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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml,v 1.37 2007/12/01 11:30:40 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/quick-samba-howto.xml">
6
7 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/ClamAV HOWTO</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 Andreas "daff" Ntaflos <!--daff at dword dot org-->
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
17 </author>
18
19 <abstract>
20 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares files,
21 printers without the need to install drivers and provides automatic virus
22 scanning.
23 </abstract>
24
25 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
26 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
27 <license/>
28
29 <version>1.23</version>
30 <date>2007-12-01</date>
31
32 <chapter>
33 <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
34 <section>
35 <title>Purpose</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different clients
40 speaking different languages, to many different machines that speak a common
41 language. The ultimate goal is to help differing architectures and technologies,
42 come together in a productive, happily coexisting environment.
43 </p>
44
45 <p>
46 Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an excellent
47 step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and virtually all known
48 variations of *nix.
49 </p>
50
51 <p>
52 This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was intended to
53 explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system, portage and the
54 flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects, it was quickly discovered
55 what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered
56 for Gentoo users. These users are more demanding than most; they require
57 performance, flexibility and customization. This does not however imply that
58 this HOWTO was not intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed
59 to work with a highly customized version of Samba.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows PCs and
64 *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual File System)
65 feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection. As a finale, it will
66 show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
67 </p>
68
69 <p>
70 There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the scope of this
71 HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
72 </p>
73
74 <p>
75 This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO provided
76 in the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri> by Andreas
77 "daff" Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston. The link to this
78 discussion is provided below for your reference:
79 </p>
80
81 <ul>
82 <li>
83 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
84 CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
85 </li>
86 </ul>
87
88 </body>
89 </section>
90 <section>
91 <title>Before you use this guide</title>
92 <body>
93
94 <p>
95 There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba, please read
96 them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this HOWTO (intentional or
97 otherwise). One such document is the very useful and well written <uri
98 link="/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration
99 issues and specific printer setup is not discussed here.
100 </p>
101
102 </body>
103 </section>
104 <section>
105 <title>Brief Overview</title>
106 <body>
107
108 <p>
109 After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline all of
110 the topics covered as they are presented:
111 </p>
112
113 <ul>
114 <li>On the Samba server:
115 <ul>
116 <li>Install and configure ClamAV</li>
117 <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
118 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
119 <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
120 <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
121 </ul>
122 </li>
123 <li>On the Unix clients:
124 <ul>
125 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
126 <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
127 <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
128 </ul>
129 </li>
130 <li>On the Windows Clients:
131 <ul>
132 <li>Configuring the printer</li>
133 <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
134 </ul>
135 </li>
136 </ul>
137
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>Requirements</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <p>
145 We will need the following:
146 </p>
147
148 <ul>
149 <li>net-fs/samba</li>
150 <li>app-antivirus/clamav</li>
151 <li>net-print/cups</li>
152 <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
153 <li>net-print/hplip (if you have an HP printer)</li>
154 <li>A kernel of sorts (2.6)</li>
155 <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
156 <li>
157 A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
158 </li>
159 </ul>
160
161 <p>
162 The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need a kernel
163 with cifs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows share from
164 another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
165 app-antivirus/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted to
166 work with Samba. Gentoo's samba ebuild supports all kinds of virus scanning
167 technologies, such as Sophos, FProt, Fsav, Trend, Icap, Nai, ...
168 </p>
169
170 </body>
171 </section>
172 </chapter>
173
174 <chapter>
175 <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
176 <section>
177 <title>The USE Flags</title>
178 <body>
179
180 <p>
181 Before emerging anything, take a look at some of the various USE flags available
182 to Samba.
183 </p>
184
185 <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
186 kerberos acl cups ldap pam readline python oav
187 </pre>
188
189 <p>
190 Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of the server,
191 the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or exclude from the
192 emerging of Samba.
193 </p>
194
195 <table>
196 <tr>
197 <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
198 <th>Description</th>
199 </tr>
200 <tr>
201 <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
202 <ti>
203 Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is intended
204 to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note below for more
205 information.
206 </ti>
207 </tr>
208 <tr>
209 <th><b>acl</b></th>
210 <ti>
211 Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
212 ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
213 detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
214 GID/UID schemas.
215 </ti>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <th><b>cups</b></th>
219 <ti>
220 This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This provides an
221 interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to other systems in the
222 network.
223 </ti>
224 </tr>
225 <tr>
226 <th><b>ldap</b></th>
227 <ti>
228 Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
229 expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would be
230 used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to a
231 Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for proper
232 functioning of this option.
233 </ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <th><b>pam</b></th>
237 <ti>
238 Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This provides
239 the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is required if
240 users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag is recommended
241 along with this option.
242 </ti>
243 </tr>
244 <tr>
245 <th><b>readline</b></th>
246 <ti>
247 Link Samba against libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
248 probably not be disabled.
249 </ti>
250 </tr>
251 <tr>
252 <th><b>python</b></th>
253 <ti>
254 Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to interface
255 with Samba.
256 </ti>
257 </tr>
258 <tr>
259 <th><b>oav</b></th>
260 <ti>
261 Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot Daemon,
262 Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep (SAVI),
263 Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
264 </ti>
265 </tr>
266 </table>
267
268 <p>
269 A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
270 Samba functions include:
271 </p>
272
273 <ul>
274 <li>
275 ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
276 ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled (depending
277 on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
278 </li>
279 <li>
280 While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
281 scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
282 <ul>
283 <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
284 <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
285 </ul>
286 </li>
287 </ul>
288
289 </body>
290 </section>
291 </chapter>
292
293 <chapter>
294 <title>Server Software Installation</title>
295 <section>
296 <title>Emerging Samba</title>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly. Either have a
301 working domain name system running on your network or appropriate entries in
302 your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file. <c>cupsaddsmb</c> often borks if hostnames
303 don't point to the correct machines.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in order
308 to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this HOWTO is:
309 </p>
310
311 <ul>
312 <li>oav</li>
313 <li>cups</li>
314 <li>readline</li>
315 <li>pam</li>
316 </ul>
317
318 <p>
319 To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the USE flags are
320 specifically included or excluded.
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
324 # <i>echo "net-fs/samba oav readline cups pam" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
325 # <i>emerge net-fs/samba</i>
326 </pre>
327
328 <p>
329 This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
330 </p>
331
332 </body>
333 </section>
334 <section>
335 <title>Emerging ClamAV</title>
336 <body>
337
338 <p>
339 Because the <e>oav</e> USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
340 virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner used in
341 this HOWTO is ClamAV.
342 </p>
343
344 <pre caption="Emerge Clamav">
345 # <i>emerge app-antivirus/clamav</i>
346 </pre>
347
348 </body>
349 </section>
350 <section>
351 <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
352 <body>
353
354 <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
355 # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section>
361 <title>Emerging net-print/hplip</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Emerge hplip">
369 # <i>emerge net-print/hplip</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 </body>
373 </section>
374 </chapter>
375
376 <chapter>
377 <title>Server Configuration</title>
378 <section>
379 <title>Configuring Samba</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>. It is
384 divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
385 # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
386 suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the man page
387 for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed <path>smb.conf.example</path>, the
388 Samba Web site or any of the numerous Samba books available.
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
392 [global]
393 <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
394 workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
395 <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
396 # everyone knows it's not Windows!
397 # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
398 server string = Samba Server %v
399 <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
400 printcap name = cups
401 printing = cups
402 load printers = yes
403 <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
404 log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
405 max log size = 50
406 <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
407 socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
408 <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
409 # samba server to our local network.
410 # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
411 interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
412 bind interfaces only = yes
413 <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
414 # very security conscience, since this configuration does
415 # not use passwords!</comment>
416 hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
417 hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
418 <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
419 # The default is user</comment>
420 security = share
421 <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
422 guest ok = yes
423 <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
424 # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
425 # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
426 # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
427
428 <comment># For Samba 3.x. This enables ClamAV on access scanning.</comment>
429 vfs object = vscan-clamav
430 vscan-clamav: config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
431
432 <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
433 [print$]
434 comment = Printer Drivers
435 path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
436 guest ok = yes
437 browseable = yes
438 read only = yes
439 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
440 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
441 write list = <i>root</i>
442
443 <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
444 # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
445 [HPDeskJet930C]
446 comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
447 printable = yes
448 path = /var/spool/samba
449 public = yes
450 guest ok = yes
451 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
452 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
453 printer admin = <i>root</i>
454
455 <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
456 # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
457 [printers]
458 comment = All Printers
459 browseable = no
460 printable = yes
461 writable = no
462 public = yes
463 guest ok = yes
464 path = /var/spool/samba
465 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
466 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
467 printer admin = <i>root</i>
468
469 <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
470 # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
471 # they want here.</comment>
472 [public]
473 comment = Public Files
474 browseable = yes
475 public = yes
476 create mode = 0766
477 guest ok = yes
478 path = /home/samba/public
479 </pre>
480
481 <warn>
482 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning printing from
483 Windows clients: don't set <c>guest only = yes</c> in the <c>[global]</c>
484 section. The guest account seems to cause problems when running
485 <c>cupsaddsmb</c> sometimes when trying to connect from Windows machines. See
486 below, too, when we talk about <c>cupsaddsmb</c> and the problems that can
487 arise. Use a dedicated printer user, like <c>printeruser</c> or <c>printer</c>
488 or <c>printme</c> or whatever. It doesn't hurt and it will certainly protect you
489 from a lot of problems.
490 </warn>
491
492 <warn>
493 Turning on ClamAV on access scanning in the <c>[global]</c> section will slow
494 down the performance of your Samba server dramatically.
495 </warn>
496
497 <p>
498 Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of Samba to
499 share the installed printer throughout the network.
500 </p>
501
502 <pre caption="Create the directories">
503 # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
504 # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
505 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer drivers and
510 to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must exist in the system's
511 <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
512 </p>
513
514 <pre caption="Creating the users">
515 # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
516
517 <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
518 # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
519 </pre>
520
521 <p>
522 The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
523 in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
524 </p>
525
526 <p>
527 You will also need to update <path>/etc/nsswitch.conf</path> so that Windows
528 systems can be found easily using NetBIOS:
529 </p>
530
531 <pre caption="Editing /etc/nsswitch.conf">
532 # <i>nano -w /etc/nsswitch.conf</i>
533 <comment>(Edit the hosts: line)</comment>
534 hosts: files dns <i>wins</i>
535 </pre>
536
537 </body>
538 </section>
539 <section>
540 <title>Configuring ClamAV</title>
541 <body>
542
543 <p>
544 The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
545 <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set to the
546 defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
547 </p>
548
549 <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
550 [samba-vscan]
551 <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
552 ; clamd
553 ; all options are set to default values</comment>
554
555 <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
556 ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
557 max file size = 0
558
559 <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
560 ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
561 ; will be logged</comment>
562 verbose file logging = no
563
564 <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
565 scan on open = yes
566 <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
567 scan on close = yes
568
569 <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
570 ; (default: yes)</comment>
571 deny access on error = yes
572
573 <comment>; if daemon fails with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
574 ; should access to file denied?
575 ; (default: yes)</comment>
576 deny access on minor error = yes
577
578 <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
579 ; when virus is found?
580 ; (default: yes)</comment>
581 send warning message = yes
582
583 <comment>; what to do with an infected file
584 ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
585 ; delete: delete infected file
586 ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
587 infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
588
589 <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
590 ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
591 quarantine directory = /tmp
592 <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
593 quarantine prefix = vir-
594
595 <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
596 ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
597 ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
598 ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
599 max lru files entries = 100
600
601 <comment>; an entry is invalidated after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
602 ; (Default: 5)</comment>
603 lru file entry lifetime = 5
604
605 <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
606 clamd socket name = /tmp/clamd
607
608 <comment>; port number the ScannerDaemon listens on</comment>
609 oav port = 8127
610 </pre>
611
612 <p>
613 It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add it to
614 the <e>default</e> runlevel and then start the <c>clamd</c> service immediately.
615 The service has two processes: freshclam keeps the virus definition database up
616 to date while clamd is the actual anti-virus daemon. First you may want to set
617 the paths of the logfiles so that it fits your needs.
618 </p>
619
620 <pre caption="Checking the location of the logfiles">
621 # <i>vim /etc/clamd.conf</i>
622 <comment>(Check the line "LogFile /var/log/clamd.log")</comment>
623 # <i>vim /etc/freshclam.conf</i>
624 <comment>(Check the line "UpdateLogFile /var/log/freshclam.log")</comment>
625 # <i>vim /etc/conf.d/clamd</i>
626 <comment>(Set "START_CLAMD=yes" and "START_FRESHCLAM=yes")</comment>
627 </pre>
628
629 <p>
630 Now fire up the virus scanner.
631 </p>
632
633 <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
634 # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
635 # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
636 </pre>
637
638 </body>
639 </section>
640 <section>
641 <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
642 <body>
643
644 <p>
645 This is a little more complicated. CUPS' main config file is
646 <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
647 <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined in the
648 example are the directives that need to be changed:
649 </p>
650
651 <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
652 ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
653 ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, e.g. you</comment>
654
655 AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
656 ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
657
658 LogLevel debug <comment># only while installing and testing, should later be
659 # changed to 'info'</comment>
660
661 MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
662 # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
663 # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
664 # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
665
666 BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
667
668 &lt;Location /&gt;
669 Order Deny,Allow
670 Deny From All
671 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
672 # e.g. 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
673 # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
674 &lt;/Location&gt;
675
676 &lt;Location /admin&gt;
677 AuthType Basic
678 AuthClass System
679 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
680 # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
681 # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
682 Order Deny,Allow
683 Deny From All
684 &lt;/Location&gt;
685 </pre>
686
687 <p>
688 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines. The changes to
689 <path>mime.convs</path> and <path>mime.types</path> are needed to make CUPS
690 print Microsoft Office document files.
691 </p>
692
693 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
694 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
695 application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
696 </pre>
697
698 <p>
699 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.types</path> to uncomment some lines.
700 </p>
701
702 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
703 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
704 application/octet-stream
705 </pre>
706
707 <p>
708 CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
709 </p>
710
711 <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
712 <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
713 # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
714 <comment>(To start or restart CUPS now)</comment>
715 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
716 </pre>
717
718 </body>
719 </section>
720 <section>
721 <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
722 <body>
723
724 <p>
725 First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri> to
726 find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To do so,
727 click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your printers manufacturer
728 and the model in the pulldown menu, e.g. HP and DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On
729 the page coming up click the "recommended driver" link after reading the various
730 notes and information. Then fetch the PPD file from the next page, again after
731 reading the notes and introductions there. You may have to select your printers
732 manufacturer and model again. Reading the <uri
733 link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS quickstart guide</uri> is
734 also very helpful when working with CUPS.
735 </p>
736
737 <p>
738 Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
739 <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was named
740 <path>HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</path>. You should now install the printer.
741 This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
742 interface is found at <path>http://PrintServer:631</path> once CUPS is running.
743 </p>
744
745 <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
746 # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
747 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
748 </pre>
749
750 <p>
751 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name (<c>-p</c>
752 argument) right (the name you set above during the Samba configuration!) and to
753 put in the correct <c>usb:/dev/usb/blah</c>, <c>parallel:/dev/blah</c> or
754 whatever device you are using for your printer.
755 </p>
756
757 <p>
758 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface and be able
759 to print a test page.
760 </p>
761
762 </body>
763 </section>
764 <section>
765 <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
766 <body>
767
768 <p>
769 Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers for
770 the Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality. Browsing
771 to the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking on the
772 printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate drivers
773 automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of manually
774 installing printer drivers locally.
775 </p>
776
777 <p>
778 There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS drivers
779 which can be obtained from <uri
780 link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri> (PostScript
781 printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers, to be obtained by
782 emerging <c>net-print/cups-windows</c>. Note that it may still be marked ~arch,
783 so you may need to add it to <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. There
784 doesn't seem to be a difference between the functionality of the two, but the
785 Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted on a Windows System since it's a Windows
786 binary. Also the whole procedure of finding and copying the correct files is a
787 bit more hassle. The CUPS drivers support some options the Adobe drivers
788 don't.
789 </p>
790
791 <p>
792 This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. Install them as shown:
793 </p>
794
795 <pre caption="Install the drivers">
796 # <i>emerge -av cups-windows</i>
797 </pre>
798
799 <p>
800 Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS distribution.
801 Be sure to read its manpage (<c>man cupsaddsmb</c>), as it will tell you which
802 Windows drivers you'll need to copy to the proper CUPS directory. Once you've
803 copied the drivers, restart CUPS by running <c>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</c>.
804 Next, run <c>cupsaddsmb</c> as shown:
805 </p>
806
807 <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
808 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
809 <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
810 "export all known printers".)</comment>
811 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
812 </pre>
813
814 <warn>
815 The execution of this command often causes the most trouble. Read through the
816 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
817 thread</uri> for some troubleshooting tips.
818 </warn>
819
820 <p>
821 Here are common errors that may happen:
822 </p>
823
824 <ul>
825 <li>
826 The hostname given as a parameter for <c>-h</c> and <c>-H</c>
827 (<c>PrintServer</c>) often does not resolve correctly and doesn't identify
828 the print server for CUPS/Samba interaction. If an error like: <b>Warning:
829 No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" - skipping!</b> occurs, the
830 first thing you should do is substitute <c>PrintServer</c> with
831 <c>localhost</c> and try it again.
832 </li>
833 <li>
834 The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
835 is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
836 not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <c>security =
837 user</c> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
838 successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
839 before.
840 </li>
841 </ul>
842
843 <p>
844 This should install the correct driver directory structure under
845 <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
846 <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should be the 3
847 driver files and the PPD file, renamed to <path>YourPrinterName.ppd</path> (the
848 name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
849 </p>
850
851 <p>
852 Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now installed.
853 </p>
854
855 </body>
856 </section>
857 <section>
858 <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
859 <body>
860
861 <p>
862 Lastly, setup our directories.
863 </p>
864
865 <pre caption="Final changes needed">
866 # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
867 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
868 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
869 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
870 </pre>
871
872 </body>
873 </section>
874 <section>
875 <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
876 <body>
877
878 <p>
879 We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
880 properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do this we
881 run <c>testparm</c>.
882 </p>
883
884 <pre caption="Running the testparm">
885 <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
886 # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
887 Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
888 Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
889 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
890 Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
891 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
892 Loaded services file OK.
893 Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
894 Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
895 ...
896 ...
897 </pre>
898
899 </body>
900 </section>
901 <section>
902 <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
903 <body>
904
905 <p>
906 Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
907 </p>
908
909 <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
910 # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
911 # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
912 </pre>
913
914 </body>
915 </section>
916 <section>
917 <title>Checking our services</title>
918 <body>
919
920 <p>
921 It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also. We will also
922 want to take a peak at our Samba shares using <c>smbclient</c>.
923 </p>
924
925 <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
926 # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
927 Password:
928 <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
929 </pre>
930
931 </body>
932 </section>
933 </chapter>
934
935 <chapter>
936 <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
937 <section>
938 <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
939 <body>
940
941 <p>
942 Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS. Do the
943 equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
944 </p>
945
946 <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system">
947 # <i>emerge cups</i>
948 # <i>nano -w /etc/cups/client.conf</i>
949 ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
950 </pre>
951
952 <p>
953 That should be it. Nothing else will be needed.
954 </p>
955
956 <p>
957 If you use only one printer, it will be your default printer. If your print
958 server manages several printers, your administrator will have defined a default
959 printer on the server. If you want to define a different default printer for
960 yourself, use the <c>lpoptions</c> command.
961 </p>
962
963 <pre caption="Setting your default printer">
964 <comment>(List available printers)</comment>
965 # <i>lpstat -a</i>
966 <comment>(Sample output, yours will differ)</comment>
967 HPDeskJet930C accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
968 laser accepting requests since Jan 01 00:00
969 <comment>(Define HPDeskJet930C as your default printer)</comment>
970 # <i>lpoptions -d HPDeskJet930C</i>
971 </pre>
972
973 <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
974 <comment>(Specify the printer to be used)</comment>
975 # <i>lp -d HPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
976 <comment>(Use your default printer)</comment>
977 # <i>lp foobar.whatever.ps</i>
978 </pre>
979
980 <p>
981 Just point your web browser to <c>http://printserver:631</c> on the client if
982 you want to manage your printers and their jobs with a nice web interface.
983 Replace <c>printserver</c> with the name of the <e>machine</e> that acts as your
984 print server, not the name you gave to the cups print server if you used
985 different names.
986 </p>
987
988 </body>
989 </section>
990 <section>
991 <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
992 <body>
993
994 <note>
995 Don't forget to install <c>net-fs/mount-cifs</c> or <c>net-fs/samba</c> on the
996 client(s) that will be accessing the shares.
997 </note>
998
999 <p>
1000 Now is time to configure our kernel to support cifs. Since I'm assuming
1001 we've all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make sure we have all the
1002 right options selected in our kernel. For simplicity's sake, make it a module
1003 for ease of use. It is the author's opinion that kernel modules are a good thing
1004 and should be used whenever possible.
1005 </p>
1006
1007 <pre caption="Kernel support" >
1008 CONFIG_CIFS=m
1009 </pre>
1010
1011 <p>
1012 Then make the module/install it; insert it with:
1013 </p>
1014
1015 <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1016 # <i>modprobe cifs</i>
1017 </pre>
1018
1019 <p>
1020 Once the module is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is possible. Use
1021 <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1022 </p>
1023
1024 <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1025 <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1026 mount -t cifs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1027 If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1028
1029 # <i>mount -t cifs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1030
1031 <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1032 # <i>mount -t cifs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1033 </pre>
1034
1035 <p>
1036 After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local drive.
1037 </p>
1038
1039 </body>
1040 </section>
1041 <section>
1042 <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1043 <body>
1044
1045 <p>
1046 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to <path>\\PrintServer</path> and
1047 right click on the printer (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will download
1048 the drivers to the Windows client and now every application (such as Word or
1049 Acrobat) will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available printer to print to. :-)
1050 </p>
1051
1052 </body>
1053 </section>
1054 </chapter>
1055
1056 <chapter>
1057 <title>Final Notes</title>
1058 <section>
1059 <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1060 <body>
1061
1062 <p>
1063 That should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment that is
1064 friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working share!
1065 </p>
1066
1067 </body>
1068 </section>
1069 </chapter>
1070
1071 <chapter>
1072 <title>Links and Resources</title>
1073 <section>
1074 <title>Links</title>
1075 <body>
1076
1077 <p>
1078 These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1079 troubleshooting your installation:
1080 </p>
1081
1082 <ul>
1083 <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1084 <li>
1085 <uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri>, especially the <uri
1086 link="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/CUPS-printing.html">chapter
1087 on Samba/CUPS configuration</uri>
1088 </li>
1089 <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1090 <li>
1091 <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1092 Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> ( This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e>
1093 and <e>EVERYTHING</e> I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and
1094 Samba, and generally printing support on networks. A really interesting
1095 read, with lots and lots of details.)
1096 </li>
1097 <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1098 </ul>
1099
1100 </body>
1101 </section>
1102 <section>
1103 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1104 <body>
1105
1106 <p>
1107 See <uri
1108 link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1109 page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0" manual. Lots of
1110 useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up first, before posting questions
1111 and problems! Maybe the solution you're looking for is right there.
1112 </p>
1113
1114 </body>
1115 </section>
1116 </chapter>
1117 </guide>

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