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Tue Jun 5 21:33:31 2007 UTC (7 years, 6 months ago) by nightmorph
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updated printing guides per vapier's suggestions in bug 180929 and on irc

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml,v 1.26 2006/12/25 17:30:26 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 <guide link="/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/ClamAV HOWTO</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="daff at dword dot org">Andreas "daff" Ntaflos</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
11 </author>
12
13 <abstract>
14 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares
15 files, printers without the need to install drivers and provides
16 automatic virus scanning.
17 </abstract>
18
19 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
21 <license/>
22
23 <version>1.16</version>
24 <date>2007-06-05</date>
25
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Purpose</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different
34 clients speaking different languages, to many different machines that
35 speak a common language. The ultimate goal is to help differing
36 architectures and technologies, come together in a productive,
37 happily coexisting environment.
38 </p>
39
40 <p>
41 Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an
42 excellent step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and
43 virtually all known variations of *nix.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was
48 intended to explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system,
49 portage and the flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects,
50 it was quickly discovered what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there
51 weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered for Gentoo users. These users are
52 more demanding than most; they require performance, flexibility and
53 customization. This does not however imply that this HOWTO was not
54 intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed to work
55 with a highly customized version of Samba.
56 </p>
57
58 <p>
59 This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows
60 PCs and *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual
61 File System) feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection.
62 As a finale, it will show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
63 </p>
64
65 <p>
66 There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the
67 scope of this HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
68 </p>
69
70 <p>
71 This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO
72 provided in the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri>
73 by Andreas "daff" Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston.
74 The link to this discussion is provided below for your reference:
75 </p>
76
77 <ul>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
80 CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
81 </li>
82 </ul>
83
84 </body>
85 </section>
86 <section>
87 <title>Before you use this guide</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba, please read
92 them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this HOWTO (intentional
93 or otherwise). One such document is the very useful and well written <uri
94 link="/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration
95 issues and specific printer setup is not discussed here.
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Brief Overview</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline
106 all of the topics covered as they are presented:
107 </p>
108
109 <ul>
110 <li>On the Samba server:
111 <ul>
112 <li>Install and configure ClamAV</li>
113 <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
114 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
115 <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
116 <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
117 </ul>
118 </li>
119 <li>On the Unix clients:
120 <ul>
121 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
122 <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
123 <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
124 </ul>
125 </li>
126 <li>On the Windows Clients:
127 <ul>
128 <li>Configuring the printer</li>
129 <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
130 </ul>
131 </li>
132 </ul>
133
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 <section>
137 <title>Requirements</title>
138 <body>
139
140 <p>
141 We will need the following:
142 </p>
143
144 <ul>
145 <li>net-fs/samba</li>
146 <li>app-antivirus/clamav</li>
147 <li>net-print/cups</li>
148 <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
149 <li>net-print/hpijs (if you have an HP printer)</li>
150 <li>A kernel of sorts (preferably 2.4.24+ or 2.6.x)</li>
151 <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
152 <li>
153 A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
154 </li>
155 </ul>
156
157 <p>
158 The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need
159 a kernel with smbfs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows
160 share from another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
161 app-antivirus/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted
162 to work with Samba. Gentoo's samba ebuild supports all kinds of virus scanning
163 technologies, such as Sophos, FProt, Fsav, Trend, Icap, Nai, ...
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </section>
168 </chapter>
169
170 <chapter>
171 <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
172 <section>
173 <title>The USE Flags</title>
174 <body>
175
176 <p>
177 Before emerging anything, take a look at the various USE flags
178 available to Samba.
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
182 kerberos mysql xml acl cups ldap pam readline python oav libclamav
183 </pre>
184
185 <p>
186 Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of
187 the server, the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or
188 exclude from the emerging of Samba.
189 </p>
190
191 <table>
192 <tr>
193 <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
194 <th>Description</th>
195 </tr>
196 <tr>
197 <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
198 <ti>
199 Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is
200 intended to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note
201 below for more information.
202 </ti>
203 </tr>
204 <tr>
205 <th><b>mysql</b></th>
206 <ti>
207 This will allow Samba to use MySQL in order to do password authentication.
208 It will store ACLs, usernames, passwords, etc in a database versus a
209 flat file. If Samba is needed to do password authentication, such as
210 acting as a password validation server or a Primary Domain Controller
211 (PDC).
212 </ti>
213 </tr>
214 <tr>
215 <th><b>xml</b></th>
216 <ti>
217 The xml USE option for Samba provides a password database backend allowing
218 Samba to store account details in XML files, for the same reasons listed in
219 the mysql USE flag description.
220 </ti>
221 </tr>
222 <tr>
223 <th><b>acl</b></th>
224 <ti>
225 Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
226 ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
227 detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
228 GID/UID schemas.
229 </ti>
230 </tr>
231 <tr>
232 <th><b>cups</b></th>
233 <ti>
234 This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This
235 provides an interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to
236 other systems in the network.
237 </ti>
238 </tr>
239 <tr>
240 <th><b>ldap</b></th>
241 <ti>
242 Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
243 expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would
244 be used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to
245 a Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for
246 proper functioning of this option.
247 </ti>
248 </tr>
249 <tr>
250 <th><b>pam</b></th>
251 <ti>
252 Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This
253 provides the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is
254 required if users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag
255 is recommended along with this option.
256 </ti>
257 </tr>
258 <tr>
259 <th><b>readline</b></th>
260 <ti>
261 Link Samba against libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
262 probably not be disabled
263 </ti>
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <th><b>python</b></th>
267 <ti>
268 Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to
269 interface with Samba.
270 </ti>
271 </tr>
272 <tr>
273 <th><b>oav</b></th>
274 <ti>
275 Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot
276 Daemon, Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep
277 (SAVI), Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
278 </ti>
279 </tr>
280 <tr>
281 <th><b>libclamav</b></th>
282 <ti>
283 Use the ClamAV library instead of the clamd daemon
284 </ti>
285 </tr>
286 </table>
287
288 <p>
289 A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
290 Samba functions include:
291 </p>
292
293 <ul>
294 <li>
295 ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
296 ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled
297 (depending on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
298 </li>
299 <li>
300 While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
301 scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
302 <ul>
303 <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
304 <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
305 </ul>
306 </li>
307 </ul>
308
309 </body>
310 </section>
311 </chapter>
312
313 <chapter>
314 <title>Server Software Installation</title>
315 <section>
316 <title>Emerging Samba</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly.
321 Either have a working domain name system running on your network
322 or appropriate entries in your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file.
323 <c>cupsaddsmb</c> often borks if hostnames don't point to the correct
324 machines.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in
329 order to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this
330 HOWTO is:
331 </p>
332
333 <ul>
334 <li>oav</li>
335 <li>cups</li>
336 <li>readline</li>
337 <li>pam</li>
338 </ul>
339
340 <p>
341 To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the
342 USE flags are specifically included or excluded.
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
346 # <i>echo "net-fs/samba oav readline cups pam" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
347 # <i>emerge net-fs/samba</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <note>
351 The following archs will need to add <e>~</e> to their <e>KEYWORDS</e>: x86,
352 ppc, sparc, hppa, ia64 and alpha
353 </note>
354
355 <p>
356 This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
357 </p>
358
359 </body>
360 </section>
361 <section>
362 <title>Emerging ClamAV</title>
363 <body>
364
365 <p>
366 Because the <e>oav</e> USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
367 virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner
368 used in this HOWTO is ClamAV.
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Emerge Clamav">
372 # <i>emerge app-antivirus/clamav</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 <section>
378 <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
382 # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
383 </pre>
384
385 </body>
386 </section>
387 <section>
388 <title>Emerging net-print/hpijs</title>
389 <body>
390
391 <p>
392 You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
393 </p>
394
395 <pre caption="Emerge hpijs">
396 # <i>emerge net-print/hpijs</i>
397 </pre>
398
399 </body>
400 </section>
401 </chapter>
402
403 <chapter>
404 <title>Server Configuration</title>
405 <section>
406 <title>Configuring Samba</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>.
411 It is divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
412 # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
413 suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the
414 man page for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed
415 <path>smb.conf.example</path>, the Samba Web site or any of the
416 numerous Samba books available.
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
420 [global]
421 <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
422 workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
423 <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
424 # everyone knows it's not Windows!
425 # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
426 server string = Samba Server %v
427 <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
428 printcap name = cups
429 printing = cups
430 load printers = yes
431 <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
432 log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
433 max log size = 50
434 <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
435 socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
436 <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
437 # samba server to our local network.
438 # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
439 interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
440 bind interfaces only = yes
441 <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
442 # very security conscience, since this configuration does
443 # not use passwords!</comment>
444 hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
445 hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
446 <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
447 # The default is user</comment>
448 security = share
449 <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
450 guest account = samba
451 guest ok = yes
452 <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
453 # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
454 # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
455 # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
456
457 <comment># For Samba 3.x. This enables ClamAV on access scanning.</comment>
458 vfs object = vscan-clamav
459 vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
460
461 <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
462 [print$]
463 comment = Printer Drivers
464 path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
465 guest ok = yes
466 browseable = yes
467 read only = yes
468 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
469 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
470 write list = <i>root</i>
471
472 <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
473 # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
474 [HPDeskJet930C]
475 comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
476 printable = yes
477 path = /var/spool/samba
478 public = yes
479 guest ok = yes
480 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
481 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
482 printer admin = <i>root</i>
483
484 <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
485 # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
486 [printers]
487 comment = All Printers
488 browseable = no
489 printable = yes
490 writable = no
491 public = yes
492 guest ok = yes
493 path = /var/spool/samba
494 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
495 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
496 printer admin = <i>root</i>
497
498 <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
499 # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
500 # they want here.</comment>
501 [public]
502 comment = Public Files
503 browseable = yes
504 public = yes
505 create mode = 0766
506 guest ok = yes
507 path = /home/samba/public
508 </pre>
509
510 <warn>
511 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning
512 printing from Windows clients: don't set <c>guest only = yes</c> in
513 the <c>[global]</c> section. The guest account seems to cause
514 problems when running <c>cupsaddsmb</c> sometimes when trying to
515 connect from Windows machines. See below, too, when we talk about
516 <c>cupsaddsmb</c> and the problems that can arise. Use a dedicated
517 printer user, like <c>printeruser</c> or <c>printer</c> or
518 <c>printme</c> or whatever. It doesn't hurt and it will certainly
519 protect you from a lot of problems.
520 </warn>
521
522 <warn>
523 Turning on ClamAV on access scanning in the <c>[global]</c> section will slow
524 down the performance of your Samba server dramatically.
525 </warn>
526
527 <p>
528 Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of
529 Samba to share the installed printer throughout the network.
530 </p>
531
532 <pre caption="Create the directories">
533 # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
534 # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
535 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
536 </pre>
537
538 <p>
539 At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer
540 drivers and to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must
541 exist in the system's <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
542 </p>
543
544 <pre caption="Creating the users">
545 # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
546
547 <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
548 # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
549 </pre>
550
551 <p>
552 The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
553 in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
554 </p>
555
556 <p>
557 You will also need to update <path>/etc/nsswitch.conf</path> so that Windows
558 systems can be found easily using NetBIOS:
559 </p>
560
561 <pre caption="Editing /etc/nsswitch.conf">
562 # <i>nano -w /etc/nsswitch.conf</i>
563 <comment>(Edit the hosts: line)</comment>
564 hosts: files dns <i>wins</i>
565 </pre>
566
567 </body>
568 </section>
569 <section>
570 <title>Configuring ClamAV</title>
571 <body>
572
573 <p>
574 The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
575 <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set
576 to the defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
577 </p>
578
579 <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
580 [samba-vscan]
581 <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
582 ; clamd
583 ; all options are set to default values</comment>
584
585 <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
586 ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
587 max file size = 0
588
589 <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
590 ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
591 ; will be logged</comment>
592 verbose file logging = no
593
594 <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
595 scan on open = yes
596 <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
597 scan on close = yes
598
599 <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
600 ; (default: yes)</comment>
601 deny access on error = yes
602
603 <comment>; if daemon fails with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
604 ; should access to file denied?
605 ; (default: yes)</comment>
606 deny access on minor error = yes
607
608 <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
609 ; when virus is found?
610 ; (default: yes)</comment>
611 send warning message = yes
612
613 <comment>; what to do with an infected file
614 ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
615 ; delete: delete infected file
616 ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
617 infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
618
619 <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
620 ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
621 quarantine directory = /tmp
622 <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
623 quarantine prefix = vir-
624
625 <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
626 ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
627 ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
628 ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
629 max lru files entries = 100
630
631 <comment>; an entry is invalidated after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
632 ; (Default: 5)</comment>
633 lru file entry lifetime = 5
634
635 <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
636 clamd socket name = /tmp/clamd
637
638 <comment>; port number the ScannerDaemon listens on</comment>
639 oav port = 8127
640 </pre>
641
642 <p>
643 It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add
644 it to the <e>default</e> runlevel and then start the <c>clamd</c> service
645 immediately. The service has two processes: freshclam keeps the virus definition
646 database up to date while clamd is the actual anti-virus daemon. First you may
647 want to set the paths of the logfiles so that it fits your needs.
648 </p>
649
650 <pre caption="Checking the location of the logfiles">
651 # <i>vim /etc/clamd.conf</i>
652 <comment>(Check the line "LogFile /var/log/clamd.log")</comment>
653 # <i>vim /etc/freshclam.conf</i>
654 <comment>(Check the line "UpdateLogFile /var/log/freshclam.log")</comment>
655 # <i>vim /etc/conf.d/clamd</i>
656 <comment>(Set "START_CLAMD=yes" and "START_FRESHCLAM=yes")</comment>
657 </pre>
658
659 <p>
660 Now fire up the virus scanner.
661 </p>
662
663 <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
664 # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
665 # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
666 </pre>
667
668 </body>
669 </section>
670 <section>
671 <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
672 <body>
673
674 <p>
675 This is a little more complicated. CUPS' main config file is
676 <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
677 <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined
678 in the example are the directives that need to be changed:
679 </p>
680
681 <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
682 ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
683 ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, e.g. you</comment>
684
685 AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
686 ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
687
688 LogLevel debug <comment># only while isntalling and testing, should later be
689 # changed to 'info'</comment>
690
691 MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
692 # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
693 # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
694 # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
695
696 BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
697
698 &lt;Location /&gt;
699 Order Deny,Allow
700 Deny From All
701 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
702 # e.g. 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
703 # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
704 &lt;/Location&gt;
705
706 &lt;Location /admin&gt;
707 AuthType Basic
708 AuthClass System
709 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
710 # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
711 # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
712 Order Deny,Allow
713 Deny From All
714 &lt;/Location&gt;
715 </pre>
716
717 <p>
718 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
719 The changes to <path>mime.convs</path> and <path>mime.types</path> are
720 needed to make CUPS print Microsoft Office document files.
721 </p>
722
723 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
724 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
725 application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
726 </pre>
727
728 <p>
729 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.types</path> to uncomment some lines.
730 </p>
731
732 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
733 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
734 application/octet-stream
735 </pre>
736
737 <p>
738 CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
739 </p>
740
741 <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
742 <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
743 # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
744 <comment>(To start or restart CUPS now)</comment>
745 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
746 </pre>
747
748 </body>
749 </section>
750 <section>
751 <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri> to
756 find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To do so,
757 click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your printers manufacturer
758 and the model in the pulldown menu, e.g. HP and DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On
759 the page coming up click the "recommended driver" link after reading the
760 various notes and information. Then fetch the PPD file from the next page,
761 again after reading the notes and introductions there. You may have to select
762 your printers manufacturer and model again. Reading the <uri
763 link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS quickstart guide</uri>
764 is also very helpful when working with CUPS.
765 </p>
766
767 <p>
768 Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
769 <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was
770 named <path>HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</path>. You should now install the printer.
771 This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
772 interface is found at <path>http://PrintServer:631</path> once CUPS is running.
773 </p>
774
775 <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
776 # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
777 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
778 </pre>
779
780 <p>
781 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name
782 (<c>-p</c> argument) right (the name you set above during the Samba
783 configuration!) and to put in the correct <c>usb:/dev/usb/blah</c>,
784 <c>parallel:/dev/blah</c> or whatever device you are using for your
785 printer.
786 </p>
787
788 <p>
789 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface
790 and be able to print a test page.
791 </p>
792
793 </body>
794 </section>
795 <section>
796 <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
797 <body>
798
799 <p>
800 Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers
801 for the Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality.
802 Browsing to the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking
803 on the printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate
804 drivers automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of
805 manually installing printer drivers locally.
806 </p>
807
808 <p>
809 There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS drivers
810 which can be obtained from <uri
811 link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri> (PostScript
812 printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers, to be obtained <uri
813 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~nightmorph/misc/cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz">here</uri>.
814 There doesn't seem to be a difference between the functionality of the two, but
815 the Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted on a Windows System since it's a
816 Windows binary. Also the whole procedure of finding and copying the correct
817 files is a bit more hassle. The CUPS drivers seem to support some options the
818 Adobe drivers don't.
819 </p>
820 <!--
821 used to be available at www.cups.org/articles.php?L142+p4, but only 6.0 is
822 available. at some point, we should update this for 6.0.
823 -->
824
825 <p>
826 This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. The downloaded file is
827 called <path>cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</path>. Extract the files
828 contained into a directory.
829 </p>
830
831 <pre caption="Extract the drivers and run the install">
832 # <i>tar -xzf cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</i>
833 # <i>cd cups-samba-5.0rc2</i>
834 <comment>(Only use this script if CUPS resides in /usr/share/cups)</comment>
835 # <i>./cups-samba.install</i>
836 </pre>
837
838 <p>
839 <path>cups-samba.ss</path> is a TAR archive containing three files:
840 <path>cups5.hlp</path>, <path>cupsdrvr5.dll</path> and
841 <path>cupsui5.dll</path>. These are the actual driver files.
842 </p>
843
844 <warn>
845 The script <c>cups-samba.install</c> may not work for all *nixes (i.e. FreeBSD)
846 because almost everything which is not part of the base system is
847 installed somewhere under the prefix <path>/usr/local/</path>. This
848 seems not to be the case for most things you install under GNU/Linux.
849 However, if your CUPS installation is somewhere other than
850 <path>/usr/share/cups/</path> see the example below.
851 </warn>
852
853 <p>
854 Suppose your CUPS installation resides under
855 <path>/usr/local/share/cups/</path>, and you want to install the drivers there.
856 Do the following:
857 </p>
858
859 <pre caption="Manually installing the drivers">
860 # <i>cd /path/you/extracted/the/CUPS-driver/tarball/into</i>
861 # <i>tar -xf cups-samba.ss</i>
862 <comment>(This extracts the files to usr/share/cups/drivers under the CURRENT WORKING DIRECTORY)</comment>
863 # <i>cd usr/share/cups/drivers</i>
864 <comment>(no leading / !)</comment>
865 # <i>cp cups* /usr/local/share/cups/drivers</i>
866 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
867 </pre>
868
869 <p>
870 Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS distribution.
871 Its man page is an interesting read.
872 </p>
873
874 <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
875 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
876 <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
877 "export all known printers".)</comment>
878 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
879 </pre>
880
881 <warn>
882 The execution of this command often causes the most trouble. Read through the
883 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
884 thread</uri> for some troubleshooting tips.
885 </warn>
886
887 <p>
888 Here are common errors that may happen:
889 </p>
890
891 <ul>
892 <li>
893 The hostname given as a parameter for <c>-h</c> and <c>-H</c>
894 (<c>PrintServer</c>) often does not resolve correctly and doesn't
895 identify the print server for CUPS/Samba interaction. If an error
896 like: <b>Warning: No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" -
897 skipping!</b> occurs, the first thing you should do is substitute
898 <c>PrintServer</c> with <c>localhost</c> and try it again.
899 </li>
900 <li>
901 The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
902 is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
903 not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <c>security =
904 user</c> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
905 successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
906 before.
907 </li>
908 </ul>
909
910 <p>
911 This should install the correct driver directory structure under
912 <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
913 <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should
914 be the 3 driver files and the PPD file, renamed to YourPrinterName.ppd
915 (the name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
916 </p>
917
918 <p>
919 Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now
920 installed.
921 </p>
922
923 </body>
924 </section>
925 <section>
926 <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
927 <body>
928
929 <p>
930 Lastly, setup our directories.
931 </p>
932
933 <pre caption="Final changes needed">
934 # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
935 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
936 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
937 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
938 </pre>
939
940 </body>
941 </section>
942 <section>
943 <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
944 <body>
945
946 <p>
947 We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
948 properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do
949 this we run <c>testparm</c>.
950 </p>
951
952 <pre caption="Running the testparm">
953 <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
954 # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
955 Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
956 Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
957 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
958 Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
959 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
960 Loaded services file OK.
961 Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
962 Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
963 ...
964 ...
965 </pre>
966
967 </body>
968 </section>
969 <section>
970 <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
971 <body>
972
973 <p>
974 Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
975 </p>
976
977 <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
978 # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
979 # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
980 </pre>
981
982 </body>
983 </section>
984 <section>
985 <title>Checking our services</title>
986 <body>
987
988 <p>
989 It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also.
990 We will also want to take a peak at our Samba shares using
991 <c>smbclient</c>.
992 </p>
993
994 <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
995 # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
996 Password:
997 <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
998 </pre>
999
1000 </body>
1001 </section>
1002 </chapter>
1003
1004 <chapter>
1005 <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
1006 <section>
1007 <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
1008 <body>
1009
1010 <p>
1011 Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS. Do the
1012 equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
1013 </p>
1014
1015 <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system">
1016 # <i>emerge cups</i>
1017 # <i>nano -w /etc/cups/client.conf</i>
1018 ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
1019 </pre>
1020
1021 <p>
1022 That should be it. Nothing else will be needed.
1023 </p>
1024
1025 <p>
1026 If you use only one printer, it will be your default printer. If your print
1027 server manages several printers, your administrator will have defined a default
1028 printer on the server. If you want to define a different default printer for
1029 yourself, use the <c>lpoptions</c> command.
1030 </p>
1031
1032 <pre caption="Setting your default printer">
1033 <comment>(List available printers)</comment>
1034 # <i>lpstat -a</i>
1035 <comment>(Sample output, yours will differ)</comment>
1036 HPDeskJet930C accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
1037 laser accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
1038 <comment>(Define HPDeskJet930C as your default printer)</comment>
1039 # <i>lpoptions -d HPDeskJet930C</i>
1040 </pre>
1041
1042 <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
1043 <comment>(Specify the printer to be used)</comment>
1044 # <i>lp -d HPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
1045 <comment>(Use your default printer)</comment>
1046 # <i>lp foobar.whatever.ps</i>
1047 </pre>
1048
1049 <p>
1050 Just point your web browser to <c>http://printserver:631</c> on the client if
1051 you want to manage your printers and their jobs with a nice web interface.
1052 Replace <c>printserver</c> with the name of the <e>machine</e> that acts as
1053 your print server, not the name you gave to the cups print server if you used
1054 different names.
1055 </p>
1056
1057 </body>
1058 </section>
1059 <section>
1060 <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
1061 <body>
1062
1063 <p>
1064 Now is time to configure our kernel to support smbfs. Since I'm assumming we've
1065 all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make sure we have all the right
1066 options selected in our kernel. For simplicity sake, make it a module for ease
1067 of use. It is the author's opinion that kernel modules are a good thing and
1068 should be used whenever possible.
1069 </p>
1070
1071 <pre caption="Relevant kernel options" >
1072 CONFIG_SMB_FS=m
1073 CONFIG_SMB_UNIX=y
1074 </pre>
1075
1076 <p>
1077 Then make the module/install it; insert them with:
1078 </p>
1079
1080 <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1081 # <i>modprobe smbfs</i>
1082 </pre>
1083
1084 <p>
1085 Once the modules is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is
1086 possible. Use <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1087 </p>
1088
1089 <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1090 <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1091 mount -t smbfs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1092 If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1093
1094 # <i>mount -t smbfs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1095
1096 <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1097 # <i>mount -t smbfs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1098 </pre>
1099
1100 <p>
1101 After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local
1102 drive.
1103 </p>
1104
1105 </body>
1106 </section>
1107 <section>
1108 <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1109 <body>
1110
1111 <p>
1112 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to
1113 <path>\\PrintServer</path> and right click on the printer
1114 (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will download the drivers to
1115 the Windows client and now every application (such as Word or Acrobat)
1116 will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available printer to print to. :-)
1117 </p>
1118
1119 </body>
1120 </section>
1121 </chapter>
1122
1123 <chapter>
1124 <title>Final Notes</title>
1125 <section>
1126 <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1127 <body>
1128
1129 <p>
1130 Well that should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment
1131 that is friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working
1132 share!
1133 </p>
1134
1135 </body>
1136 </section>
1137 </chapter>
1138
1139 <chapter>
1140 <title>Links and Resources</title>
1141 <section>
1142 <title>Links</title>
1143 <body>
1144
1145 <p>
1146 These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1147 troubleshooting your installation:
1148 </p>
1149
1150 <ul>
1151 <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1152 <li>
1153 <uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri>, especially the <uri
1154 link="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/CUPS-printing.html">chapter
1155 on Samba/CUPS configuration</uri>
1156 </li>
1157 <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1158 <li>
1159 <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1160 Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> (
1161 This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e> and <e>EVERYTHING</e>
1162 I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and Samba, and
1163 generally printing support on networks. A really interesting read,
1164 with lots and lots of details)
1165 </li>
1166 <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1167 </ul>
1168
1169 </body>
1170 </section>
1171 <section>
1172 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1173 <body>
1174
1175 <p>
1176 See <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1177 page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0"
1178 manual. Lots of useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up
1179 first, before posting questions and problems! Maybe the solution
1180 you're looking for is right there.
1181 </p>
1182
1183 </body>
1184 </section>
1185 </chapter>
1186 </guide>

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