete infected file
586     ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
587     infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
588    
589     <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
590     ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
591     quarantine directory = /tmp
592     <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
593     quarantine prefix = vir-
594    
595     <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
596     ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
597     ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
598     ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
599     max lru files entries = 100
600    
601 neysx 1.5 <comment>; an entry is invalidated after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
602 swift 1.1 ; (Default: 5)</comment>
603     lru file entry lifetime = 5
604    
605     <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
606 swift 1.16 clamd socket name = /tmp/clamd
607    
608     <comment>; port number the ScannerDaemon listens on</comment>
609     oav port = 8127
610 swift 1.1 </pre>
611    
612     <p>
613 nightmorph 1.29 It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add it to
614     the <e>default</e> runlevel and then start the <c>clamd</c> service immediately.
615     The service has two processes: freshclam keeps the virus definition database up
616     to date while clamd is the actual anti-virus daemon. First you may want to set
617     the paths of the logfiles so that it fits your needs.
618 swift 1.16 </p>
619    
620     <pre caption="Checking the location of the logfiles">
621     # <i>vim /etc/clamd.conf</i>
622     <comment>(Check the line "LogFile /var/log/clamd.log")</comment>
623     # <i>vim /etc/freshclam.conf</i>
624     <comment>(Check the line "UpdateLogFile /var/log/freshclam.log")</comment>
625     # <i>vim /etc/conf.d/clamd</i>
626     <comment>(Set "START_CLAMD=yes" and "START_FRESHCLAM=yes")</comment>
627     </pre>
628    
629     <p>
630     Now fire up the virus scanner.
631 swift 1.1 </p>
632    
633     <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
634     # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
635     # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
636     </pre>
637    
638     </body>
639     </section>
640     <section>
641     <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
642     <body>
643    
644     <p>
645 nightmorph 1.29 This is a little more complicated. CUPS' main config file is
646     <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
647     <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined in the
648     example are the directives that need to be changed:
649 swift 1.1 </p>
650    
651     <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
652     ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
653 flammie 1.25 ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, e.g. you</comment>
654 swift 1.1
655     AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
656     ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
657    
658 neysx 1.37 LogLevel debug <comment># only while installing and testing, should later be
659 neysx 1.20 # changed to 'info'</comment>
660 swift 1.1
661     MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
662     # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
663     # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
664     # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
665    
666 neysx 1.37 BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
667 swift 1.1
668     &lt;Location /&gt;
669     Order Deny,Allow
670     Deny From All
671     Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
672 flammie 1.25 # e.g. 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
673 swift 1.1 # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
674     &lt;/Location&gt;
675    
676     &lt;Location /admin&gt;
677     AuthType Basic
678     AuthClass System
679     Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
680 neysx 1.37 # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
681 swift 1.1 # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
682     Order Deny,Allow
683     Deny From All
684     &lt;/Location&gt;
685     </pre>
686    
687     <p>
688 neysx 1.37 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines. The changes to
689     <path>mime.convs</path> and <path>mime.types</path> are needed to make CUPS
690     print Microsoft Office document files.
691 swift 1.1 </p>
692    
693     <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
694     <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
695 neysx 1.37 application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
696 swift 1.1 </pre>
697    
698     <p>
699 neysx 1.12 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.types</path> to uncomment some lines.
700 swift 1.1 </p>
701    
702     <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
703     <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
704 neysx 1.37 application/octet-stream
705 swift 1.1 </pre>
706    
707     <p>
708 neysx 1.37 CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
709 swift 1.1 </p>
710    
711     <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
712     <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
713     # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
714 neysx 1.14 <comment>(To start or restart CUPS now)</comment>
715 swift 1.1 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
716     </pre>
717    
718     </body>
719     </section>
720     <section>
721     <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
722     <body>
723    
724     <p>
725 neysx 1.5 First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri> to
726     find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To do so,
727     click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your printers manufacturer
728 flammie 1.25 and the model in the pulldown menu, e.g. HP and DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On
729 nightmorph 1.29 the page coming up click the "recommended driver" link after reading the various
730     notes and information. Then fetch the PPD file from the next page, again after
731     reading the notes and introductions there. You may have to select your printers
732     manufacturer and model again. Reading the <uri
733     link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS quickstart guide</uri> is
734     also very helpful when working with CUPS.
735 swift 1.1 </p>
736    
737     <p>
738 nightmorph 1.29 Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
739     <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was named
740     <path>HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</path>. You should now install the printer.
741     This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
742 swift 1.3 interface is found at <path>http://PrintServer:631</path> once CUPS is running.
743 swift 1.1 </p>
744    
745     <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
746     # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
747 nightmorph 1.22 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
748 swift 1.1 </pre>
749    
750     <p>
751 nightmorph 1.29 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name (<c>-p</c>
752     argument) right (the name you set above during the Samba configuration!) and to
753     put in the correct <c>usb:/dev/usb/blah</c>, <c>parallel:/dev/blah</c> or
754     whatever device you are using for your printer.
755 swift 1.1 </p>
756    
757     <p>
758 nightmorph 1.29 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface and be able
759     to print a test page.
760 swift 1.1 </p>
761    
762     </body>
763     </section>
764     <section>
765     <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
766     <body>
767    
768     <p>
769 neysx 1.37 Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers for
770     the Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality. Browsing
771     to the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking on the
772 nightmorph 1.29 printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate drivers
773     automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of manually
774     installing printer drivers locally.
775 swift 1.1 </p>
776    
777     <p>
778 nightmorph 1.26 There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS drivers
779     which can be obtained from <uri
780     link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri> (PostScript
781 nightmorph 1.30 printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers, to be obtained by
782     emerging <c>net-print/cups-windows</c>. Note that it may still be marked ~arch,
783     so you may need to add it to <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. There
784     doesn't seem to be a difference between the functionality of the two, but the
785     Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted on a Windows System since it's a Windows
786     binary. Also the whole procedure of finding and copying the correct files is a
787 nightmorph 1.35 bit more hassle. The CUPS drivers support some options the Adobe drivers
788 nightmorph 1.30 don't.
789 nightmorph 1.26 </p>
790 swift 1.1
791     <p>
792 nightmorph 1.30 This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. Install them as shown:
793 swift 1.1 </p>
794    
795 nightmorph 1.35 <pre caption="Install the drivers">
796 nightmorph 1.30 # <i>emerge -av cups-windows</i>
797 swift 1.1 </pre>
798    
799     <p>
800 nightmorph 1.23 Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS distribution.
801 nightmorph 1.35 Be sure to read its manpage (<c>man cupsaddsmb</c>), as it will tell you which
802     Windows drivers you'll need to copy to the proper CUPS directory. Once you've
803     copied the drivers, restart CUPS by running <c>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</c>.
804     Next, run <c>cupsaddsmb</c> as shown:
805 swift 1.1 </p>
806    
807     <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
808     # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
809     <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
810     "export all known printers".)</comment>
811     # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
812     </pre>
813    
814     <warn>
815 nightmorph 1.26 The execution of this command often causes the most trouble. Read through the
816     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
817     thread</uri> for some troubleshooting tips.
818 swift 1.1 </warn>
819    
820     <p>
821     Here are common errors that may happen:
822     </p>
823    
824     <ul>
825     <li>
826 swift 1.3 The hostname given as a parameter for <c>-h</c> and <c>-H</c>
827 nightmorph 1.29 (<c>PrintServer</c>) often does not resolve correctly and doesn't identify
828     the print server for CUPS/Samba interaction. If an error like: <b>Warning:
829     No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" - skipping!</b> occurs, the
830     first thing you should do is substitute <c>PrintServer</c> with
831     <c>localhost</c> and try it again.
832 swift 1.1 </li>
833     <li>
834 nightmorph 1.29 The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
835     is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
836     not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <c>security =
837     user</c> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
838     successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
839 swift 1.1 before.
840     </li>
841     </ul>
842    
843     <p>
844 nightmorph 1.29 This should install the correct driver directory structure under
845     <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
846     <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should be the 3
847     driver files and the PPD file, renamed to <path>YourPrinterName.ppd</path> (the
848     name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
849 swift 1.1 </p>
850    
851     <p>
852 nightmorph 1.29 Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now installed.
853 swift 1.1 </p>
854    
855     </body>
856     </section>
857     <section>
858     <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
859     <body>
860    
861     <p>
862     Lastly, setup our directories.
863     </p>
864    
865     <pre caption="Final changes needed">
866     # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
867     # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
868     # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
869     # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
870     </pre>
871    
872     </body>
873     </section>
874     <section>
875     <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
876     <body>
877    
878     <p>
879     We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
880 nightmorph 1.29 properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do this we
881     run <c>testparm</c>.
882 swift 1.1 </p>
883    
884     <pre caption="Running the testparm">
885     <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
886     # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
887     Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
888     Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
889     Global parameter guest account found in service section!
890     Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
891     Global parameter guest account found in service section!
892     Loaded services file OK.
893     Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
894     Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
895     ...
896     ...
897     </pre>
898    
899     </body>
900     </section>
901     <section>
902     <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
903     <body>
904    
905     <p>
906     Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
907     </p>
908    
909     <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
910     # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
911     # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
912     </pre>
913    
914     </body>
915     </section>
916     <section>
917     <title>Checking our services</title>
918     <body>
919    
920     <p>
921 nightmorph 1.29 It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also. We will also
922     want to take a peak at our Samba shares using <c>smbclient</c>.
923 swift 1.1 </p>
924    
925     <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
926     # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
927     Password:
928     <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
929     </pre>
930    
931     </body>
932     </section>
933     </chapter>
934 neysx 1.5
935 swift 1.1 <chapter>
936     <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
937     <section>
938     <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
939     <body>
940    
941     <p>
942 nightmorph 1.29 Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS. Do the
943 neysx 1.11 equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
944 swift 1.1 </p>
945    
946 neysx 1.5 <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system">
947 swift 1.1 # <i>emerge cups</i>
948 neysx 1.11 # <i>nano -w /etc/cups/client.conf</i>
949     ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
950 swift 1.1 </pre>
951    
952     <p>
953 neysx 1.11 That should be it. Nothing else will be needed.
954 swift 1.1 </p>
955    
956     <p>
957 neysx 1.11 If you use only one printer, it will be your default printer. If your print
958     server manages several printers, your administrator will have defined a default
959     printer on the server. If you want to define a different default printer for
960     yourself, use the <c>lpoptions</c> command.
961 swift 1.1 </p>
962    
963 neysx 1.11 <pre caption="Setting your default printer">
964     <comment>(List available printers)</comment>
965     # <i>lpstat -a</i>
966     <comment>(Sample output, yours will differ)</comment>
967     HPDeskJet930C accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
968     laser accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
969     <comment>(Define HPDeskJet930C as your default printer)</comment>
970     # <i>lpoptions -d HPDeskJet930C</i>
971 swift 1.1 </pre>
972    
973 neysx 1.11 <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
974     <comment>(Specify the printer to be used)</comment>
975     # <i>lp -d HPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
976     <comment>(Use your default printer)</comment>
977     # <i>lp foobar.whatever.ps</i>
978 swift 1.1 </pre>
979    
980     <p>
981 neysx 1.11 Just point your web browser to <c>http://printserver:631</c> on the client if
982     you want to manage your printers and their jobs with a nice web interface.
983 nightmorph 1.29 Replace <c>printserver</c> with the name of the <e>machine</e> that acts as your
984     print server, not the name you gave to the cups print server if you used
985 neysx 1.11 different names.
986 swift 1.1 </p>
987    
988     </body>
989     </section>
990     <section>
991     <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
992     <body>
993    
994 nightmorph 1.32 <note>
995 neysx 1.36 Don't forget to install <c>net-fs/mount-cifs</c> or <c>net-fs/samba</c> on the
996     client(s) that will be accessing the shares.
997 nightmorph 1.32 </note>
998    
999 swift 1.1 <p>
1000 nightmorph 1.31 Now is time to configure our kernel to support cifs. Since I'm assuming
1001     we've all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make sure we have all the
1002     right options selected in our kernel. For simplicity's sake, make it a module
1003     for ease of use. It is the author's opinion that kernel modules are a good thing
1004     and should be used whenever possible.
1005 swift 1.1 </p>
1006    
1007 nightmorph 1.31 <pre caption="Kernel support" >
1008     CONFIG_CIFS=m
1009 swift 1.1 </pre>
1010    
1011     <p>
1012 nightmorph 1.31 Then make the module/install it; insert it with:
1013 swift 1.1 </p>
1014    
1015     <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1016 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>modprobe cifs</i>
1017 swift 1.1 </pre>
1018    
1019     <p>
1020 nightmorph 1.29 Once the module is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is possible. Use
1021     <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1022 swift 1.1 </p>
1023    
1024     <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1025     <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1026 nightmorph 1.31 mount -t cifs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1027 swift 1.1 If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1028    
1029 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>mount -t cifs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1030 swift 1.1
1031     <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1032 nightmorph 1.31 # <i>mount -t cifs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1033 swift 1.1 </pre>
1034    
1035     <p>
1036 nightmorph 1.29 After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local drive.
1037 swift 1.1 </p>
1038    
1039     </body>
1040     </section>
1041     <section>
1042     <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1043     <body>
1044    
1045     <p>
1046 nightmorph 1.29 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to <path>\\PrintServer</path> and
1047     right click on the printer (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will download
1048     the drivers to the Windows client and now every application (such as Word or
1049     Acrobat) will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available printer to print to. :-)
1050 swift 1.1 </p>
1051    
1052     </body>
1053     </section>
1054     </chapter>
1055 neysx 1.5
1056 swift 1.1 <chapter>
1057     <title>Final Notes</title>
1058     <section>
1059     <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1060     <body>
1061    
1062     <p>
1063 nightmorph 1.29 That should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment that is
1064     friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working share!
1065 swift 1.1 </p>
1066    
1067     </body>
1068     </section>
1069     </chapter>
1070 neysx 1.5
1071 swift 1.1 <chapter>
1072     <title>Links and Resources</title>
1073     <section>
1074     <title>Links</title>
1075     <body>
1076    
1077     <p>
1078     These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1079     troubleshooting your installation:
1080     </p>
1081    
1082     <ul>
1083     <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1084 nightmorph 1.27 <li>
1085     <uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri>, especially the <uri
1086     link="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/CUPS-printing.html">chapter
1087     on Samba/CUPS configuration</uri>
1088     </li>
1089 swift 1.1 <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1090     <li>
1091     <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1092 nightmorph 1.29 Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> ( This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e>
1093     and <e>EVERYTHING</e> I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and
1094     Samba, and generally printing support on networks. A really interesting
1095     read, with lots and lots of details.)
1096 swift 1.1 </li>
1097     <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1098     </ul>
1099    
1100     </body>
1101     </section>
1102     <section>
1103     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1104     <body>
1105    
1106     <p>
1107 nightmorph 1.29 See <uri
1108     link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1109     page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0" manual. Lots of
1110     useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up first, before posting questions
1111     and problems! Maybe the solution you're looking for is right there.
1112 swift 1.1 </p>
1113    
1114     </body>
1115     </section>
1116     </chapter>
1117     </guide>

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