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Revision 1.18 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jun 22 01:13:02 2008 UTC (6 years, 5 months ago) by nightmorph
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updated USB HID config location. this update covers the handbooks and the USB guide. for the latter, i removed the section on kernel 2.4 configuration, as there are no 2.4 kernels supported by gentoo.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/usb-guide.xml,v 1.17 2008/05/19 21:04:48 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/usb-guide.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux USB Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
10 </author>
11
12 <abstract>
13 This document helps a user setup USB on a Gentoo system and configure various
14 USB devices as well.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
18 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
19 <license/>
20
21 <version>1.14</version>
22 <date>2008-06-21</date>
23
24 <chapter>
25 <title>Introduction</title>
26 <section>
27 <title>What is USB?</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 USB stands for Universal Serial Bus and is basically an external interface
32 standard that enables communication between the computer and various other
33 peripherals. Some of the most commonly used USB devices today are keyboards,
34 mice, pen drives, digital cameras, external CD &amp; DVD writers, printers etc.
35 </p>
36
37 <p>
38 There are currently two versions of USB in use, i.e. USB 1.1 and USB 2.0.
39 Since USB has always been backward compatible with its previous versions,
40 USB 2.0 is backwards compatible with USB 1.1. The latest USB devices are
41 typically USB 2.0 compatible. USB 2.0 supports a maximum data transmission
42 speed of 480 Mbps or 60 MBps and this is the major difference between the two
43 standards. Another advantage with USB is that the devices are all
44 <e>hot-pluggable</e>, which means that you do not have to restart your system
45 in order for you to be able to use these devices.
46 </p>
47
48 </body>
49 </section>
50 <section>
51 <title>A Technical Perspective</title>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 Before we go onto the exact configuration options in the kernel, it would
56 be apt to look at USB in a little more detail. If you're in a hurry or want
57 to skip this section, please go to <uri link="#kernel">Kernel
58 Configuration</uri>.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 A USB system has a host controller, hubs, a <e>root hub</e> amongst others
63 and can support up to 127 USB devices including the hubs. The host controller
64 is nothing but the hardware interface between the USB device and the
65 operating system. There are a couple of HCI (Host Controller Interface)
66 in use today and they are the OHCI (Open HCI) by Compaq, UHCI (Universal HCI)
67 and EHCI (Enhanced HCI), both from Intel. The OHCI/UHCI are the two industry
68 standard USB 1.1 interfaces whereas the EHCI is for USB 2.0.
69 </p>
70
71 <p>
72 The hardware vendor provides an interface for the programmer that allows
73 the system to interact with the hardware and this is called the HCD or Host
74 Controller Device. It is through this HCD that the device interacts with the
75 system software. The following diagram should make things easier to comprehend.
76 </p>
77
78 <pre caption="General USB Architecture">
79 <comment>(Software consists of other components as well like the device driver, but
80 for the sake of simplicity, they are not shown)</comment>
81
82 + ---- Hardware ---- + ---- Software ---- +
83 | | |
84 | [USB Dev] -+-> {EHCI} -+---> ( EHCD ) |
85 | | | | User
86 | `-> {UHCI} -+---> ( UHCD ) |
87 | | |
88 + ---- Hardware ---- + ---- Software ---- +
89 </pre>
90
91 <p>
92 A USB device can either use a custom driver or use one already present in
93 the system and this is based on the concept of a device <e>class</e>. This
94 means that if a device belongs to a certain <e>class</e>, then other devices
95 belonging to the same <e>class</e> can make use of the same device driver.
96 Some of these <e>classes</e> are the USB HID (Human Interface Devices) class
97 which covers input devices like keyboards and mice, the USB Mass Storage
98 devices class which covers devices like pen drives, digital cameras, audio
99 players etc and the USB CDC (Communication Devices Class) which essentially
100 covers USB modems and similar devices.
101 </p>
102
103 </body>
104 </section>
105 <section>
106 <title>What's on your machine?</title>
107 <body>
108
109 <p>
110 It is very simple to find out whether your machine has USB 2.0 support or not.
111 We make use of the <c>lspci</c> command for this purpose.
112 </p>
113
114 <note>
115 The <c>lspci</c> tool is a part of the <c>sys-apps/pciutils</c> package. If
116 you do not have this installed, please <c>emerge pciutils</c>. Please note
117 that you have to be root while running the <c>lspci</c> command.
118 </note>
119
120 <pre caption="Various lspci outputs">
121 <comment>(In system that is USB 1.1 compliant, note the UHCI only)</comment>
122
123 # <i>lspci -v | grep USB</i>
124 0000:00:04.2 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 USB (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
125
126 <comment>(A system that is USB 2.0 compliant, note the EHCI and UHCI)</comment>
127
128 00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB (Hub #1) (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
129 00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB (Hub #2) (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
130 00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB (Hub #3) (rev 01) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
131 00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corp. 82801DB USB EHCI Controller (rev 01) (prog-if 20 [EHCI])
132 </pre>
133
134 <p>
135 So using the <c>lspci</c> command, we can find out if the system supports
136 USB 2.0. This is useful as we will be enabling the corresponding options in
137 the kernel.
138 </p>
139
140 </body>
141 </section>
142 </chapter>
143
144 <chapter id="kernel">
145 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
146 <section>
147 <title>Getting the kernel</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 First emerge the kernel sources of your choice. Here we'll use the
152 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. For more information on the various kernel sources
153 available on Portage, please look up the <uri
154 link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</uri>.
155 </p>
156
157 <pre caption="Getting the kernel sources">
158 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 Now, lets get on with the task of configuring the kernel.
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Heading over to the source">
166 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
167 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
168 </pre>
169
170 <note>
171 The above example assumes that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink points to
172 the kernel sources you want to use. Please ensure the same before proceeding.
173 </note>
174
175 </body>
176 </section>
177 <section>
178 <title>Config options for the kernel</title>
179 <body>
180
181 <p>
182 Now we will look at some of the options we will have to enable in the kernel to
183 ensure proper USB support for our devices.
184 </p>
185
186 <note>
187 Examples in this document will show configuration options for basic USB
188 support as well as those needed commonly, for example a USB mass storage
189 device (most cameras and USB pen drives). If you have a specific USB device
190 that needs to be configured, please look up your device's manual or search
191 online to see if that device has support built-in into the kernel or custom
192 drivers that you can use. Please note that for the sake of ease, all examples
193 have the options compiled into the kernel. If you would like to have a modular
194 kernel, ensure that you note down the various modules and adjust your config
195 files accordingly.
196 </note>
197
198 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
199 Device Drivers ---&gt;
200 SCSI device support ---&gt;
201
202 <comment>(Although SCSI will be enabled automatically when selecting USB Mass Storage,
203 we need to enable disk support.)</comment>
204 --- SCSI support type (disk, tape, CD-ROM)
205 &lt;*&gt; SCSI disk support
206
207 <comment>(Then move back a level and go into USB support)</comment>
208 USB support ---&gt;
209
210 <comment>(This is the root hub and is required for USB support.
211 If you'd like to compile this as a module, it will be called usbcore.)</comment>
212 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
213
214 <comment>(Enable this option to see your USB devices in /proc/bus/usb.
215 This is recommended.)</comment>
216 [*] USB device filesystem
217
218 <comment>(Select at least one of the HCDs. If you are unsure, picking all is fine.)</comment>
219 --- USB Host Controller Drivers
220 &lt;*&gt; EHCI HCD (USB 2.0) support
221 &lt; &gt; OHCI HCD support
222 &lt;*&gt; UHCI HCD (most Intel and VIA) support
223
224 <comment>(Moving a little further down, we come to CDC and mass storage.)</comment>
225 &lt; &gt; USB Modem (CDC ACM) support
226 &lt;*&gt; USB Printer support
227 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
228
229 <comment>(If you have a USB Network Card like the RTL8150, you'll need this)</comment>
230 USB Network Adapters --->
231 &lt;*&gt; USB RTL8150 based ethernet device support (EXPERIMENTAL)
232
233 <comment>(If you have a serial to USB converter like the Prolific 2303, you'll need this)</comment>
234 USB Serial Converter support --->
235 &lt;*&gt; USB Serial Converter support
236 &lt;*&gt; USB Prolific 2303 Single Port Serial Driver (NEW)
237 </pre>
238
239 <p>
240 If you have a USB keyboard, mouse, joystick, or any other input device, you need
241 to enable HID support. Go back one level to "Device drivers" and enable HID
242 support as shown:
243 </p>
244
245 <pre caption="Enabling HID support">
246 Device Drivers ---&gt;
247 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
248 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
249 </pre>
250
251 <p>
252 Now that your options are set, you can (re)compile the kernel and USB support
253 should be functional once you reboot into the new kernel. You can now proceed
254 to <uri link="#postkern">Seeing USB at work</uri> and see if everything is
255 working as it should.
256 </p>
257
258 </body>
259 </section>
260 </chapter>
261
262 <chapter id="postkern">
263 <title>Seeing USB at work</title>
264 <section>
265 <title>dmesg is your friend!</title>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 The time has finally come to play with those USB devices :) So let's get
270 started. In this chapter, we'll see how the system responds to various USB
271 devices. We'll start by plugging in a USB 512 MB Memory Stick/Pen Drive. You
272 could use some other similar mass storage device. We will primarily use
273 <c>dmesg</c> to see what is happening and how the system responds to the
274 device.
275 </p>
276
277 <note>
278 <c>dmesg</c> will generally give a lot of output up front before coming to the
279 info we need, as it reads the kernel ring buffer that has all the boot up
280 messages as well. The output in the following examples have only the relevant
281 portion(s) and extra spaces in between to enable better readability. If needed
282 please use a <c>dmesg | more</c> or <c>dmesg | less</c> to see the output
283 better in your system.
284 </note>
285
286 <pre caption="dmesg output for Memory Stick">
287 <comment>(Plug in Memory Stick into available USB port and then..)</comment>
288 # <i>dmesg | less</i>
289
290 <comment>(The device is picked up as a USB 1.1 and allocated an address.
291 Also says what HCD it is using.)</comment>
292 usb 1-1: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 2
293
294 <comment>(SCSI emulation automatically kicks in)</comment>
295 scsi0 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices
296 usb-storage: device found at 2
297
298 <comment>(Now the device information including model number is retrieved)</comment>
299 usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
300 Vendor: JetFlash Model: TS512MJF2A Rev: 1.00
301 Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02
302 SCSI device sda: 1003600 512-byte hdwr sectors (514 MB)
303
304 <comment>(The write-protect sense is EXPERIMENTAL code in the later kernels)</comment>
305 sda: Write Protect is off
306 sda: Mode Sense: 0b 00 00 08
307 sda: assuming drive cache: write through
308 SCSI device sda: 1003600 512-byte hdwr sectors (514 MB)
309 /dev/scsi/host0/bus0/target0/lun0: p1
310 Attached scsi removable disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
311 Attached scsi generic sg0 at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0, type 0
312 usb-storage: device scan complete
313 <comment>(At this point, the device is generally accessible by mounting /dev/sda1)</comment>
314
315 <comment>(When the device is disconnected, the system acknowledges the same)</comment>
316 usb 1-1: USB disconnect, address 2
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 Once the device is connected and mounted, you can access it like a normal hard
321 disk. Usual operations like <c>cp</c>, <c>mv</c>, <c>rm</c>, etc work fine. You
322 could also create a filesystem on the USB stick/format it.
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Accessing the Memory Stick">
326 # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb</i>
327 # <i>df -h</i>
328 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
329 /dev/hda8 9.4G 7.5G 1.9G 80% /
330 /dev/hda9 11G 8.1G 2.4G 78% /usr
331 none 189M 0 189M 0% /dev/shm
332 /dev/sda1 490M 34M 457M 7% /mnt/usb
333 </pre>
334
335 <note>
336 Digital cameras can be accessed the same way as memory sticks. I have a Nikon
337 Coolpix 5200 and this is the way I access it. Cameras these days usually have
338 two modes to transfer pictures; USB mass storage and PTP (Picture Transfer
339 Protocol). The camera is set to USB mass storage mode and hence the procedure is
340 exactly the same as that of accessing a memory stick because of which I have not
341 explained in detail about it. Please note that this may NOT work in all cases
342 and with all digital cameras that have USB support.
343 </note>
344
345 <p>
346 How would a USB mouse show up in case you had one? It will show up as an HID
347 device.
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="USB Optical Mouse">
351 # <i>dmesg | grep USB</i>
352 drivers/usb/input/hid-core.c: v2.0:USB HID core driver
353 usb 1-1: new low speed USB device using address 2
354 input: USB HID v1.10 Mouse [Logitech USB-PS/2 Optical Mouse] on usb-0000:00:07.2-1
355 </pre>
356
357 <p>
358 Another nifty command you can use to see the status of your USB ports is
359 <c>lsusb</c>. This is part of <c>sys-apps/usbutils</c> and will be covered in
360 the next chapter.
361 </p>
362
363 </body>
364 </section>
365 </chapter>
366
367 <chapter>
368 <title>Userspace USB</title>
369 <section>
370 <title>Nifty tools</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <p>
374 So far we've seen how much support exists on the kernel/system side for USB on
375 Linux. Now we'll take a peek into what kind of support is provided by Gentoo
376 for USB in the userspace.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 One of the most useful tools around is <c>lsusb</c>. This lists all the usb
381 devices connected to the system. Installing it is a breeze.
382 </p>
383
384 <pre caption="Installing usbutils">
385 # <i>emerge usbutils</i>
386 </pre>
387
388 <p>
389 Once installed, you can just run <c>lsusb</c> to get simple info on the USB
390 devices attached to the machine.
391 </p>
392
393 <note>
394 You have to be root in most cases to run <c>lsusb</c>.
395 </note>
396
397 <warn>
398 <c>lsusb</c> reads the information for the USB devices from
399 <path>/proc/bus/usb</path>. If you have not enabled that in your kernel,
400 chances are that <c>lsusb</c> may not work at all. Please ensure you have
401 <path>/proc</path> filesystem support enabled in your kernel and that
402 <c>usbfs</c> is mounted at <path>/proc/bus/usb</path> (which should happen
403 automatically).
404 </warn>
405
406 <pre caption="lsusb at work">
407 # <i>lsusb</i>
408 <comment>(This is the 512 MB Memory Stick from Transcend)</comment>
409 Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0c76:0005 JMTek, LLC. USBdisk
410 <comment>(This is the Optical Mouse)</comment>
411 Bus 001 Device 002: ID 046d:c00e Logitech, Inc. Optical Mouse
412 <comment>(This is the root hub)</comment>
413 Bus 001 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
414 </pre>
415
416 <p>
417 If you are one of those types who love to see lots of information, you have
418 the option of running <c>lsusb -v</c>. Try that and see the amount of info it
419 gives out. Another good option is that <c>lsusb</c> dumps the current physical
420 USB hierarchy as a tree and thus makes it easier to understand the exact
421 device map. The command is <c>lsusb -t</c>. For example,
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption="lsusb showing USB hierarchy">
425 # <i>lsusb -t</i>
426 Bus# 1
427 `-Dev# 1 Vendor 0x0000 Product 0x0000
428 |-Dev# 2 Vendor 0x046d Product 0xc00e
429 `-Dev# 3 Vendor 0x0c76 Product 0x0005
430 </pre>
431
432 <p>
433 You can easily correlate the outputs of <c>lsusb</c> and <c>lsusb -t</c>,
434 which helps debugging as well as understanding how USB works.
435 </p>
436
437 </body>
438 </section>
439 </chapter>
440
441 <chapter>
442 <title>And thanks to...</title>
443 <section>
444 <title>References</title>
445 <body>
446
447 <p>
448 A good number of online documents helped me during the development of this
449 document and there are some that are highly technical but truly interesting.
450 I thought they all deserve some credit, so here we go!
451 </p>
452
453 <ul>
454 <li><uri link="http://www.usb.org">The Official USB Website</uri></li>
455 <li><uri link="http://www.usb.org/about/faq">The USB FAQ</uri></li>
456 <li>
457 <uri
458 link="http://h18000.www1.hp.com/productinfo/development/openhci.html">Compaq's
459 OHCI Standard</uri>
460 </li>
461 <li>
462 <uri link="http://developer.intel.com/technology/usb/uhci11d.htm">Intel's
463 UHCI Standard</uri>
464 </li>
465 <li>
466 <uri link="http://www.intel.com/technology/usb/ehcispec.htm">Intel's EHCI
467 Standard</uri>
468 </li>
469 </ul>
470
471 </body>
472 </section>
473 <section>
474 <title>Other Interesting Links</title>
475 <body>
476
477 <ul>
478 <li><uri link="/doc/en/liveusb.xml">Gentoo Linux LiveUSB HOWTO</uri></li>
479 </ul>
480
481 </body>
482 </section>
483 </chapter>
484 </guide>

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