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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3     <guide link="quick-samba-howto.xml">
4 swift 1.3 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/Clam AV HOWTO</title>
5 swift 1.1 <author title="Author">
6     <mail link="daff at dword dot org">Andreas "daff" Ntaflos</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
10     </author>
11    
12     <abstract>
13 swift 1.3 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares
14     files, printers without the need to install drivers and provides
15 swift 1.1 automatic virus scanning.
16     </abstract>
17    
18     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
20     <license/>
21    
22 swift 1.3 <version>1.3</version>
23     <date>May 18, 2004</date>
24 swift 1.1
25     <chapter>
26     <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
27     <section>
28     <title>Purpose</title>
29     <body>
30    
31     <p>
32     This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different
33     clients speaking different languages, to many different manchines that
34     speak a common language. The ultimate goal is to help differing
35 swift 1.3 architectures and technologies, come together in a productive,
36     happily coexisting environment.
37 swift 1.1 </p>
38    
39     <p>
40     Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an
41     excellent step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and
42     virtually all known variations of *nix.
43     </p>
44    
45     <p>
46     This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was
47     intended to explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system,
48     portage and the flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects,
49     it was quickly discovered what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there
50     weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered for Gentoo users. These users are
51     more demanding than most; they require performance, flexibility and
52     customization. This does not however imply that this HOWTO was not
53     intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed to work
54     with a highly customized version of Samba.
55     </p>
56    
57     <p>
58     This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows
59     PCs and *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual
60     File System) feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection.
61     As a finale, it will show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
62     </p>
63    
64     <p>
65     There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the
66     scope of this HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
67     </p>
68    
69     <p>
70     This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO
71     provided in the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri>
72     by Andreas "daff" Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston.
73     The link to this discussion is provided below for your reference:
74     </p>
75    
76     <ul>
77     <li>
78     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
79     CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
80     </li>
81     </ul>
82    
83     </body>
84     </section>
85     <section>
86     <title>Before you use this guide</title>
87     <body>
88    
89     <p>
90     There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba,
91     please read them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this
92     HOWTO (intentional or otherwise). One such document is the very useful
93     and well written <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo
94     Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration issues and specific printer setup
95     is not discussed here.
96     </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>Brief Overview</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline
106     all of the topics covered as they are presented:
107     </p>
108    
109     <ul>
110     <li>On the Samba server:
111     <ul>
112     <li>Install and configure CLAM-AV</li>
113     <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
114     <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
115     <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
116     <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
117     </ul>
118     </li>
119     <li>On the Unix clients:
120     <ul>
121     <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
122     <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
123     <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
124     </ul>
125     </li>
126     <li>On the Windows Clients:
127     <ul>
128     <li>Configuring the printer</li>
129     <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
130     </ul>
131     </li>
132     </ul>
133    
134     </body>
135     </section>
136     <section>
137     <title>Requirements</title>
138     <body>
139    
140     <p>
141     We will need the following:
142     </p>
143    
144     <ul>
145     <li>net-fs/samba</li>
146     <li>net-mail/clamav</li>
147     <li>net-print/cups</li>
148     <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
149     <li>net-print/hpijs (if you have an HP printer)</li>
150     <li>A kernel of sorts (preferably 2.4.24+ or 2.6.x)</li>
151     <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
152     <li>
153     A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
154     </li>
155     </ul>
156    
157     <p>
158     The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need
159     a kernel with smbfs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows
160     share from another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
161     net-mail/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted
162     to work with Samba.
163     </p>
164    
165     </body>
166     </section>
167     </chapter>
168     <chapter>
169     <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
170     <section>
171     <title>The USE Flags</title>
172     <body>
173    
174     <p>
175     Before emerging anything, take a look at the various USE flags
176     available to Samba.
177     </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
180     kerberos mysql xml acl cups ldap pam readline python oav
181     </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184     Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of
185     the server, the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or
186     exclude from the emerging of Samba.
187     </p>
188    
189     <table>
190     <tr>
191     <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
192     <th>Description</th>
193     </tr>
194     <tr>
195     <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
196     <ti>
197     Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is
198     intended to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note
199     below for more information.
200     </ti>
201     </tr>
202     <tr>
203     <th><b>mysql</b></th>
204     <ti>
205     This will allow Samba to use MySQL in order to do password authentication.
206     It will store ACLs, usernames, passwords, etc in a database versus a
207     flat file. If Samba is needed to do password authentication, such as
208     acting as a password validation server or a Primary Domain Controller
209     (PDC).
210     </ti>
211     </tr>
212     <tr>
213     <th><b>xml</b></th>
214     <ti>
215     The xml USE option for Samba provides a password database backend allowing
216     Samba to store account details in XML files, for the same reasons listed in
217     the mysql USE flag description.
218     </ti>
219     </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th><b>acl</b></th>
222     <ti>
223     Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
224     ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
225     detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
226     GID/UID schemas.
227     </ti>
228     </tr>
229     <tr>
230     <th><b>cups</b></th>
231     <ti>
232     This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This
233     provides an interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to
234     other systems in the network.
235     </ti>
236     </tr>
237     <tr>
238     <th><b>ldap</b></th>
239     <ti>
240     Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
241     expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would
242     be used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to
243     a Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for
244     proper functioning of this option.
245     </ti>
246     </tr>
247     <tr>
248     <th><b>pam</b></th>
249     <ti>
250     Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This
251     provides the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is
252     required if users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag
253     is recommended along with this option.
254     </ti>
255     </tr>
256     <tr>
257     <th><b>readline</b></th>
258     <ti>
259     Link Samba again libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
260     probably not be disabled
261     </ti>
262     </tr>
263     <tr>
264     <th><b>python</b></th>
265     <ti>
266     Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to
267     interface with Samba.
268     </ti>
269     </tr>
270     <tr>
271     <th><b>oav</b></th>
272     <ti>
273     Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot
274     Daemon, Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep
275     (SAVI), Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
276     </ti>
277     </tr>
278     </table>
279    
280     <p>
281     A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
282     Samba functions include:
283     </p>
284    
285     <ul>
286     <li>
287     ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
288     ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled
289     (depending on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
290     </li>
291     <li>
292     While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
293     scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
294     <ul>
295     <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
296     <li><uri>http://open-projects.linuxcare.com/research-papers/winbind-08162000.html</uri></li>
297     <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
298     </ul>
299     </li>
300     </ul>
301    
302     </body>
303     </section>
304     </chapter>
305     <chapter>
306     <title>Server Software Installation</title>
307     <section>
308     <title>Emerging Samba</title>
309     <body>
310    
311     <p>
312     First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly.
313     Either have a working domain name system running on your network
314 swift 1.3 or appropriate entries in your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file.
315     <c>cupsaddsmb</c> often borks if hostnames don't point to the correct
316     machines.
317 swift 1.1 </p>
318    
319     <p>
320     Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in
321     order to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this
322     HOWTO is:
323     </p>
324    
325     <ul>
326     <li>oav</li>
327     <li>cups</li>
328     <li>readline</li>
329     <li>pam</li>
330     </ul>
331    
332     <p>
333     To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the
334     USE flags are specifically included or excluded.
335     </p>
336    
337     <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
338     <comment>(Note the USE flags!)</comment>
339     # <i>USE=&quot;oav readline cups pam -python -ldap -kerberos -xml -acl -mysql&quot; emerge net-fs/samba</i>
340     </pre>
341    
342     <note>
343     The following archs will need to add <e>~</e> to their <e>KEYWORDS</e>: x86,
344     ppc, sparc, hppa, ia64 and alpha
345     </note>
346    
347     <p>
348     This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
349     </p>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353     <section>
354 swift 1.3 <title>Emerging Clam AV</title>
355 swift 1.1 <body>
356    
357     <p>
358 swift 1.3 Because the <e>oav</e> USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
359 swift 1.1 virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner
360 swift 1.3 used in this HOWTO is Clam AV.
361 swift 1.1 </p>
362    
363     <pre caption="Emerge clam-av">
364     # <i>emerge net-mail/clamav</i>
365     </pre>
366    
367     </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
374     # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
375     </pre>
376    
377     </body>
378     </section>
379     <section>
380     <title>Emerging net-print/hpijs</title>
381     <body>
382    
383     <p>
384     You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
385     </p>
386    
387     <pre caption="Emerge hpijs">
388 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge net-print/hpijs</i>
389 swift 1.1 </pre>
390    
391     </body>
392     </section>
393     </chapter>
394     <chapter>
395     <title>Server Configuration</title>
396     <section>
397     <title>Configuring Samba</title>
398     <body>
399    
400     <p>
401     The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>.
402     It is divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
403     # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
404     suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the
405 swift 1.3 man page for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed
406     <path>smb.conf.example</path>, the Samba Web site or any of the
407     numerous Samba books available.
408 swift 1.1 </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
411     [global]
412     <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
413     workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
414     <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
415     # everyone know its not Windows!
416     # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
417     server string = Samba Server %v
418     <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
419     printcap name = cups
420     printing = cups
421     load printers = yes
422     <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
423     log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
424     max log size = 50
425     <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
426     socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
427     <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
428     # samba server to our local network.
429     # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
430     interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
431     bind interfaces only = yes
432     <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
433     # very security conscience, since this configuration does
434     # not use passwords!</comment>
435     hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
436     hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
437     <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
438     # The default is user</comment>
439     security = share
440     <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
441     guest account = samba
442     guest ok = yes
443     <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
444     # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
445     # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
446     # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
447     vfs object = /usr/lib/samba/vfs/vscan-clamav.so
448     vfs options = config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
449    
450     <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
451     [print$]
452     comment = Printer Drivers
453     path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
454     guest ok = no
455     browseable = yes
456     read only = yes
457     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
458     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
459     write list = <i>root</i>
460    
461     <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
462     # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
463     [HPDeskJet930C]
464     comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
465     printable = yes
466     path = /var/spool/samba
467     public = yes
468     guest ok = yes
469     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
470     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
471     printer admin = <i>root</i>
472    
473     <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
474     # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
475     [printers]
476     comment = All Printers
477     browseable = yes
478     printable = yes
479     public = yes
480     guest ok = yes
481     path = /var/spool/samba
482     <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
483     # be the only printer admin)</comment>
484     printer admin = <i>root</i>
485    
486     <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
487     # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
488     # they want here.</comment>
489     [public]
490     comment = Public Files
491     browseable = yes
492     public = yes
493     create mode = 0766
494     guest ok = yes
495     path = /home/samba/public
496     </pre>
497    
498 swift 1.3 <warn>
499 swift 1.1
500 swift 1.3 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning
501     printing from Windows clients: don't set <c>guest only = yes</c> in
502     the <c>[global]</c> section. The guest account seems to cause
503     problems when running <c>cupsaddsmb</c> sometimes when trying to
504     connect from Windows machines. See below, too, when we talk about
505     <c>cupsaddsmb</c> and the problems that can arise. Use a dedicated
506     printer user, like <c>printeruser</c> or <c>printer</c> or
507     <c>printme</c> or whatever. It doesn't hurt and it will certainly
508     protect you from a lot of problems.
509     </warn>
510 swift 1.1
511     <p>
512     Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of
513     Samba to share the installed printer throughout the network.
514     </p>
515    
516     <pre caption="Create the directories">
517     # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
518     # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
519     # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
520     </pre>
521    
522     <p>
523     At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer
524     drivers and to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must
525     exist in the system's <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
526     </p>
527    
528     <pre caption="Creating the users">
529     # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
530    
531     <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
532     # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
533     </pre>
534    
535     <p>
536     The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
537     in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
538     </p>
539    
540     </body>
541     </section>
542     <section>
543 swift 1.3 <title>Configuring Clam AV</title>
544 swift 1.1 <body>
545    
546     <p>
547     The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
548     <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set
549     to the defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
550     </p>
551    
552     <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
553     [samba-vscan]
554     <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
555     ; clamd
556     ; all options are set to default values</comment>
557    
558     <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
559     ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
560     max file size = 0
561    
562     <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
563     ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
564     ; will be logged</comment>
565     verbose file logging = no
566    
567     <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
568     scan on open = yes
569     <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
570     scan on close = yes
571    
572     <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
573     ; (default: yes)</comment>
574     deny access on error = yes
575    
576     <comment>; if daemon files with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
577     ; should access to file denied?
578     ; (default: yes)</comment>
579     deny access on minor error = yes
580    
581     <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
582     ; when virus is found?
583     ; (default: yes)</comment>
584     send warning message = yes
585    
586     <comment>; what to do with an infected file
587     ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
588     ; delete: delete infected file
589     ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
590     infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
591    
592     <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
593     ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
594     quarantine directory = /tmp
595     <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
596     quarantine prefix = vir-
597    
598     <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
599     ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
600     ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
601     ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
602     max lru files entries = 100
603    
604     <comment>; an entry is invalidad after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
605     ; (Default: 5)</comment>
606     lru file entry lifetime = 5
607    
608     <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
609     clamd socket name = /var/run/clamd
610     </pre>
611    
612     <p>
613     It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add
614 swift 1.3 it to the <e>default</e> runlevel and then start the <c>clamd</c> service immediately.
615 swift 1.1 </p>
616    
617     <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
618     # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
619     # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
620     </pre>
621    
622     </body>
623     </section>
624     <section>
625     <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
626     <body>
627    
628     <p>
629 swift 1.3 This is a little more complicated. CUPS' main config file is
630 swift 1.1 <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
631     <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined
632     in the example are the directives that need to be changed:
633     </p>
634    
635     <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
636     ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
637     ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, eg you</comment>
638    
639     AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
640     ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
641    
642     LogLevel debug <comment># only while isntalling and testing, should later be
643     # changed to 'info'</comment>
644    
645     MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
646     # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
647     # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
648     # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
649    
650     BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
651    
652     &lt;Location /&gt;
653     Order Deny,Allow
654     Deny From All
655     Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
656     # eg 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
657     # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
658     &lt;/Location&gt;
659    
660     &lt;Location /admin&gt;
661     AuthType Basic
662     AuthClass System
663     Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
664     # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
665     # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
666     Order Deny,Allow
667     Deny From All
668     &lt;/Location&gt;
669     </pre>
670    
671     <p>
672     Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
673 swift 1.3 The changes to <path>mime.convs</path> and <path>mime.types</path> are
674     needed to make CUPS print Microsoft Office document files.
675 swift 1.1 </p>
676    
677     <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
678     <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
679     application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
680     </pre>
681    
682     <p>
683     Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
684     </p>
685    
686     <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
687     <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
688     application/octet-stream
689     </pre>
690    
691     <p>
692     CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
693     </p>
694    
695     <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
696     <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
697     # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
698     <comment>(To start CUPS if it isn't started)</comment>
699     # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd start</i>
700     <comment>(If CUPS is already started we'll need to restart it!)</comment>
701     # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
702     </pre>
703    
704     </body>
705     </section>
706     <section>
707     <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
708     <body>
709    
710     <p>
711     First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri>
712     to find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To
713     do so, click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your
714     printers manufacturer and the model in the pulldown menu, eg HP and
715     DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On the page coming up click the "recommended
716     driver" link after reading the various notes and information. Then fetch
717     the PPD file from the next page, again after reading the notes and
718     introductions there. You may have to select your printers manufacturer
719     and model again. Reading the <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS
720     quickstart guide</uri> is also very helpful when working with CUPS.
721     </p>
722    
723     <p>
724     Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
725     <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was
726 swift 1.3 named <path>HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</path>. You should now install the printer.
727 swift 1.1 This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
728 swift 1.3 interface is found at <path>http://PrintServer:631</path> once CUPS is running.
729 swift 1.1 </p>
730    
731     <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
732     # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
733     </pre>
734    
735     <p>
736 swift 1.3 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name
737     (<c>-p</c> argument) right (the name you set above during the Samba
738     configuration!) and to put in the correct <c>usb:/dev/usb/blah</c>,
739     <c>parallel:/dev/blah</c> or whatever device you are using for your
740     printer.
741 swift 1.1 </p>
742    
743     <p>
744 swift 1.3 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface
745     and be able to print a test page.
746 swift 1.1 </p>
747    
748     </body>
749     </section>
750     <section>
751     <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755     Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers
756     for the Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality.
757     Browsing to the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking
758     on the printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate
759     drivers automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of
760     manually installing printer drivers locally.
761     </p>
762    
763     <p>
764     There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS
765     drivers which can be obtained from <uri
766     link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri>
767     (PostScript printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers,
768     to be obtained from <uri link="http://www.cups.org/software.php">the
769     CUPS homepage</uri> and selecting "CUPS Driver for Windows" from the
770     pull down menu. There doesn't seem to be a difference between the
771     functionality of the two, but the Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted
772     on a Windows System since it's a Windows binary. Also the whole procedure
773     of finding and copying the correct files is a bit more hassle. The CUPS
774     drivers seem to support some options the Adobe drivers don't.
775     </p>
776    
777     <p>
778     This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. The downloaded file is
779     called <path>cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</path>. Extract the files
780     contained into a directory.
781     </p>
782    
783     <pre caption="Extract the drivers and run the install">
784     # <i>tar -xzf cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</i>
785     # <i>cd cups-samba-5.0rc2</i>
786     <comment>(Only use this script if CUPS resides in /usr/share/cups)</comment>
787     # <i>./cups-samba.install</i>
788     </pre>
789    
790     <p>
791 swift 1.3 <path>cups-samba.ss</path> is a TAR archive containing three files:
792     <path>cups5.hlp</path>, <path>cupsdrvr5.dll</path> and
793     <path>cupsui5.dll</path>. These are the actual driver files.
794 swift 1.1 </p>
795    
796     <warn>
797 swift 1.3 The script <c>cups-samba.install</c> may not work for all *nixes (ie FreeBSD)
798 swift 1.1 because almost everything which is not part of the base system is
799     installed somewhere under the prefix <path>/usr/local/</path>. This
800     seems not to be the case for most things you install under GNU/Linux.
801     However, if your CUPS installation is somewhere other than
802 swift 1.3 <path>/usr/share/cups/</path> see the example below.
803 swift 1.1 </warn>
804    
805     <p>
806     Suppose your CUPS installation resides under
807     <path>/usr/local/share/cups/</path>, and you want to install the drivers there.
808     Do the following:
809     </p>
810    
811     <pre caption="Manually installing the drivers">
812     # <i>cd /path/you/extracted/the/CUPS-driver/tarball/into</i>
813     # <i>tar -xf cups-samba.ss</i>
814     <comment>(This extracts the files to usr/share/cups/drivers under the CURRENT WORKING DIRECTORY)</comment>
815     # <i>cd usr/share/cups/drivers</i>
816     <comment>(no leading / !)</comment>
817     # <i>cp cups* /usr/local/share/cups/drivers</i>
818     </pre>
819    
820     <p>
821     Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS
822     distribution. It's man page is an interesting read.
823     </p>
824    
825     <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
826     # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
827     <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
828     "export all known printers".)</comment>
829     # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
830     </pre>
831    
832     <warn>
833     The execution of this command often causes the most trouble.
834     Reading through the <uri
835 cam 1.4 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
836 swift 1.1 thread</uri>.
837     </warn>
838    
839     <p>
840     Here are common errors that may happen:
841     </p>
842    
843     <ul>
844     <li>
845 swift 1.3 The hostname given as a parameter for <c>-h</c> and <c>-H</c>
846     (<c>PrintServer</c>) often does not resolve correctly and doesn't
847     identify the print server for CUPS/Samba interaction. If an error
848     like: <b>Warning: No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" -
849     skipping!</b> occurs, the first thing you should do is substitute
850     <c>PrintServer</c> with <c>localhost</c> and try it again.
851 swift 1.1 </li>
852     <li>
853     The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
854     is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
855 swift 1.3 not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <c>security =
856     user</c> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
857 swift 1.1 successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
858     before.
859     </li>
860     </ul>
861    
862     <p>
863     This should install the correct driver directory structure under
864     <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
865     <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should
866     be the 3 driver files and the PPD file, renamed to YourPrinterName.ppd
867     (the name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
868     </p>
869    
870     <p>
871     Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now
872     installed.
873     </p>
874    
875     </body>
876     </section>
877     <section>
878     <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
879     <body>
880    
881     <p>
882     Lastly, setup our directories.
883     </p>
884    
885     <pre caption="Final changes needed">
886     # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
887     # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
888     # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
889     # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
890     </pre>
891    
892     </body>
893     </section>
894     <section>
895     <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
896     <body>
897    
898     <p>
899     We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
900     properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do
901     this we run <c>testparm</c>.
902     </p>
903    
904     <pre caption="Running the testparm">
905     <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
906     # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
907     Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
908     Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
909     Global parameter guest account found in service section!
910     Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
911     Global parameter guest account found in service section!
912     Loaded services file OK.
913     Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
914     Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
915     ...
916     ...
917     </pre>
918    
919     </body>
920     </section>
921     <section>
922     <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
923     <body>
924    
925     <p>
926     Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
927     </p>
928    
929     <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
930     # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
931     # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
932     </pre>
933    
934     </body>
935     </section>
936     <section>
937     <title>Checking our services</title>
938     <body>
939    
940     <p>
941     It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also.
942     We will also want to take a peak at our Samba shares using
943     <c>smbclient</c>.
944     </p>
945    
946     <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
947     # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
948     Password:
949     <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
950     </pre>
951    
952     </body>
953     </section>
954     </chapter>
955     <chapter>
956     <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
957     <section>
958     <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
959     <body>
960    
961     <p>
962     Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS.
963     Do the equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
964     </p>
965    
966     <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system.">
967     # <i>emerge cups</i>
968     # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd start</i>
969     # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
970     </pre>
971    
972     <p>
973     That should be it. Nothing else will be needed. Just point your web
974 swift 1.3 browser to <c>http://localhost:631</c> on the client and you'll see that
975 swift 1.1 PrintServer broadcasts all available printers to all CUPS clients.
976     </p>
977    
978     <p>
979     To print, use for example
980     </p>
981    
982     <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
983     # <i>lpr -pHPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
984     # <i>lpr -PHPDeskJet930C foobar.whatever.ps</i>
985     </pre>
986    
987     <p>
988 swift 1.3 In order to setup a default printer, you have to edit
989     <path>/etc/cups/client.conf</path> and set the directive
990     <c>ServerName</c> to your printserver. In the case of this guide that
991     would be the following example.
992 swift 1.1 </p>
993    
994     <pre caption="/etc/cups/client.conf">
995     ServerName PrintServer
996     </pre>
997    
998     <p>
999 swift 1.3 The following will print <path>foorbar.whatever.ps</path> directly to the print
1000 swift 1.1 server.
1001     </p>
1002    
1003     <pre caption="Printing to the default printer">
1004     $ <i>lpr foobar.whatever.ps</i>
1005     </pre>
1006    
1007     <p>
1008     Some common observations when setting a default printer in this manner
1009     include the following:
1010     </p>
1011    
1012     <ul>
1013     <li>
1014 swift 1.3 Setting the <c>ServerName</c> in <path>client.conf</path> seems to
1015     work well for only one printer, there may be yet another way to
1016     set a client's default remote printer.
1017 swift 1.1 </li>
1018     <li>
1019 swift 1.3 Also, when accessing <c>http://localhost:631</c> on the client
1020     now, no printers seem to be "found" by the client-CUPS. This is to
1021     be expected when setting <c>ServerName</c> in
1022     <path>client.conf</path>.
1023 swift 1.1 </li>
1024     </ul>
1025    
1026     </body>
1027     </section>
1028     <section>
1029     <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
1030     <body>
1031    
1032     <p>
1033 swift 1.3 Now is time to configure our kernel to support smbfs. Since I'm
1034 swift 1.1 assumming we've all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make
1035     sure we have all the right options selected in our kernel.
1036 swift 1.3 For simplicity sake, make it a module for ease of use. It is the
1037 swift 1.1 authors opinion that kernel modules are a good thing and should be used
1038     whenever possible.
1039     </p>
1040    
1041     <pre caption="Relevant kernel options" >
1042     CONFIG_SMB_FS=m
1043     CONFIG_SMB_UNIX=y
1044     </pre>
1045    
1046     <p>
1047     Then make the module/install it; insert them with:
1048     </p>
1049    
1050     <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1051     # <i>modprobe smbfs</i>
1052     </pre>
1053    
1054     <p>
1055     Once the modules is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is
1056     possible. Use <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1057     </p>
1058    
1059     <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1060     <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1061     mount -t smbfs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1062     If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1063    
1064     # <i>mount -t smbfs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1065    
1066     <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1067     # <i>mount -t smbfs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1068     </pre>
1069    
1070     <p>
1071     After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local
1072     drive.
1073     </p>
1074    
1075     </body>
1076     </section>
1077     <section>
1078     <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1079     <body>
1080    
1081     <p>
1082 swift 1.3 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to
1083     <path>\\PrintServer</path> and right click on the printer
1084     (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will download the drivers to
1085     the Windows client and now every application (such as Word or Acrobat)
1086     will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available printer to print to. :-)
1087 swift 1.1 </p>
1088    
1089     </body>
1090     </section>
1091     </chapter>
1092     <chapter>
1093     <title>Final Notes</title>
1094     <section>
1095     <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1096     <body>
1097    
1098     <p>
1099     Well that should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment
1100     that is friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working
1101     share!
1102     </p>
1103    
1104     </body>
1105     </section>
1106     </chapter>
1107     <chapter>
1108     <title>Links and Resources</title>
1109     <section>
1110     <title>Links</title>
1111     <body>
1112    
1113     <p>
1114     These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1115     troubleshooting your installation:
1116     </p>
1117    
1118     <ul>
1119     <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1120     <li><uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri></li>
1121     <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1122     <li>
1123     <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1124     Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> (
1125     This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e> and <e>EVERYTHING</e>
1126     I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and Samba, and
1127     generally printing support on networks. A really interesting read,
1128     with lots and lots of details)
1129     </li>
1130     <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1131     </ul>
1132    
1133     </body>
1134     </section>
1135     <section>
1136     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1137     <body>
1138    
1139     <p>
1140     See <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1141     page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0"
1142     manual. Lots of useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up
1143     first, before posting questions and problems! Maybe the solution
1144     you're looking for is right there.
1145     </p>
1146    
1147     </body>
1148     </section>
1149     </chapter>
1150     </guide>

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