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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.17 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/usb-guide.xml,v 1.16 2007/04/10 06:48:59 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5    
6     <guide link="/doc/en/usb-guide.xml">
7     <title>Gentoo Linux USB Guide</title>
8    
9     <author title="Author">
10 fox2mike 1.4 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
11 swift 1.1 </author>
12    
13     <abstract>
14     This document helps a user setup USB on a Gentoo system and configure various
15     USB devices as well.
16     </abstract>
17    
18     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
19 fox2mike 1.5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
20 swift 1.1 <license/>
21    
22 nightmorph 1.16 <version>1.13</version>
23     <date>2007-04-09</date>
24 swift 1.1
25     <chapter>
26     <title>Introduction</title>
27     <section>
28     <title>What is USB?</title>
29     <body>
30    
31     <p>
32 neysx 1.3 USB stands for Universal Serial Bus and is basically an external interface
33     standard that enables communication between the computer and various other
34     peripherals. Some of the most commonly used USB devices today are keyboards,
35     mice, pen drives, digital cameras, external CD &amp; DVD writers, printers etc.
36 swift 1.1 </p>
37    
38     <p>
39 neysx 1.3 There are currently two versions of USB in use, i.e. USB 1.1 and USB 2.0.
40     Since USB has always been backward compatible with its previous versions,
41     USB 2.0 is backwards compatible with USB 1.1. The latest USB devices are
42     typically USB 2.0 compatible. USB 2.0 supports a maximum data transmission
43     speed of 480 Mbps or 60 MBps and this is the major difference between the two
44     standards. Another advantage with USB is that the devices are all
45     <e>hot-pluggable</e>, which means that you do not have to restart your system
46 swift 1.1 in order for you to be able to use these devices.
47     </p>
48    
49     </body>
50     </section>
51     <section>
52     <title>A Technical Perspective</title>
53     <body>
54    
55     <p>
56 neysx 1.3 Before we go onto the exact configuration options in the kernel, it would
57     be apt to look at USB in a little more detail. If you're in a hurry or want
58 swift 1.17 to skip this section, please go to <uri link="#kernel">Kernel
59     Configuration</uri>.
60 swift 1.1 </p>
61    
62     <p>
63 neysx 1.3 A USB system has a host controller, hubs, a <e>root hub</e> amongst others
64     and can support up to 127 USB devices including the hubs. The host controller
65     is nothing but the hardware interface between the USB device and the
66     operating system. There are a couple of HCI (Host Controller Interface)
67     in use today and they are the OHCI (Open HCI) by Compaq, UHCI (Universal HCI)
68     and EHCI (Enhanced HCI), both from Intel. The OHCI/UHCI are the two industry
69 swift 1.1 standard USB 1.1 interfaces whereas the EHCI is for USB 2.0.
70     </p>
71    
72     <p>
73 neysx 1.3 The hardware vendor provides an interface for the programmer that allows
74     the system to interact with the hardware and this is called the HCD or Host
75     Controller Device. It is through this HCD that the device interacts with the
76 swift 1.1 system software. The following diagram should make things easier to comprehend.
77     </p>
78    
79     <pre caption="General USB Architecture">
80 neysx 1.3 <comment>(Software consists of other components as well like the device driver, but
81     for the sake of simplicity, they are not shown)</comment>
82 swift 1.1
83 neysx 1.3 + ---- Hardware ---- + ---- Software ---- +
84 swift 1.1 | | |
85 neysx 1.3 | [USB Dev] -+-> {EHCI} -+---> ( EHCD ) |
86 swift 1.1 | | | | User
87     | `-> {UHCI} -+---> ( UHCD ) |
88     | | |
89     + ---- Hardware ---- + ---- Software ---- +
90 neysx 1.3 </pre>
91 swift 1.1
92     <p>
93 neysx 1.3 A USB device can either use a custom driver or use one already present in
94     the system and this is based on the concept of a device <e>class</e>. This
95     means that if a device belongs to a certain <e>class</e>, then other devices
96     belonging to the same <e>class</e> can make use of the same device driver.
97     Some of these <e>classes</e> are the USB HID (Human Interface Devices) class
98     which covers input devices like keyboards and mice, the USB Mass Storage
99     devices class which covers devices like pen drives, digital cameras, audio
100     players etc and the USB CDC (Communication Devices Class) which essentially
101 swift 1.1 covers USB modems and similar devices.
102     </p>
103    
104     </body>
105     </section>
106 fox2mike 1.5 <section>
107 swift 1.1 <title>What's on your machine?</title>
108     <body>
109    
110     <p>
111     It is very simple to find out whether your machine has USB 2.0 support or not.
112     We make use of the <c>lspci</c> command for this purpose.
113     </p>
114    
115     <note>
116 neysx 1.3 The <c>lspci</c> tool is a part of the <c>sys-apps/pciutils</c> package. If
117     you do not have this installed, please <c>emerge pciutils</c>. Please note
118 swift 1.1 that you have to be root while running the <c>lspci</c> command.
119     </note>
120    
121     <pre caption="Various lspci outputs">
122     <comment>(In system that is USB 1.1 compliant, note the UHCI only)</comment>
123    
124     # <i>lspci -v | grep USB</i>
125     0000:00:04.2 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 USB (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
126    
127     <comment>(A system that is USB 2.0 compliant, note the EHCI and UHCI)</comment>
128    
129     00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB (Hub #1) (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
130     00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB (Hub #2) (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
131     00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB (Hub #3) (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
132     00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB EHCI Controller (rev 01) (prog-if 20 [EHCI])
133     </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136 neysx 1.3 So using the <c>lspci</c> command, we can find out if the system supports
137     USB 2.0. This is useful as we will be enabling the corresponding options in
138 swift 1.1 the kernel.
139     </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     </chapter>
144    
145     <chapter id="kernel">
146     <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
147     <section>
148     <title>Getting the kernel</title>
149     <body>
150    
151 yoswink 1.2 <note>
152 neysx 1.3 Since the 2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless
153     you are specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a
154     2.6 kernel on <e>most</e> architectures. Please check your kernel version and
155 yoswink 1.2 then proceed with the configuration accordingly.
156     </note>
157    
158 swift 1.1 <p>
159 neysx 1.3 First emerge the kernel sources of your choice. Here we'll use the
160 swift 1.6 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. For more information on the various kernel sources
161 neysx 1.3 available on Portage, please look up the <uri
162     link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</uri>.
163 swift 1.1 </p>
164    
165     <pre caption="Getting the kernel sources">
166 neysx 1.3 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
167 swift 1.1 </pre>
168    
169     <p>
170     Now, lets get on with the task of configuring the kernel.
171     </p>
172    
173     <pre caption="Heading over to the source">
174 neysx 1.3 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
175     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
176 swift 1.1 </pre>
177    
178     <note>
179 neysx 1.3 The above example assumes that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink points to
180 swift 1.1 the kernel sources you want to use. Please ensure the same before proceeding.
181     </note>
182    
183     </body>
184     </section>
185 nightmorph 1.11 <section id="newkernelconfig">
186 swift 1.1 <title>Config options for the 2.6.x kernel</title>
187     <body>
188    
189     <p>
190 neysx 1.3 Now we will look at some of the options we will have to enable in the 2.6
191     kernel to ensure proper USB support for our devices. If you are using a 2.4
192 nightmorph 1.11 kernel, please proceed with <uri link="#oldkernelconfig">Config options for the
193 swift 1.1 2.4.x kernel</uri>.
194     </p>
195    
196     <note>
197 neysx 1.3 Examples in this document will show configuration options for basic USB
198     support as well as those needed commonly, for example a USB mass storage
199     device (most cameras and USB pen drives). If you have a specific USB device
200     that needs to be configured, please look up your device's manual or search
201     online to see if that device has support built-in into the kernel or custom
202     drivers that you can use. Please note that for the sake of ease, all examples
203     have the options compiled into the kernel. If you would like to have a modular
204     kernel, ensure that you note down the various modules and adjust your config
205 swift 1.1 files accordingly.
206     </note>
207    
208     <pre caption="make menuconfig options for 2.6 kernels">
209     Device Drivers ---&gt;
210     SCSI device support ---&gt;
211    
212 neysx 1.3 <comment>(Although SCSI will be enabled automatically when selecting USB Mass Storage,
213     we need to enable disk support.)</comment>
214 swift 1.1 --- SCSI support type (disk, tape, CD-ROM)
215     &lt;*&gt; SCSI disk support
216    
217     <comment>(Then move back a level and go into USB support)</comment>
218     USB support ---&gt;
219    
220 neysx 1.3 <comment>(This is the root hub and is required for USB support.
221     If you'd like to compile this as a module, it will be called usbcore.)</comment>
222     &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
223 swift 1.1
224 neysx 1.3 <comment>(Enable this option to see your USB devices in /proc/bus/usb.
225     This is recommended.)</comment>
226 swift 1.1 [*] USB device filesystem
227    
228     <comment>(Select at least one of the HCDs. If you are unsure, picking all is fine.)</comment>
229 neysx 1.3 --- USB Host Controller Drivers
230 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; EHCI HCD (USB 2.0) support
231     &lt; &gt; OHCI HCD support
232     &lt;*&gt; UHCI HCD (most Intel and VIA) support
233    
234     <comment>(Moving a little further down, we come to CDC and mass storage.)</comment>
235     &lt; &gt; USB Modem (CDC ACM) support
236     &lt;*&gt; USB Printer support
237     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
238    
239 neysx 1.3 <comment>(Then the HID bits.
240     You have to select HID input support if you have a USB keyboard,
241     mouse, joystick or any other USB input device)</comment>
242 swift 1.1 --- USB Input Devices
243     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
244     [*] HID input layer support
245    
246     <comment>(If you have a USB Network Card like the RTL8150, you'll need this)</comment>
247     USB Network Adapters --->
248     &lt;*&gt; USB RTL8150 based ethernet device support (EXPERIMENTAL)
249    
250     <comment>(If you have a serial to USB converter like the Prolific 2303, you'll need this)</comment>
251     USB Serial Converter support --->
252     &lt;*&gt; USB Serial Converter support
253 neysx 1.3 &lt;*&gt; USB Prolific 2303 Single Port Serial Driver (NEW)
254 swift 1.1 </pre>
255    
256     <p>
257 neysx 1.3 Now that your options are set, you can (re)compile the kernel and USB support
258     should be functional once you reboot into the new kernel. You can now proceed
259     to <uri link="#postkern">Seeing USB at work</uri> and see if everything is
260 swift 1.1 working as it should.
261     </p>
262 neysx 1.3
263 swift 1.1 </body>
264     </section>
265 nightmorph 1.11 <section id="oldkernelconfig">
266 swift 1.1 <title>Config options for the 2.4.x kernel</title>
267     <body>
268    
269     <p>
270 neysx 1.3 We will look at the options the we will have to enable in the 2.4 kernel to
271     ensure proper USB support for our devices. If you are using a 2.6 kernel,
272 nightmorph 1.11 please look at <uri link="#newkernelconfig">Config options for the 2.6.x
273 swift 1.1 kernel</uri>.
274     </p>
275    
276     <note>
277 neysx 1.3 Examples in this document will show configuration options for basic USB
278     support as well as those needed commonly, for example a USB mass storage
279     device (most cameras and USB pen drives). If you have a specific USB device
280     that needs to be configured, please look up your device's manual or search
281     online to see if that device has support built-in into the kernel or custom
282     drivers that you can use. Please note that for the sake of ease, all examples
283     have the options compiled into the kernel. If you would like to have a modular
284     kernel, ensure that you note down the various modules and adjust your config
285 swift 1.1 files accordingly.
286     </note>
287    
288     <pre caption="make menuconfig options for 2.4 kernels">
289 neysx 1.3 <comment>(This immediate config is only for those who have USB input devices.
290     Input core support is needed by USB HID later.)</comment>
291 swift 1.1 Input core support ---&gt;
292     &lt;*&gt; Input core support
293     &lt; &gt; Keyboard support
294     &lt; &gt; Mouse support
295     &lt; &gt; Event interface support
296    
297     USB support ---&gt;
298    
299 neysx 1.3 <comment>(This is the root hub and is required for USB support.
300     If you'd like to compile this as a module, it will be called usbcore.o)</comment>
301 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; Support for USB
302    
303 neysx 1.3 <comment>(Enable this option to see your USB devices in /proc/bus/usb.
304     This is recommended.)</comment>
305 swift 1.1 [*] Preliminary USB device filesystem
306    
307     <comment>(Select at least one of the HCDs. If you are unsure, picking all is fine.)</comment>
308 neysx 1.3 --- USB Host Controller Drivers
309 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; UHCI Alternate Driver (JE) support
310     &lt; &gt; OHCI (Compaq, iMacs, OPTi, SiS, ALi, ...) support
311    
312     <comment>(This is the device section. Select only what you need.)</comment>
313 neysx 1.3 --- USB Device Class drivers
314 swift 1.1 &lt; &gt; USB Audio support
315     &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
316     &lt; &gt; USB Modem (CDC ACM) support
317     &lt;*&gt; USB Printer support
318    
319     <comment>(Followed by the HID section. This is needed if you have an USB based input device.)</comment>
320     --- USB Human Interface Devices (HID)
321     &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
322     [*] HID input layer support
323    
324     <comment>(If you have a serial to USB converter like the Prolific 2303, you'll need this)</comment>
325     USB Serial Converter support --->
326     &lt;*&gt; USB Serial Converter support
327     &lt;*&gt; USB Prolific 2303 Single Port Serial Driver (NEW)
328     </pre>
329    
330     <p>
331 neysx 1.3 Now that the options are set, you can (re)compile the kernel and USB support
332 swift 1.1 should be functional once you reboot into the new kernel.
333     </p>
334 neysx 1.3
335 swift 1.1 </body>
336     </section>
337     </chapter>
338    
339     <chapter id="postkern">
340     <title>Seeing USB at work</title>
341     <section>
342     <title>dmesg is your friend!</title>
343     <body>
344    
345     <p>
346 neysx 1.3 The time has finally come to play with those USB devices :) So let's get
347     started. In this chapter, we'll see how the system responds to various USB
348     devices. We'll start by plugging in a USB 512 MB Memory Stick/Pen Drive. You
349     could use some other similar mass storage device. We will primarily use
350     <c>dmesg</c> to see what is happening and how the system responds to the
351 swift 1.1 device.
352     </p>
353    
354     <note>
355 neysx 1.3 <c>dmesg</c> will generally give a lot of output up front before coming to the
356 swift 1.1 info we need, as it reads the kernel ring buffer that has all the boot up
357 neysx 1.3 messages as well. The output in the following examples have only the relevant
358     portion(s) and extra spaces in between to enable better readability. If needed
359     please use a <c>dmesg | more</c> or <c>dmesg | less</c> to see the output
360 yoswink 1.2 better in your system.
361 swift 1.1 </note>
362    
363     <pre caption="dmesg output for Memory Stick">
364     <comment>(Plug in Memory Stick into available USB port and then..)</comment>
365 yoswink 1.2 # <i>dmesg | less</i>
366 swift 1.1
367 neysx 1.3 <comment>(The device is picked up as a USB 1.1 and allocated an address.
368     Also says what HCD it is using.)</comment>
369 swift 1.1 usb 1-1: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 2
370    
371     <comment>(SCSI emulation automatically kicks in)</comment>
372     scsi0 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices
373     usb-storage: device found at 2
374    
375     <comment>(Now the device information including model number is retrieved)</comment>
376     usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
377     Vendor: JetFlash Model: TS512MJF2A Rev: 1.00
378     Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02
379     SCSI device sda: 1003600 512-byte hdwr sectors (514 MB)
380    
381     <comment>(The write-protect sense is EXPERIMENTAL code in the later kernels)</comment>
382     sda: Write Protect is off
383     sda: Mode Sense: 0b 00 00 08
384     sda: assuming drive cache: write through
385     SCSI device sda: 1003600 512-byte hdwr sectors (514 MB)
386     /dev/scsi/host0/bus0/target0/lun0: p1
387     Attached scsi removable disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
388     Attached scsi generic sg0 at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0, type 0
389     usb-storage: device scan complete
390     <comment>(At this point, the device is generally accessible by mounting /dev/sda1)</comment>
391    
392     <comment>(When the device is disconnected, the system acknowledges the same)</comment>
393     usb 1-1: USB disconnect, address 2
394     </pre>
395    
396     <p>
397 neysx 1.3 Once the device is connected and mounted, you can access it like a normal hard
398 swift 1.6 disk. Usual operations like <c>cp</c>, <c>mv</c>, <c>rm</c>, etc work fine. You
399 swift 1.1 could also create a filesystem on the USB stick/format it.
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Accessing the Memory Stick">
403     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb</i>
404     # <i>df -h</i>
405     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
406     /dev/hda8 9.4G 7.5G 1.9G 80% /
407     /dev/hda9 11G 8.1G 2.4G 78% /usr
408     none 189M 0 189M 0% /dev/shm
409     /dev/sda1 490M 34M 457M 7% /mnt/usb
410     </pre>
411    
412     <note>
413 neysx 1.3 Digital cameras can be accessed the same way as memory sticks. I have a Nikon
414 fox2mike 1.7 Coolpix 5200 and this is the way I access it. Cameras these days usually have
415     two modes to transfer pictures; USB mass storage and PTP (Picture Transfer
416     Protocol). The camera is set to USB mass storage mode and hence the procedure is
417     exactly the same as that of accessing a memory stick because of which I have not
418     explained in detail about it. Please note that this may NOT work in all cases
419     and with all digital cameras that have USB support.
420 swift 1.1 </note>
421    
422     <p>
423 neysx 1.3 How would a USB mouse show up in case you had one? It will show up as an HID
424 swift 1.1 device.
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="USB Optical Mouse">
428     # <i>dmesg | grep USB</i>
429     drivers/usb/input/hid-core.c: v2.0:USB HID core driver
430     usb 1-1: new low speed USB device using address 2
431     input: USB HID v1.10 Mouse [Logitech USB-PS/2 Optical Mouse] on usb-0000:00:07.2-1
432     </pre>
433    
434     <p>
435 neysx 1.3 Another nifty command you can use to see the status of your USB ports is
436     <c>lsusb</c>. This is part of <c>sys-apps/usbutils</c> and will be covered in
437 swift 1.1 the next chapter.
438     </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </section>
442     </chapter>
443    
444     <chapter>
445     <title>Userspace USB</title>
446     <section>
447     <title>Nifty tools</title>
448     <body>
449    
450     <p>
451 neysx 1.3 So far we've seen how much support exists on the kernel/system side for USB on
452     Linux. Now we'll take a peek into what kind of support is provided by Gentoo
453 swift 1.1 for USB in the userspace.
454     </p>
455    
456     <p>
457 neysx 1.3 One of the most useful tools around is <c>lsusb</c>. This lists all the usb
458 swift 1.1 devices connected to the system. Installing it is a breeze.
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Installing usbutils">
462     # <i>emerge usbutils</i>
463     </pre>
464    
465     <p>
466 neysx 1.3 Once installed, you can just run <c>lsusb</c> to get simple info on the USB
467 swift 1.1 devices attached to the machine.
468     </p>
469    
470     <note>
471     You have to be root in most cases to run <c>lsusb</c>.
472     </note>
473    
474     <warn>
475 neysx 1.3 <c>lsusb</c> reads the information for the USB devices from
476     <path>/proc/bus/usb</path>. If you have not enabled that in your kernel,
477     chances are that <c>lsusb</c> may not work at all. Please ensure you have
478 swift 1.1 <path>/proc</path> filesystem support enabled in your kernel and that
479     <c>usbfs</c> is mounted at <path>/proc/bus/usb</path> (which should happen
480     automatically).
481     </warn>
482    
483     <pre caption="lsusb at work">
484     # <i>lsusb</i>
485     <comment>(This is the 512 MB Memory Stick from Transcend)</comment>
486     Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0c76:0005 JMTek, LLC. USBdisk
487     <comment>(This is the Optical Mouse)</comment>
488     Bus 001 Device 002: ID 046d:c00e Logitech, Inc. Optical Mouse
489     <comment>(This is the root hub)</comment>
490     Bus 001 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
491     </pre>
492    
493     <p>
494 neysx 1.3 If you are one of those types who love to see lots of information, you have
495     the option of running <c>lsusb -v</c>. Try that and see the amount of info it
496     gives out. Another good option is that <c>lsusb</c> dumps the current physical
497     USB hierarchy as a tree and thus makes it easier to understand the exact
498 swift 1.1 device map. The command is <c>lsusb -t</c>. For example,
499     </p>
500    
501     <pre caption="lsusb showing USB hierarchy">
502     # <i>lsusb -t</i>
503     Bus# 1
504     `-Dev# 1 Vendor 0x0000 Product 0x0000
505     |-Dev# 2 Vendor 0x046d Product 0xc00e
506     `-Dev# 3 Vendor 0x0c76 Product 0x0005
507     </pre>
508    
509     <p>
510 neysx 1.3 You can easily correlate the outputs of <c>lsusb</c> and <c>lsusb -t</c>,
511 swift 1.1 which helps debugging as well as understanding how USB works.
512     </p>
513    
514     </body>
515     </section>
516     </chapter>
517    
518     <chapter>
519     <title>And thanks to...</title>
520     <section>
521     <title>References</title>
522     <body>
523    
524     <p>
525 swift 1.6 A good number of online documents helped me during the development of this
526 swift 1.17 document and there are some that are highly technical but truly interesting.
527 swift 1.6 I thought they all deserve some credit, so here we go!
528 swift 1.1 </p>
529 neysx 1.3
530     <ul>
531     <li><uri link="http://www.usb.org">The Official USB Website</uri></li>
532 swift 1.8 <li><uri link="http://www.usb.org/about/faq">The USB FAQ</uri></li>
533 neysx 1.3 <li>
534     <uri
535     link="http://h18000.www1.hp.com/productinfo/development/openhci.html">Compaq's
536     OHCI Standard</uri>
537     </li>
538     <li>
539     <uri link="http://developer.intel.com/technology/usb/uhci11d.htm">Intel's
540     UHCI Standard</uri>
541     </li>
542     <li>
543     <uri link="http://www.intel.com/technology/usb/ehcispec.htm">Intel's EHCI
544     Standard</uri>
545     </li>
546 fox2mike 1.10 </ul>
547    
548     </body>
549     </section>
550     <section>
551     <title>Other Interesting Links</title>
552     <body>
553    
554     <ul>
555 swift 1.17 <li><uri link="/doc/en/liveusb.xml">Gentoo Linux LiveUSB HOWTO</uri></li>
556 neysx 1.3 </ul>
557 swift 1.1
558     </body>
559     </section>
560     </chapter>
561     </guide>

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