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Fix net-mail > net-print error, thanks to Carston Jons for reporting it

1 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="quick-samba-howto.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/clamav HOWTO</title>
5 <author title="Author">
6 <mail link="daff at dword dot org">Andreas "daff" Ntaflos</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares
14 files, printers without the need to install drivers and provides
15 automatic virus scanning.
16 </abstract>
17
18 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
20 <license/>
21
22 <version>1.2</version>
23 <date>May 13, 2004</date>
24
25 <chapter>
26 <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
27 <section>
28 <title>Purpose</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <p>
32 This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different
33 clients speaking different languages, to many different manchines that
34 speak a common language. The ultimate goal is to help differing
35 architechures and technologies, come together in a productive,
36 happily coexistant environment.
37 </p>
38
39 <p>
40 Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an
41 excellent step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and
42 virtually all known variations of *nix.
43 </p>
44
45 <p>
46 This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was
47 intended to explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system,
48 portage and the flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects,
49 it was quickly discovered what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there
50 weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered for Gentoo users. These users are
51 more demanding than most; they require performance, flexibility and
52 customization. This does not however imply that this HOWTO was not
53 intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed to work
54 with a highly customized version of Samba.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows
59 PCs and *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual
60 File System) feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection.
61 As a finale, it will show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
62 </p>
63
64 <p>
65 There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the
66 scope of this HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
67 </p>
68
69 <p>
70 This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO
71 provided in the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri>
72 by Andreas "daff" Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston.
73 The link to this discussion is provided below for your reference:
74 </p>
75
76 <ul>
77 <li>
78 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
79 CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
80 </li>
81 </ul>
82
83 </body>
84 </section>
85 <section>
86 <title>Before you use this guide</title>
87 <body>
88
89 <p>
90 There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba,
91 please read them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this
92 HOWTO (intentional or otherwise). One such document is the very useful
93 and well written <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo
94 Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration issues and specific printer setup
95 is not discussed here.
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Brief Overview</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline
106 all of the topics covered as they are presented:
107 </p>
108
109 <ul>
110 <li>On the Samba server:
111 <ul>
112 <li>Install and configure CLAM-AV</li>
113 <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
114 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
115 <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
116 <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
117 </ul>
118 </li>
119 <li>On the Unix clients:
120 <ul>
121 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
122 <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
123 <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
124 </ul>
125 </li>
126 <li>On the Windows Clients:
127 <ul>
128 <li>Configuring the printer</li>
129 <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
130 </ul>
131 </li>
132 </ul>
133
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 <section>
137 <title>Requirements</title>
138 <body>
139
140 <p>
141 We will need the following:
142 </p>
143
144 <ul>
145 <li>net-fs/samba</li>
146 <li>net-mail/clamav</li>
147 <li>net-print/cups</li>
148 <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
149 <li>net-print/hpijs (if you have an HP printer)</li>
150 <li>A kernel of sorts (preferably 2.4.24+ or 2.6.x)</li>
151 <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
152 <li>
153 A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
154 </li>
155 </ul>
156
157 <p>
158 The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need
159 a kernel with smbfs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows
160 share from another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
161 net-mail/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted
162 to work with Samba.
163 </p>
164
165 </body>
166 </section>
167 </chapter>
168 <chapter>
169 <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
170 <section>
171 <title>The USE Flags</title>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 Before emerging anything, take a look at the various USE flags
176 available to Samba.
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
180 kerberos mysql xml acl cups ldap pam readline python oav
181 </pre>
182
183 <p>
184 Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of
185 the server, the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or
186 exclude from the emerging of Samba.
187 </p>
188
189 <table>
190 <tr>
191 <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
192 <th>Description</th>
193 </tr>
194 <tr>
195 <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
196 <ti>
197 Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is
198 intended to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note
199 below for more information.
200 </ti>
201 </tr>
202 <tr>
203 <th><b>mysql</b></th>
204 <ti>
205 This will allow Samba to use MySQL in order to do password authentication.
206 It will store ACLs, usernames, passwords, etc in a database versus a
207 flat file. If Samba is needed to do password authentication, such as
208 acting as a password validation server or a Primary Domain Controller
209 (PDC).
210 </ti>
211 </tr>
212 <tr>
213 <th><b>xml</b></th>
214 <ti>
215 The xml USE option for Samba provides a password database backend allowing
216 Samba to store account details in XML files, for the same reasons listed in
217 the mysql USE flag description.
218 </ti>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th><b>acl</b></th>
222 <ti>
223 Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
224 ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
225 detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
226 GID/UID schemas.
227 </ti>
228 </tr>
229 <tr>
230 <th><b>cups</b></th>
231 <ti>
232 This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This
233 provides an interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to
234 other systems in the network.
235 </ti>
236 </tr>
237 <tr>
238 <th><b>ldap</b></th>
239 <ti>
240 Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
241 expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would
242 be used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to
243 a Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for
244 proper functioning of this option.
245 </ti>
246 </tr>
247 <tr>
248 <th><b>pam</b></th>
249 <ti>
250 Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This
251 provides the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is
252 required if users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag
253 is recommended along with this option.
254 </ti>
255 </tr>
256 <tr>
257 <th><b>readline</b></th>
258 <ti>
259 Link Samba again libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
260 probably not be disabled
261 </ti>
262 </tr>
263 <tr>
264 <th><b>python</b></th>
265 <ti>
266 Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to
267 interface with Samba.
268 </ti>
269 </tr>
270 <tr>
271 <th><b>oav</b></th>
272 <ti>
273 Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot
274 Daemon, Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep
275 (SAVI), Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
276 </ti>
277 </tr>
278 </table>
279
280 <p>
281 A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
282 Samba functions include:
283 </p>
284
285 <ul>
286 <li>
287 ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
288 ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled
289 (depending on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
290 </li>
291 <li>
292 While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
293 scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
294 <ul>
295 <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
296 <li><uri>http://open-projects.linuxcare.com/research-papers/winbind-08162000.html</uri></li>
297 <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
298 </ul>
299 </li>
300 </ul>
301
302 </body>
303 </section>
304 </chapter>
305 <chapter>
306 <title>Server Software Installation</title>
307 <section>
308 <title>Emerging Samba</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly.
313 Either have a working domain name system running on your network
314 or appropriate entries in your /etc/hosts file. cupsaddsmb often
315 borks if hostnames don't point to the correct machines.
316 </p>
317
318 <p>
319 Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in
320 order to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this
321 HOWTO is:
322 </p>
323
324 <ul>
325 <li>oav</li>
326 <li>cups</li>
327 <li>readline</li>
328 <li>pam</li>
329 </ul>
330
331 <p>
332 To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the
333 USE flags are specifically included or excluded.
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
337 <comment>(Note the USE flags!)</comment>
338 # <i>USE=&quot;oav readline cups pam -python -ldap -kerberos -xml -acl -mysql&quot; emerge net-fs/samba</i>
339 </pre>
340
341 <note>
342 The following archs will need to add <e>~</e> to their <e>KEYWORDS</e>: x86,
343 ppc, sparc, hppa, ia64 and alpha
344 </note>
345
346 <p>
347 This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
348 </p>
349
350 </body>
351 </section>
352 <section>
353 <title>Emerging clam-av</title>
354 <body>
355
356 <p>
357 Because the oav USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
358 virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner
359 used in this HOWTO is <e>net-mail/clamav</e>.
360 </p>
361
362 <pre caption="Emerge clam-av">
363 # <i>emerge net-mail/clamav</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 <section>
369 <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
373 # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 </body>
377 </section>
378 <section>
379 <title>Emerging net-print/hpijs</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption="Emerge hpijs">
387 # <i>emerge net-print/hpijs</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392 </chapter>
393 <chapter>
394 <title>Server Configuration</title>
395 <section>
396 <title>Configuring Samba</title>
397 <body>
398
399 <p>
400 The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>.
401 It is divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
402 # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
403 suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the
404 man page for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed smb.conf.example, the Samba
405 Web site or any of the numerous Samba books available.
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
409 [global]
410 <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
411 workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
412 <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
413 # everyone know its not Windows!
414 # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
415 server string = Samba Server %v
416 <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
417 printcap name = cups
418 printing = cups
419 load printers = yes
420 <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
421 log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
422 max log size = 50
423 <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
424 socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
425 <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
426 # samba server to our local network.
427 # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
428 interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
429 bind interfaces only = yes
430 <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
431 # very security conscience, since this configuration does
432 # not use passwords!</comment>
433 hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
434 hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
435 <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
436 # The default is user</comment>
437 security = share
438 <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
439 guest account = samba
440 guest ok = yes
441 <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
442 # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
443 # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
444 # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
445 vfs object = /usr/lib/samba/vfs/vscan-clamav.so
446 vfs options = config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
447
448 <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
449 [print$]
450 comment = Printer Drivers
451 path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
452 guest ok = no
453 browseable = yes
454 read only = yes
455 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
456 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
457 write list = <i>root</i>
458
459 <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
460 # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
461 [HPDeskJet930C]
462 comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
463 printable = yes
464 path = /var/spool/samba
465 public = yes
466 guest ok = yes
467 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
468 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
469 printer admin = <i>root</i>
470
471 <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
472 # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
473 [printers]
474 comment = All Printers
475 browseable = yes
476 printable = yes
477 public = yes
478 guest ok = yes
479 path = /var/spool/samba
480 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
481 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
482 printer admin = <i>root</i>
483
484 <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
485 # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
486 # they want here.</comment>
487 [public]
488 comment = Public Files
489 browseable = yes
490 public = yes
491 create mode = 0766
492 guest ok = yes
493 path = /home/samba/public
494 </pre>
495
496 <p>
497 There are several warnings that we should put here:
498 </p>
499
500 <ul>
501 <li>
502 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning
503 printing from Windows clients: don't
504 </li>
505 <li>Don't set guest only = yes in the global section</li>
506 <li>
507 The guest account seems to cause problems when running cupsaddsmb sometimes
508 when trying to connect from Windows machines. See below, too, when we talk
509 about cupsaddsmb and the problems that can arise. Use a dedicated printer
510 user, like "printeruser" or "printer" or "printme" or whatever. It doesn't
511 hurt and it will certainly protect you from a lot of problems.
512 </li>
513 </ul>
514
515 <p>
516 Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of
517 Samba to share the installed printer throughout the network.
518 </p>
519
520 <pre caption="Create the directories">
521 # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
522 # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
523 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
524 </pre>
525
526 <p>
527 At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer
528 drivers and to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must
529 exist in the system's <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
530 </p>
531
532 <pre caption="Creating the users">
533 # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
534
535 <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
536 # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
537 </pre>
538
539 <p>
540 The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
541 in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
542 </p>
543
544 </body>
545 </section>
546 <section>
547 <title>Configuring clam-av</title>
548 <body>
549
550 <p>
551 The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
552 <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set
553 to the defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
557 [samba-vscan]
558 <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
559 ; clamd
560 ; all options are set to default values</comment>
561
562 <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
563 ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
564 max file size = 0
565
566 <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
567 ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
568 ; will be logged</comment>
569 verbose file logging = no
570
571 <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
572 scan on open = yes
573 <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
574 scan on close = yes
575
576 <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
577 ; (default: yes)</comment>
578 deny access on error = yes
579
580 <comment>; if daemon files with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
581 ; should access to file denied?
582 ; (default: yes)</comment>
583 deny access on minor error = yes
584
585 <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
586 ; when virus is found?
587 ; (default: yes)</comment>
588 send warning message = yes
589
590 <comment>; what to do with an infected file
591 ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
592 ; delete: delete infected file
593 ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
594 infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
595
596 <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
597 ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
598 quarantine directory = /tmp
599 <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
600 quarantine prefix = vir-
601
602 <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
603 ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
604 ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
605 ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
606 max lru files entries = 100
607
608 <comment>; an entry is invalidad after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
609 ; (Default: 5)</comment>
610 lru file entry lifetime = 5
611
612 <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
613 clamd socket name = /var/run/clamd
614 </pre>
615
616 <p>
617 It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add
618 it to the default runlevel and then start the clamd service immediately.
619 </p>
620
621 <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
622 # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
623 # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
624 </pre>
625
626 </body>
627 </section>
628 <section>
629 <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
630 <body>
631
632 <p>
633 This is a little more complicated). CUPS' main config file is
634 <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
635 <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined
636 in the example are the directives that need to be changed:
637 </p>
638
639 <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
640 ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
641 ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, eg you</comment>
642
643 AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
644 ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
645
646 LogLevel debug <comment># only while isntalling and testing, should later be
647 # changed to 'info'</comment>
648
649 MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
650 # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
651 # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
652 # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
653
654 BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
655
656 &lt;Location /&gt;
657 Order Deny,Allow
658 Deny From All
659 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
660 # eg 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
661 # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
662 &lt;/Location&gt;
663
664 &lt;Location /admin&gt;
665 AuthType Basic
666 AuthClass System
667 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
668 # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
669 # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
670 Order Deny,Allow
671 Deny From All
672 &lt;/Location&gt;
673 </pre>
674
675 <p>
676 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
677 The changes to mime.convs and mime.types are needed to make CUPSprint Microsoft Office document files.
678 </p>
679
680 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
681 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
682 application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
683 </pre>
684
685 <p>
686 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
687 </p>
688
689 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
690 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
691 application/octet-stream
692 </pre>
693
694 <p>
695 CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
696 </p>
697
698 <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
699 <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
700 # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
701 <comment>(To start CUPS if it isn't started)</comment>
702 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd start</i>
703 <comment>(If CUPS is already started we'll need to restart it!)</comment>
704 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
705 </pre>
706
707 </body>
708 </section>
709 <section>
710 <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
711 <body>
712
713 <p>
714 First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri>
715 to find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To
716 do so, click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your
717 printers manufacturer and the model in the pulldown menu, eg HP and
718 DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On the page coming up click the "recommended
719 driver" link after reading the various notes and information. Then fetch
720 the PPD file from the next page, again after reading the notes and
721 introductions there. You may have to select your printers manufacturer
722 and model again. Reading the <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS
723 quickstart guide</uri> is also very helpful when working with CUPS.
724 </p>
725
726 <p>
727 Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
728 <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was
729 named HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd. You should now install the printer.
730 This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
731 interface is found at http://PrintServer:631 once CUPS is running.
732 </p>
733
734 <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
735 # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
736 </pre>
737
738 <p>
739 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name (-p) right (the
740 name you set above during the Samba configuration!) and to put in the
741 correct usb:/dev/usb/blah, parallel:/dev/blah or whatever device you
742 are using for your printer.
743 </p>
744
745 <p>
746 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface. You
747 should now be able to print a test page.
748 </p>
749
750 </body>
751 </section>
752 <section>
753 <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
754 <body>
755
756 <p>
757 Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers
758 for the Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality.
759 Browsing to the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking
760 on the printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate
761 drivers automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of
762 manually installing printer drivers locally.
763 </p>
764
765 <p>
766 There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS
767 drivers which can be obtained from <uri
768 link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri>
769 (PostScript printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers,
770 to be obtained from <uri link="http://www.cups.org/software.php">the
771 CUPS homepage</uri> and selecting "CUPS Driver for Windows" from the
772 pull down menu. There doesn't seem to be a difference between the
773 functionality of the two, but the Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted
774 on a Windows System since it's a Windows binary. Also the whole procedure
775 of finding and copying the correct files is a bit more hassle. The CUPS
776 drivers seem to support some options the Adobe drivers don't.
777 </p>
778
779 <p>
780 This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. The downloaded file is
781 called <path>cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</path>. Extract the files
782 contained into a directory.
783 </p>
784
785 <pre caption="Extract the drivers and run the install">
786 # <i>tar -xzf cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</i>
787 # <i>cd cups-samba-5.0rc2</i>
788 <comment>(Only use this script if CUPS resides in /usr/share/cups)</comment>
789 # <i>./cups-samba.install</i>
790 </pre>
791
792 <p>
793 cups-samba.ss is a TAR archive containing three files:
794 cups5.hlp, cupsdrvr5.dll and cupsui5.dll. These are the actual driver
795 files.
796 </p>
797
798 <warn>
799 The script cups-samba.install may not work for all *nixes (ie FreeBSD)
800 because almost everything which is not part of the base system is
801 installed somewhere under the prefix <path>/usr/local/</path>. This
802 seems not to be the case for most things you install under GNU/Linux.
803 However, if your CUPS installation is somewhere other than
804 <path>/usr/share/cups/</path> See the example below.
805 </warn>
806
807 <p>
808 Suppose your CUPS installation resides under
809 <path>/usr/local/share/cups/</path>, and you want to install the drivers there.
810 Do the following:
811 </p>
812
813 <pre caption="Manually installing the drivers">
814 # <i>cd /path/you/extracted/the/CUPS-driver/tarball/into</i>
815 # <i>tar -xf cups-samba.ss</i>
816 <comment>(This extracts the files to usr/share/cups/drivers under the CURRENT WORKING DIRECTORY)</comment>
817 # <i>cd usr/share/cups/drivers</i>
818 <comment>(no leading / !)</comment>
819 # <i>cp cups* /usr/local/share/cups/drivers</i>
820 </pre>
821
822 <p>
823 Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS
824 distribution. It's man page is an interesting read.
825 </p>
826
827 <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
828 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
829 <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
830 "export all known printers".)</comment>
831 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
832 </pre>
833
834 <warn>
835 The execution of this command often causes the most trouble.
836 Reading through the <uri
837 link="http://forums.gentoo.com/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
838 thread</uri>.
839 </warn>
840
841 <p>
842 Here are common errors that may happen:
843 </p>
844
845 <ul>
846 <li>
847 The hostname given as a parameter for -h and -H (PrintServer) often does
848 not resolve correctly and doesn't identify the print server for CUPS/Samba
849 interaction.
850 If an error like: <b>Warning: No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" -
851 skipping!</b> occurs, the first thing you should do is substitute
852 PrintServer with localhost and try it again.
853 </li>
854 <li>
855 The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
856 is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
857 not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <b>security =
858 user</b> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
859 successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
860 before.
861 </li>
862 </ul>
863
864 <p>
865 This should install the correct driver directory structure under
866 <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
867 <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should
868 be the 3 driver files and the PPD file, renamed to YourPrinterName.ppd
869 (the name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
870 </p>
871
872 <p>
873 Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now
874 installed.
875 </p>
876
877 </body>
878 </section>
879 <section>
880 <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
881 <body>
882
883 <p>
884 Lastly, setup our directories.
885 </p>
886
887 <pre caption="Final changes needed">
888 # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
889 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
890 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
891 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
892 </pre>
893
894 </body>
895 </section>
896 <section>
897 <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
898 <body>
899
900 <p>
901 We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
902 properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do
903 this we run <c>testparm</c>.
904 </p>
905
906 <pre caption="Running the testparm">
907 <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
908 # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
909 Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
910 Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
911 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
912 Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
913 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
914 Loaded services file OK.
915 Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
916 Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
917 ...
918 ...
919 </pre>
920
921 </body>
922 </section>
923 <section>
924 <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
925 <body>
926
927 <p>
928 Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
929 </p>
930
931 <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
932 # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
933 # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
934 </pre>
935
936 </body>
937 </section>
938 <section>
939 <title>Checking our services</title>
940 <body>
941
942 <p>
943 It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also.
944 We will also want to take a peak at our Samba shares using
945 <c>smbclient</c>.
946 </p>
947
948 <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
949 # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
950 Password:
951 <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
952 </pre>
953
954 </body>
955 </section>
956 </chapter>
957 <chapter>
958 <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
959 <section>
960 <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
961 <body>
962
963 <p>
964 Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS.
965 Do the equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
966 </p>
967
968 <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system.">
969 # <i>emerge cups</i>
970 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd start</i>
971 # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
972 </pre>
973
974 <p>
975 That should be it. Nothing else will be needed. Just point your web
976 browser to http://localhost:631 (on the CLIENT) and you'll see that
977 PrintServer broadcasts all available printers to all CUPS clients.
978 </p>
979
980 <p>
981 To print, use for example
982 </p>
983
984 <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
985 # <i>lpr -pHPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
986 # <i>lpr -PHPDeskJet930C foobar.whatever.ps</i>
987 </pre>
988
989 <p>
990 In order to setup a default printer, you have to edit
991 <path>/etc/cups/client.conf</path> and set the directive ServerName to
992 your printserver. In the case of this guide that would be the
993 following example.
994 </p>
995
996 <pre caption="/etc/cups/client.conf">
997 ServerName PrintServer
998 </pre>
999
1000 <p>
1001 The following will print foorbar.whatever.ps directly to the print
1002 server.
1003 </p>
1004
1005 <pre caption="Printing to the default printer">
1006 $ <i>lpr foobar.whatever.ps</i>
1007 </pre>
1008
1009 <p>
1010 Some common observations when setting a default printer in this manner
1011 include the following:
1012 </p>
1013
1014 <ul>
1015 <li>
1016 Setting the ServerName in client.conf seems to work well for only one
1017 printer, there may be yet another way to set a client's default remote
1018 printer.
1019 </li>
1020 <li>
1021 Also, when accessing http://localhost:631 on the client now, no printers
1022 seem to be "found" by the client-CUPS. This is to be expected when setting
1023 ServerName in <path>client.conf</path>.
1024 </li>
1025 </ul>
1026
1027 </body>
1028 </section>
1029 <section>
1030 <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
1031 <body>
1032
1033 <p>
1034 Now is time to configure our kernel to support it the smbfs. Since I'm
1035 assumming we've all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make
1036 sure we have all the right options selected in our kernel.
1037 For simplicity sake, make it as a module for ease of use. It is the
1038 authors opinion that kernel modules are a good thing and should be used
1039 whenever possible.
1040 </p>
1041
1042 <pre caption="Relevant kernel options" >
1043 CONFIG_SMB_FS=m
1044 CONFIG_SMB_UNIX=y
1045 </pre>
1046
1047 <p>
1048 Then make the module/install it; insert them with:
1049 </p>
1050
1051 <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1052 # <i>modprobe smbfs</i>
1053 </pre>
1054
1055 <p>
1056 Once the modules is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is
1057 possible. Use <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1058 </p>
1059
1060 <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1061 <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1062 mount -t smbfs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1063 If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1064
1065 # <i>mount -t smbfs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1066
1067 <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1068 # <i>mount -t smbfs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1069 </pre>
1070
1071 <p>
1072 After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local
1073 drive.
1074 </p>
1075
1076 </body>
1077 </section>
1078 <section>
1079 <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1080 <body>
1081
1082 <p>
1083 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to \\PrintServer and right
1084 click on the printer (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will
1085 download the drivers to the Windows client and now every application
1086 (such as Word or Acrobat) will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available
1087 printer to print to. :-)
1088 </p>
1089
1090 </body>
1091 </section>
1092 </chapter>
1093 <chapter>
1094 <title>Final Notes</title>
1095 <section>
1096 <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1097 <body>
1098
1099 <p>
1100 Well that should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment
1101 that is friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working
1102 share!
1103 </p>
1104
1105 </body>
1106 </section>
1107 </chapter>
1108 <chapter>
1109 <title>Links and Resources</title>
1110 <section>
1111 <title>Links</title>
1112 <body>
1113
1114 <p>
1115 These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1116 troubleshooting your installation:
1117 </p>
1118
1119 <ul>
1120 <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1121 <li><uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri></li>
1122 <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1123 <li>
1124 <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1125 Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> (
1126 This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e> and <e>EVERYTHING</e>
1127 I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and Samba, and
1128 generally printing support on networks. A really interesting read,
1129 with lots and lots of details)
1130 </li>
1131 <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1132 </ul>
1133
1134 </body>
1135 </section>
1136 <section>
1137 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1138 <body>
1139
1140 <p>
1141 See <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1142 page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0"
1143 manual. Lots of useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up
1144 first, before posting questions and problems! Maybe the solution
1145 you're looking for is right there.
1146 </p>
1147
1148 </body>
1149 </section>
1150 </chapter>
1151 </guide>

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