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1 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="quick-samba-howto.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Samba3/CUPS/Clam AV HOWTO</title>
5 <author title="Author">
6 <mail link="daff at dword dot org">Andreas "daff" Ntaflos</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="joshua@sungentoo.homeunix.com">Joshua Preston</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 Setup, install and configure a Samba Server under Gentoo that shares
14 files, printers without the need to install drivers and provides
15 automatic virus scanning.
16 </abstract>
17
18 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
20 <license/>
21
22 <version>1.3</version>
23 <date>May 18, 2004</date>
24
25 <chapter>
26 <title>Introduction to this HOWTO</title>
27 <section>
28 <title>Purpose</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <p>
32 This HOWTO is designed to help you move a network from many different
33 clients speaking different languages, to many different manchines that
34 speak a common language. The ultimate goal is to help differing
35 architectures and technologies, come together in a productive,
36 happily coexisting environment.
37 </p>
38
39 <p>
40 Following the directions outlined in this HOWTO should give you an
41 excellent step towards a peaceful cohabitation between Windows, and
42 virtually all known variations of *nix.
43 </p>
44
45 <p>
46 This HOWTO originally started not as a HOWTO, but as a FAQ. It was
47 intended to explore the functionality and power of the Gentoo system,
48 portage and the flexibility of USE flags. Like so many other projects,
49 it was quickly discovered what was missing in the Gentoo realm: there
50 weren't any Samba HOWTO's catered for Gentoo users. These users are
51 more demanding than most; they require performance, flexibility and
52 customization. This does not however imply that this HOWTO was not
53 intended for other distributions; rather that it was designed to work
54 with a highly customized version of Samba.
55 </p>
56
57 <p>
58 This HOWTO will describe how to share files and printers between Windows
59 PCs and *nix PCs. It will also demonstrate the use of the VFS (Virtual
60 File System) feature of Samba to incorporate automatic virus protection.
61 As a finale, it will show you how to mount and manipulate shares.
62 </p>
63
64 <p>
65 There are a few topics that will be mentioned, but are out of the
66 scope of this HOWTO. These will be noted as they are presented.
67 </p>
68
69 <p>
70 This HOWTO is based on a compilation and merge of an excellent HOWTO
71 provided in the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo forums</uri>
72 by Andreas "daff" Ntaflos and the collected knowledge of Joshua Preston.
73 The link to this discussion is provided below for your reference:
74 </p>
75
76 <ul>
77 <li>
78 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">HOWTO
79 CUPS+Samba: printing from Windows &amp; Linux</uri>
80 </li>
81 </ul>
82
83 </body>
84 </section>
85 <section>
86 <title>Before you use this guide</title>
87 <body>
88
89 <p>
90 There are a several other guides for setting up CUPS and/or Samba,
91 please read them as well, as they may tell you things left out of this
92 HOWTO (intentional or otherwise). One such document is the very useful
93 and well written <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/printing-howto.xml">Gentoo
94 Printing Guide</uri>, as configuration issues and specific printer setup
95 is not discussed here.
96 </p>
97
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Brief Overview</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <p>
105 After presenting the various USE flags, the following list will outline
106 all of the topics covered as they are presented:
107 </p>
108
109 <ul>
110 <li>On the Samba server:
111 <ul>
112 <li>Install and configure CLAM-AV</li>
113 <li>Install and configure Samba</li>
114 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
115 <li>Adding the printer to CUPS</li>
116 <li>Adding the PS drivers for the Windows clients</li>
117 </ul>
118 </li>
119 <li>On the Unix clients:
120 <ul>
121 <li>Install and configure CUPS</li>
122 <li>Configuring a default printer</li>
123 <li>Mounting a Windows or Samba share</li>
124 </ul>
125 </li>
126 <li>On the Windows Clients:
127 <ul>
128 <li>Configuring the printer</li>
129 <li>Accessing Samba shares</li>
130 </ul>
131 </li>
132 </ul>
133
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 <section>
137 <title>Requirements</title>
138 <body>
139
140 <p>
141 We will need the following:
142 </p>
143
144 <ul>
145 <li>net-fs/samba</li>
146 <li>net-mail/clamav</li>
147 <li>net-print/cups</li>
148 <li>net-print/foomatic</li>
149 <li>net-print/hpijs (if you have an HP printer)</li>
150 <li>A kernel of sorts (preferably 2.4.24+ or 2.6.x)</li>
151 <li>A printer (PS or non-PS, maybe not TOO new or fancy)</li>
152 <li>
153 A working network (home/office/etc) consisting of more than one machine)
154 </li>
155 </ul>
156
157 <p>
158 The main package we use here is net-fs/samba, however, you will need
159 a kernel with smbfs support enabled in order to mount a samba or windows
160 share from another computer. CUPS will be emerged if it is not already.
161 net-mail/clamav will be used also, but others should be easily adapted
162 to work with Samba.
163 </p>
164
165 </body>
166 </section>
167 </chapter>
168 <chapter>
169 <title>Getting acquainted with Samba</title>
170 <section>
171 <title>The USE Flags</title>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 Before emerging anything, take a look at the various USE flags
176 available to Samba.
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Samba uses the following USE Variables:">
180 kerberos mysql xml acl cups ldap pam readline python oav
181 </pre>
182
183 <p>
184 Depending on the network topology and the specific requirements of
185 the server, the USE flags outlined below will define what to include or
186 exclude from the emerging of Samba.
187 </p>
188
189 <table>
190 <tr>
191 <th><b>USE flag</b></th>
192 <th>Description</th>
193 </tr>
194 <tr>
195 <th><b>kerberos</b></th>
196 <ti>
197 Include support for Kerberos. The server will need this if it is
198 intended to join an existing domain or Active Directory. See the note
199 below for more information.
200 </ti>
201 </tr>
202 <tr>
203 <th><b>mysql</b></th>
204 <ti>
205 This will allow Samba to use MySQL in order to do password authentication.
206 It will store ACLs, usernames, passwords, etc in a database versus a
207 flat file. If Samba is needed to do password authentication, such as
208 acting as a password validation server or a Primary Domain Controller
209 (PDC).
210 </ti>
211 </tr>
212 <tr>
213 <th><b>xml</b></th>
214 <ti>
215 The xml USE option for Samba provides a password database backend allowing
216 Samba to store account details in XML files, for the same reasons listed in
217 the mysql USE flag description.
218 </ti>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th><b>acl</b></th>
222 <ti>
223 Enables Access Control Lists. The ACL support in Samba uses a patched
224 ext2/ext3, or SGI's XFS in order to function properly as it extends more
225 detailed access to files or directories; much more so than typical *nix
226 GID/UID schemas.
227 </ti>
228 </tr>
229 <tr>
230 <th><b>cups</b></th>
231 <ti>
232 This enables support for the Common Unix Printing System. This
233 provides an interface allowing local CUPS printers to be shared to
234 other systems in the network.
235 </ti>
236 </tr>
237 <tr>
238 <th><b>ldap</b></th>
239 <ti>
240 Enables the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). If Samba is
241 expected to use Active Directory, this option must be used. This would
242 be used in the event Samba needs to login to or provide login to
243 a Domain/Active Directory Server. The kerberos USE flag is needed for
244 proper functioning of this option.
245 </ti>
246 </tr>
247 <tr>
248 <th><b>pam</b></th>
249 <ti>
250 Include support for pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This
251 provides the ability to authenticate users on the Samba Server, which is
252 required if users have to login to your server. The kerberos USE flag
253 is recommended along with this option.
254 </ti>
255 </tr>
256 <tr>
257 <th><b>readline</b></th>
258 <ti>
259 Link Samba again libreadline. This is highly recommended and should
260 probably not be disabled
261 </ti>
262 </tr>
263 <tr>
264 <th><b>python</b></th>
265 <ti>
266 Python bindings API. Provides an API that will allow Python to
267 interface with Samba.
268 </ti>
269 </tr>
270 <tr>
271 <th><b>oav</b></th>
272 <ti>
273 Provides on-access scanning of Samba shares with FRISK F-Prot
274 Daemon, Kaspersky AntiVirus, OpenAntiVirus.org ScannerDaemon, Sophos Sweep
275 (SAVI), Symantec CarrierScan, and Trend Micro (VSAPI).
276 </ti>
277 </tr>
278 </table>
279
280 <p>
281 A couple of things worth mentioning about the USE flags and different
282 Samba functions include:
283 </p>
284
285 <ul>
286 <li>
287 ACLs on ext2/3 are implemented through extended attributes (EAs). EA and
288 ACL kernel options for ext2 and/or ext3 will need to be enabled
289 (depending on which file system is being used - both can be enabled).
290 </li>
291 <li>
292 While Active Directory, ACL, and PDC functions are out of the intended
293 scope of this HOWTO, you may find these links as helpful to your cause:
294 <ul>
295 <li><uri>http://www.bluelightning.org/linux/samba_acl_howto/</uri></li>
296 <li><uri>http://open-projects.linuxcare.com/research-papers/winbind-08162000.html</uri></li>
297 <li><uri>http://www.wlug.org.nz/HowtoSamba3AndActiveDirectory</uri></li>
298 </ul>
299 </li>
300 </ul>
301
302 </body>
303 </section>
304 </chapter>
305 <chapter>
306 <title>Server Software Installation</title>
307 <section>
308 <title>Emerging Samba</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 First of all: be sure that all your hostnames resolve correctly.
313 Either have a working domain name system running on your network
314 or appropriate entries in your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file.
315 <c>cupsaddsmb</c> often borks if hostnames don't point to the correct
316 machines.
317 </p>
318
319 <p>
320 Hopefully now you can make an assessment of what you'll actually need in
321 order to use Samba with your particular setup. The setup used for this
322 HOWTO is:
323 </p>
324
325 <ul>
326 <li>oav</li>
327 <li>cups</li>
328 <li>readline</li>
329 <li>pam</li>
330 </ul>
331
332 <p>
333 To optimize performance, size and the time of the build, the
334 USE flags are specifically included or excluded.
335 </p>
336
337 <pre caption="Emerge Samba">
338 <comment>(Note the USE flags!)</comment>
339 # <i>USE=&quot;oav readline cups pam -python -ldap -kerberos -xml -acl -mysql&quot; emerge net-fs/samba</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <note>
343 The following archs will need to add <e>~</e> to their <e>KEYWORDS</e>: x86,
344 ppc, sparc, hppa, ia64 and alpha
345 </note>
346
347 <p>
348 This will emerge Samba and CUPS (if CUPS is not already emerged).
349 </p>
350
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 <section>
354 <title>Emerging Clam AV</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 Because the <e>oav</e> USE flag only provides an interface to allow on access
359 virus scanning, the actual virus scanner must be emerged. The scanner
360 used in this HOWTO is Clam AV.
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="Emerge clam-av">
364 # <i>emerge net-mail/clamav</i>
365 </pre>
366
367 </body>
368 </section>
369 <section>
370 <title>Emerging foomatic</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <pre caption="Emerge foomatic">
374 # <i>emerge net-print/foomatic</i>
375 </pre>
376
377 </body>
378 </section>
379 <section>
380 <title>Emerging net-print/hpijs</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 You only need to emerge this if you use an HP printer.
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Emerge hpijs">
388 # <i>emerge net-print/hpijs</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 </body>
392 </section>
393 </chapter>
394 <chapter>
395 <title>Server Configuration</title>
396 <section>
397 <title>Configuring Samba</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 The main Samba configuration file is <path>/etc/samba/smb.conf</path>.
402 It is divided in sections indicated by [sectionname]. Comments are either
403 # or ;. A sample <path>smb.conf</path> is included below with comments and
404 suggestions for modifications. If more details are required, see the
405 man page for <path>smb.conf</path>, the installed
406 <path>smb.conf.example</path>, the Samba Web site or any of the
407 numerous Samba books available.
408 </p>
409
410 <pre caption="A Sample /etc/samba/smb.conf">
411 [global]
412 <comment># Replace MYWORKGROUPNAME with your workgroup/domain</comment>
413 workgroup = <comment>MYWORKGROUPNAME</comment>
414 <comment># Of course this has no REAL purpose other than letting
415 # everyone know its not Windows!
416 # %v prints the version of Samba we are using.</comment>
417 server string = Samba Server %v
418 <comment># We are going to use cups, so we are going to put it in here ;-)</comment>
419 printcap name = cups
420 printing = cups
421 load printers = yes
422 <comment># We want a log file and we do not want it to get bigger than 50kb.</comment>
423 log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
424 max log size = 50
425 <comment># We are going to set some options for our interfaces...</comment>
426 socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
427 <comment># This is a good idea, what we are doing is binding the
428 # samba server to our local network.
429 # For example, if eth0 is our local network device</comment>
430 interfaces = lo <i>eth0</i>
431 bind interfaces only = yes
432 <comment># Now we are going to specify who we allow, we are afterall
433 # very security conscience, since this configuration does
434 # not use passwords!</comment>
435 hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 <i>192.168.1.0/24</i>
436 hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0
437 <comment># Other options for this are USER, DOMAIN, ADS, and SERVER
438 # The default is user</comment>
439 security = share
440 <comment># No passwords, so we're going to use a guest account!</comment>
441 guest account = samba
442 guest ok = yes
443 <comment># We now will implement the on access virus scanner.
444 # NOTE: By putting this in our [Global] section, we enable
445 # scanning of ALL shares, you could optionally move
446 # these to a specific share and only scan it.</comment>
447 vfs object = /usr/lib/samba/vfs/vscan-clamav.so
448 vfs options = config-file = /etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf
449
450 <comment># Now we setup our print drivers information!</comment>
451 [print$]
452 comment = Printer Drivers
453 path = /etc/samba/printer <comment># this path holds the driver structure</comment>
454 guest ok = no
455 browseable = yes
456 read only = yes
457 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
458 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
459 write list = <i>root</i>
460
461 <comment># Now we'll setup a printer to share, while the name is arbitrary
462 # it should be consistent throughout Samba and CUPS!</comment>
463 [HPDeskJet930C]
464 comment = HP DeskJet 930C Network Printer
465 printable = yes
466 path = /var/spool/samba
467 public = yes
468 guest ok = yes
469 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
470 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
471 printer admin = <i>root</i>
472
473 <comment># Now we setup our printers share. This should be
474 # browseable, printable, public.</comment>
475 [printers]
476 comment = All Printers
477 browseable = yes
478 printable = yes
479 public = yes
480 guest ok = yes
481 path = /var/spool/samba
482 <comment># Modify this to "username,root" if you don't want root to
483 # be the only printer admin)</comment>
484 printer admin = <i>root</i>
485
486 <comment># We create a new share that we can read/write to from anywhere
487 # This is kind of like a public temp share, anyone can do what
488 # they want here.</comment>
489 [public]
490 comment = Public Files
491 browseable = yes
492 public = yes
493 create mode = 0766
494 guest ok = yes
495 path = /home/samba/public
496 </pre>
497
498 <warn>
499
500 If you like to use Samba's guest account to do anything concerning
501 printing from Windows clients: don't set <c>guest only = yes</c> in
502 the <c>[global]</c> section. The guest account seems to cause
503 problems when running <c>cupsaddsmb</c> sometimes when trying to
504 connect from Windows machines. See below, too, when we talk about
505 <c>cupsaddsmb</c> and the problems that can arise. Use a dedicated
506 printer user, like <c>printeruser</c> or <c>printer</c> or
507 <c>printme</c> or whatever. It doesn't hurt and it will certainly
508 protect you from a lot of problems.
509 </warn>
510
511 <p>
512 Now create the directories required for the minimum configuration of
513 Samba to share the installed printer throughout the network.
514 </p>
515
516 <pre caption="Create the directories">
517 # <i>mkdir /etc/samba/printer</i>
518 # <i>mkdir /var/spool/samba</i>
519 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 At least one Samba user is required in order to install the printer
524 drivers and to allow users to connect to the printer. Users must
525 exist in the system's <path>/etc/passwd</path> file.
526 </p>
527
528 <pre caption="Creating the users">
529 # <i>smbpasswd -a root</i>
530
531 <comment>(If another user is to be a printer admin)</comment>
532 # <i>smbpasswd -a username</i>
533 </pre>
534
535 <p>
536 The Samba passwords need not be the same as the system passwords
537 in <path>/etc/passwd</path>.
538 </p>
539
540 </body>
541 </section>
542 <section>
543 <title>Configuring Clam AV</title>
544 <body>
545
546 <p>
547 The configuration file specified to be used in <path>smb.conf</path> is
548 <path>/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf</path>. While these options are set
549 to the defaults, the infected file action may need to be changed.
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption="/etc/samba/vscan-clamav.conf">
553 [samba-vscan]
554 <comment>; run-time configuration for vscan-samba using
555 ; clamd
556 ; all options are set to default values</comment>
557
558 <comment>; do not scan files larger than X bytes. If set to 0 (default),
559 ; this feature is disable (i.e. all files are scanned)</comment>
560 max file size = 0
561
562 <comment>; log all file access (yes/no). If set to yes, every access will
563 ; be logged. If set to no (default), only access to infected files
564 ; will be logged</comment>
565 verbose file logging = no
566
567 <comment>; if set to yes (default), a file will be scanned while opening</comment>
568 scan on open = yes
569 <comment>; if set to yes, a file will be scanned while closing (default is yes)</comment>
570 scan on close = yes
571
572 <comment>; if communication to clamd fails, should access to file denied?
573 ; (default: yes)</comment>
574 deny access on error = yes
575
576 <comment>; if daemon files with a minor error (corruption, etc.),
577 ; should access to file denied?
578 ; (default: yes)</comment>
579 deny access on minor error = yes
580
581 <comment>; send a warning message via Windows Messenger service
582 ; when virus is found?
583 ; (default: yes)</comment>
584 send warning message = yes
585
586 <comment>; what to do with an infected file
587 ; quarantine: try to move to quantine directory; delete it if moving fails
588 ; delete: delete infected file
589 ; nothing: do nothing</comment>
590 infected file action = <comment>delete</comment>
591
592 <comment>; where to put infected files - you really want to change this!
593 ; it has to be on the same physical device as the share!</comment>
594 quarantine directory = /tmp
595 <comment>; prefix for files in quarantine</comment>
596 quarantine prefix = vir-
597
598 <comment>; as Windows tries to open a file multiple time in a (very) short time
599 ; of period, samba-vscan use a last recently used file mechanism to avoid
600 ; multiple scans of a file. This setting specified the maximum number of
601 ; elements of the last recently used file list. (default: 100)</comment>
602 max lru files entries = 100
603
604 <comment>; an entry is invalidad after lru file entry lifetime (in seconds).
605 ; (Default: 5)</comment>
606 lru file entry lifetime = 5
607
608 <comment>; socket name of clamd (default: /var/run/clamd)</comment>
609 clamd socket name = /var/run/clamd
610 </pre>
611
612 <p>
613 It is generally a good idea to start the virus scanner immediately. Add
614 it to the <e>default</e> runlevel and then start the <c>clamd</c> service immediately.
615 </p>
616
617 <pre caption="Add clamd to bootup and start it">
618 # <i>rc-update add clamd default</i>
619 # <i>/etc/init.d/clamd start</i>
620 </pre>
621
622 </body>
623 </section>
624 <section>
625 <title>Configuring CUPS</title>
626 <body>
627
628 <p>
629 This is a little more complicated. CUPS' main config file is
630 <path>/etc/cups/cupsd.conf</path>. It's structure is similar to Apache's
631 <path>httpd.conf</path> file, so many you may find it familiar. Outlined
632 in the example are the directives that need to be changed:
633 </p>
634
635 <pre caption="/etc/cups/cupsd.conf">
636 ServerName <i>PrintServer</i> <comment># your printserver name</comment>
637 ServerAdmin <i>root@PrintServer</i> <comment># the person for printer-related hate-mail, eg you</comment>
638
639 AccessLog /var/log/cups/access_log <comment># probably doesn't need changing</comment>
640 ErrorLog /var/log/cups/error_log <comment># doesn't really need changing either</comment>
641
642 LogLevel debug <comment># only while isntalling and testing, should later be
643 # changed to 'info'</comment>
644
645 MaxClients 100 <comment># I've had to set this to 1000000000 or so because some time back,
646 # there seemed to be a bug in CUPS' controlling of the web interface,
647 # making CUPS think a denial of service attack was in progress when
648 # I tried to configure a printer with the web interface. weird.</comment>
649
650 BrowseAddress @IF(<i>eth0</i>) <comment># Change this to your internal net interface</comment>
651
652 &lt;Location /&gt;
653 Order Deny,Allow
654 Deny From All
655 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># the addresses of your internel network
656 # eg 192.168.1.* will allow connections from any host on
657 # the 192.168.1.0 network. change to whatever suits you</comment>
658 &lt;/Location&gt;
659
660 &lt;Location /admin&gt;
661 AuthType Basic
662 AuthClass System
663 Allow From <i>192.168.1.*</i> <comment># same as above, allow any host on the
664 # 192.168.1.0 network to connect and do
665 # administrative tasks after authenticating</comment>
666 Order Deny,Allow
667 Deny From All
668 &lt;/Location&gt;
669 </pre>
670
671 <p>
672 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
673 The changes to <path>mime.convs</path> and <path>mime.types</path> are
674 needed to make CUPS print Microsoft Office document files.
675 </p>
676
677 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.convs">
678 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
679 application/octet-stream application/vnd.cups-raw 0
680 </pre>
681
682 <p>
683 Edit <path>/etc/cups/mime.convs</path> to uncomment some lines.
684 </p>
685
686 <pre caption="/etc/cups/mime.types">
687 <comment>(The following line is found near the end of the file. Uncomment it)</comment>
688 application/octet-stream
689 </pre>
690
691 <p>
692 CUPS needs to be started on boot, and started immediately.
693 </p>
694
695 <pre caption="Setting up the CUPS service" >
696 <comment>(To start CUPS on boot)</comment>
697 # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
698 <comment>(To start CUPS if it isn't started)</comment>
699 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd start</i>
700 <comment>(If CUPS is already started we'll need to restart it!)</comment>
701 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd restart</i>
702 </pre>
703
704 </body>
705 </section>
706 <section>
707 <title>Installing a printer for and with CUPS</title>
708 <body>
709
710 <p>
711 First, go to <uri link="http://linuxprinting.org">LinuxPrinting.Org</uri>
712 to find and download the correct PPD file for your printer and CUPS. To
713 do so, click the link Printer Listings to the left. Select your
714 printers manufacturer and the model in the pulldown menu, eg HP and
715 DeskJet 930C. Click "Show". On the page coming up click the "recommended
716 driver" link after reading the various notes and information. Then fetch
717 the PPD file from the next page, again after reading the notes and
718 introductions there. You may have to select your printers manufacturer
719 and model again. Reading the <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/cups-doc.html">CUPS
720 quickstart guide</uri> is also very helpful when working with CUPS.
721 </p>
722
723 <p>
724 Now you have a PPD file for your printer to work with CUPS. Place it in
725 <path>/usr/share/cups/model</path>. The PPD for the HP DeskJet 930C was
726 named <path>HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</path>. You should now install the printer.
727 This can be done via the CUPS web interface or via command line. The web
728 interface is found at <path>http://PrintServer:631</path> once CUPS is running.
729 </p>
730
731 <pre caption="Install the printer via command line">
732 # <i>lpadmin -p HPDeskJet930C -E -v usb:/dev/ultp0 -m HP-DeskJet_930C-hpijs.ppd</i>
733 </pre>
734
735 <p>
736 Remember to adjust to what you have. Be sure to have the name
737 (<c>-p</c> argument) right (the name you set above during the Samba
738 configuration!) and to put in the correct <c>usb:/dev/usb/blah</c>,
739 <c>parallel:/dev/blah</c> or whatever device you are using for your
740 printer.
741 </p>
742
743 <p>
744 You should now be able to access the printer from the web interface
745 and be able to print a test page.
746 </p>
747
748 </body>
749 </section>
750 <section>
751 <title>Installing the Windows printer drivers</title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 Now that the printer should be working it is time to install the drivers
756 for the Windows clients to work. Samba 2.2 introduced this functionality.
757 Browsing to the print server in the Network Neighbourhood, right-clicking
758 on the printershare and selecting "connect" downloads the appropriate
759 drivers automagically to the connecting client, avoiding the hassle of
760 manually installing printer drivers locally.
761 </p>
762
763 <p>
764 There are two sets of printer drivers for this. First, the Adobe PS
765 drivers which can be obtained from <uri
766 link="http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/main.html">Adobe</uri>
767 (PostScript printer drivers). Second, there are the CUPS PS drivers,
768 to be obtained from <uri link="http://www.cups.org/software.php">the
769 CUPS homepage</uri> and selecting "CUPS Driver for Windows" from the
770 pull down menu. There doesn't seem to be a difference between the
771 functionality of the two, but the Adobe PS drivers need to be extracted
772 on a Windows System since it's a Windows binary. Also the whole procedure
773 of finding and copying the correct files is a bit more hassle. The CUPS
774 drivers seem to support some options the Adobe drivers don't.
775 </p>
776
777 <p>
778 This HOWTO uses the CUPS drivers for Windows. The downloaded file is
779 called <path>cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</path>. Extract the files
780 contained into a directory.
781 </p>
782
783 <pre caption="Extract the drivers and run the install">
784 # <i>tar -xzf cups-samba-5.0rc2.tar.gz</i>
785 # <i>cd cups-samba-5.0rc2</i>
786 <comment>(Only use this script if CUPS resides in /usr/share/cups)</comment>
787 # <i>./cups-samba.install</i>
788 </pre>
789
790 <p>
791 <path>cups-samba.ss</path> is a TAR archive containing three files:
792 <path>cups5.hlp</path>, <path>cupsdrvr5.dll</path> and
793 <path>cupsui5.dll</path>. These are the actual driver files.
794 </p>
795
796 <warn>
797 The script <c>cups-samba.install</c> may not work for all *nixes (ie FreeBSD)
798 because almost everything which is not part of the base system is
799 installed somewhere under the prefix <path>/usr/local/</path>. This
800 seems not to be the case for most things you install under GNU/Linux.
801 However, if your CUPS installation is somewhere other than
802 <path>/usr/share/cups/</path> see the example below.
803 </warn>
804
805 <p>
806 Suppose your CUPS installation resides under
807 <path>/usr/local/share/cups/</path>, and you want to install the drivers there.
808 Do the following:
809 </p>
810
811 <pre caption="Manually installing the drivers">
812 # <i>cd /path/you/extracted/the/CUPS-driver/tarball/into</i>
813 # <i>tar -xf cups-samba.ss</i>
814 <comment>(This extracts the files to usr/share/cups/drivers under the CURRENT WORKING DIRECTORY)</comment>
815 # <i>cd usr/share/cups/drivers</i>
816 <comment>(no leading / !)</comment>
817 # <i>cp cups* /usr/local/share/cups/drivers</i>
818 </pre>
819
820 <p>
821 Now we'll use the script <c>cupsaddsmb</c> provided by the CUPS
822 distribution. It's man page is an interesting read.
823 </p>
824
825 <pre caption="Run cupsaddsmb">
826 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -v HPDeskJet930C</i>
827 <comment>(Instead of HPDeskJet930C you could also specify "-a", which will
828 "export all known printers".)</comment>
829 # <i>cupsaddsmb -H PrintServer -U root -h PrintServer -a</i>
830 </pre>
831
832 <warn>
833 The execution of this command often causes the most trouble.
834 Reading through the <uri
835 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=110931">posts in this
836 thread</uri>.
837 </warn>
838
839 <p>
840 Here are common errors that may happen:
841 </p>
842
843 <ul>
844 <li>
845 The hostname given as a parameter for <c>-h</c> and <c>-H</c>
846 (<c>PrintServer</c>) often does not resolve correctly and doesn't
847 identify the print server for CUPS/Samba interaction. If an error
848 like: <b>Warning: No PPD file for printer "CUPS_PRINTER_NAME" -
849 skipping!</b> occurs, the first thing you should do is substitute
850 <c>PrintServer</c> with <c>localhost</c> and try it again.
851 </li>
852 <li>
853 The command fails with an <b>NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL</b>. This error message
854 is quite common, but can be triggered by many problems. It's unfortunately
855 not very helpful. One thing to try is to temporarily set <c>security =
856 user</c> in your <path>smb.conf</path>. After/if the installation completes
857 successfully, you should set it back to share, or whatever it was set to
858 before.
859 </li>
860 </ul>
861
862 <p>
863 This should install the correct driver directory structure under
864 <path>/etc/samba/printer</path>. That would be
865 <path>/etc/samba/printer/W32X86/2/</path>. The files contained should
866 be the 3 driver files and the PPD file, renamed to YourPrinterName.ppd
867 (the name which you gave the printer when installing it (see above).
868 </p>
869
870 <p>
871 Pending no errors or other complications, your drivers are now
872 installed.
873 </p>
874
875 </body>
876 </section>
877 <section>
878 <title>Finalizing our setup</title>
879 <body>
880
881 <p>
882 Lastly, setup our directories.
883 </p>
884
885 <pre caption="Final changes needed">
886 # <i>mkdir /home/samba</i>
887 # <i>mkdir /home/samba/public</i>
888 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba</i>
889 # <i>chmod 755 /home/samba/public</i>
890 </pre>
891
892 </body>
893 </section>
894 <section>
895 <title>Testing our Samba configuration</title>
896 <body>
897
898 <p>
899 We will want to test our configuration file to ensure that it is formatted
900 properly and all of our options have at least the correct syntax. To do
901 this we run <c>testparm</c>.
902 </p>
903
904 <pre caption="Running the testparm">
905 <comment>(By default, testparm checks /etc/samba/smb.conf)</comment>
906 # <i>/usr/bin/testparm</i>
907 Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
908 Processing section &quot;[printers]&quot;
909 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
910 Processing section &quot;[public]&quot;
911 Global parameter guest account found in service section!
912 Loaded services file OK.
913 Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
914 Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
915 ...
916 ...
917 </pre>
918
919 </body>
920 </section>
921 <section>
922 <title>Starting the Samba service</title>
923 <body>
924
925 <p>
926 Now configure Samba to start at bootup; then go ahead and start it.
927 </p>
928
929 <pre caption="Setting up the Samba service">
930 # <i>rc-update add samba default</i>
931 # <i>/etc/init.d/samba start</i>
932 </pre>
933
934 </body>
935 </section>
936 <section>
937 <title>Checking our services</title>
938 <body>
939
940 <p>
941 It would probably be prudent to check our logs at this time also.
942 We will also want to take a peak at our Samba shares using
943 <c>smbclient</c>.
944 </p>
945
946 <pre caption="Checking the shares with smbclient">
947 # <i>smbclient -L localhost</i>
948 Password:
949 <comment>(You should see a BIG list of services here.)</comment>
950 </pre>
951
952 </body>
953 </section>
954 </chapter>
955 <chapter>
956 <title>Configuration of the Clients</title>
957 <section>
958 <title>Printer configuration of *nix based clients</title>
959 <body>
960
961 <p>
962 Despite the variation or distribution, the only thing needed is CUPS.
963 Do the equivalent on any other UNIX/Linux/BSD client.
964 </p>
965
966 <pre caption="Configuring a Gentoo system.">
967 # <i>emerge cups</i>
968 # <i>/etc/init.d/cupsd start</i>
969 # <i>rc-update add cupsd default</i>
970 </pre>
971
972 <p>
973 That should be it. Nothing else will be needed. Just point your web
974 browser to <c>http://localhost:631</c> on the client and you'll see that
975 PrintServer broadcasts all available printers to all CUPS clients.
976 </p>
977
978 <p>
979 To print, use for example
980 </p>
981
982 <pre caption="Printing in *nix">
983 # <i>lpr -pHPDeskJet930C anything.txt</i>
984 # <i>lpr -PHPDeskJet930C foobar.whatever.ps</i>
985 </pre>
986
987 <p>
988 In order to setup a default printer, you have to edit
989 <path>/etc/cups/client.conf</path> and set the directive
990 <c>ServerName</c> to your printserver. In the case of this guide that
991 would be the following example.
992 </p>
993
994 <pre caption="/etc/cups/client.conf">
995 ServerName PrintServer
996 </pre>
997
998 <p>
999 The following will print <path>foorbar.whatever.ps</path> directly to the print
1000 server.
1001 </p>
1002
1003 <pre caption="Printing to the default printer">
1004 $ <i>lpr foobar.whatever.ps</i>
1005 </pre>
1006
1007 <p>
1008 Some common observations when setting a default printer in this manner
1009 include the following:
1010 </p>
1011
1012 <ul>
1013 <li>
1014 Setting the <c>ServerName</c> in <path>client.conf</path> seems to
1015 work well for only one printer, there may be yet another way to
1016 set a client's default remote printer.
1017 </li>
1018 <li>
1019 Also, when accessing <c>http://localhost:631</c> on the client
1020 now, no printers seem to be "found" by the client-CUPS. This is to
1021 be expected when setting <c>ServerName</c> in
1022 <path>client.conf</path>.
1023 </li>
1024 </ul>
1025
1026 </body>
1027 </section>
1028 <section>
1029 <title>Mounting a Windows or Samba share in GNU/Linux</title>
1030 <body>
1031
1032 <p>
1033 Now is time to configure our kernel to support smbfs. Since I'm
1034 assumming we've all compiled at least one kernel, we'll need to make
1035 sure we have all the right options selected in our kernel.
1036 For simplicity sake, make it a module for ease of use. It is the
1037 authors opinion that kernel modules are a good thing and should be used
1038 whenever possible.
1039 </p>
1040
1041 <pre caption="Relevant kernel options" >
1042 CONFIG_SMB_FS=m
1043 CONFIG_SMB_UNIX=y
1044 </pre>
1045
1046 <p>
1047 Then make the module/install it; insert them with:
1048 </p>
1049
1050 <pre caption="Loading the kernel module">
1051 # <i>modprobe smbfs</i>
1052 </pre>
1053
1054 <p>
1055 Once the modules is loaded, mounting a Windows or Samba share is
1056 possible. Use <c>mount</c> to accomplish this, as detailed below:
1057 </p>
1058
1059 <pre caption="Mounting a Windows/Samba share">
1060 <comment>(The syntax for mounting a Windows/Samba share is:
1061 mount -t smbfs [-o username=xxx,password=xxx] //server/share /mnt/point
1062 If we are not using passwords or a password is not needed)</comment>
1063
1064 # <i>mount -t smbfs //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1065
1066 <comment>(If a password is needed)</comment>
1067 # <i>mount -t smbfs -o username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD //PrintServer/public /mnt/public</i>
1068 </pre>
1069
1070 <p>
1071 After you mount the share, you would access it as if it were a local
1072 drive.
1073 </p>
1074
1075 </body>
1076 </section>
1077 <section>
1078 <title>Printer Configuration for Windows NT/2000/XP clients</title>
1079 <body>
1080
1081 <p>
1082 That's just a bit of point-and-click. Browse to
1083 <path>\\PrintServer</path> and right click on the printer
1084 (HPDeskJet930C) and click connect. This will download the drivers to
1085 the Windows client and now every application (such as Word or Acrobat)
1086 will offer HPDeskJet930C as an available printer to print to. :-)
1087 </p>
1088
1089 </body>
1090 </section>
1091 </chapter>
1092 <chapter>
1093 <title>Final Notes</title>
1094 <section>
1095 <title>A Fond Farewell</title>
1096 <body>
1097
1098 <p>
1099 Well that should be it. You should now have a successful printing enviroment
1100 that is friendly to both Windows and *nix as well as a fully virus-free working
1101 share!
1102 </p>
1103
1104 </body>
1105 </section>
1106 </chapter>
1107 <chapter>
1108 <title>Links and Resources</title>
1109 <section>
1110 <title>Links</title>
1111 <body>
1112
1113 <p>
1114 These are some links that may help you in setting up, configuration and
1115 troubleshooting your installation:
1116 </p>
1117
1118 <ul>
1119 <li><uri link="http://www.cups.org/">CUPS Homepage</uri></li>
1120 <li><uri link="http://www.samba.org/">Samba Homepage</uri></li>
1121 <li><uri link="http://linuxprinting.org/">LinuxPrinting dot Org</uri></li>
1122 <li>
1123 <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/">Kurt
1124 Pfeifle's Samba Print HOWTO</uri> (
1125 This HOWTO really covers <e>ANYTHING</e> and <e>EVERYTHING</e>
1126 I've written here, plus a LOT more concerning CUPS and Samba, and
1127 generally printing support on networks. A really interesting read,
1128 with lots and lots of details)
1129 </li>
1130 <li><uri link="http://www.freebsddiary.org/cups.php">FreeBSD Diary's CUPS Topic</uri></li>
1131 </ul>
1132
1133 </body>
1134 </section>
1135 <section>
1136 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1137 <body>
1138
1139 <p>
1140 See <uri link="http://www.linuxprinting.org/kpfeifle/SambaPrintHOWTO/Samba-HOWTO-Collection-3.0-PrintingChapter-11th-draft.html#37">this
1141 page</uri> from Kurt Pfeifle's "Printing Support in Samba 3.0"
1142 manual. Lots of useful tips there! Be sure to look this one up
1143 first, before posting questions and problems! Maybe the solution
1144 you're looking for is right there.
1145 </p>
1146
1147 </body>
1148 </section>
1149 </chapter>
1150 </guide>

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