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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/utf-8.xml,v 1.8 2005/03/25 14:25:26 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/utf-8.xml">
6 <title>Using UTF-8 with Gentoo</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="slarti@gentoo.org">Thomas Martin</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Contributor">
12 <mail link="devil@gentoo.org.ua">Alexander Simonov</mail>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 This guide shows you how to set up and use the UTF-8 Unicode character set with
17 your Gentoo Linux system, after explaining the benefits of Unicode and more
18 specifically UTF-8.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <license />
22
23 <version>1.8</version>
24 <date>2005-04-05</date>
25
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Character Encodings</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>What is a Character Encoding?</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 Computers do not understand text themselves. Instead, every character is
34 represented by a number. Traditionally, each set of numbers used to represent
35 alphabets and characters (known as a coding system, encoding or character set)
36 was limited in size due to limitations in computer hardware.
37 </p>
38
39 </body>
40 </section>
41 <section>
42 <title>The History of Character Encodings</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 The most common (or at least the most widely accepted) character set is
47 <b>ASCII</b> (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). It is widely
48 held that ASCII is the most successful software standard ever. Modern ASCII
49 was standardised in 1986 (ANSI X3.4, RFC 20, ISO/IEC 646:1991, ECMA-6) by the
50 American National Standards Institute.
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 ASCII is strictly seven-bit, meaning that it uses bit patterns representable
55 with seven binary digits, which provides a range of 0 to 127 in decimal. These
56 include 32 non-visible control characters, most between 0 and 31, with the
57 final control character, DEL or delete at 127. Characters 32 to 126 are
58 visible characters: a space, punctuation marks, Latin letters and numbers.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 The eighth bit in ASCII was originally used as a parity bit for error checking.
63 If this is not desired, it is left as 0. This means that, with ASCII, each
64 character is represented by a single byte.
65 </p>
66
67 <p>
68 Although ASCII was enough for communication in modern English, in other
69 European languages that include accented characters, things were not so easy.
70 The ISO 8859 standards were developed to meet these needs. They were backwards
71 compatible with ASCII, but instead of leaving the eighth bit blank, they used
72 it to allow another 127 characters in each encoding. ISO 8859's limitations
73 soon came to light, and there are currently 15 variants of the ISO 8859
74 standard (8859-1 through to 8859-15). Outside of the ASCII-compatible byte
75 range of these character sets, there is often conflict between the letters
76 represented by each byte. To complicate interoperability between character
77 encodings further, Windows-1252 is used in some versions of Microsoft Windows
78 instead for Western European languages. This is a superset of ISO 8859-1,
79 however it is different in several ways. These sets do all retain ASCII
80 compatibility, however.
81 </p>
82
83 <p>
84 The necessary development of completely different single-byte encodings for
85 non-Latin alphabets, such as EUC (Extended Unix Coding) which is used for
86 Japanese and Korean (and to a lesser extent Chinese) created more confusion,
87 while other operating systems still used different character sets for the same
88 languages, for example, Shift-JIS and ISO-2022-JP. Users wishing to view
89 cyrillic glyphs had to choose between KOI8-R for Russian and Bulgarian or
90 KOI8-U for Ukrainian, as well as all the other cyrillic encodings such as the
91 unsuccessful ISO 8859-5, and the common Windows-1251 set. All of these
92 character sets broke most compatibility with ASCII (although KOI8 encodings
93 place cyrillic characters in Latin order, so in case the eighth bit is
94 stripped, text is still decipherable on an ASCII terminal through case-reversed
95 transliteration.)
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 This has led to confusion, and also to an almost total inability for
100 multilingual communication, especially across different alphabets. Enter
101 Unicode.
102 </p>
103
104 </body>
105 </section>
106 <section>
107 <title>What is Unicode?</title>
108 <body>
109
110 <p>
111 Unicode throws away the traditional single-byte limit of character sets. It
112 uses 17 "planes" of 65,536 code points to describe a maximum of 1,114,112
113 characters. As the first plane, aka. "Basic Multilingual Plane" or BMP,
114 contains almost everything you will ever use, many have made the wrong
115 assumption that Unicode was a 16-bit character set.
116 </p>
117
118 <p>
119 Unicode has been mapped in many different ways, but the two most common are
120 <b>UTF</b> (Unicode Transformation Format) and <b>UCS</b> (Universal Character
121 Set). A number after UTF indicates the number of bits in one unit, while the
122 number after UCS indicates the number of bytes. UTF-8 has become the most
123 widespread means for the interchange of Unicode text as a result of its
124 eight-bit clean nature, and it is the subject of this document.
125 </p>
126
127 </body>
128 </section>
129 <section>
130 <title>UTF-8</title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 UTF-8 is a variable-length character encoding, which in this instance means
135 that it uses 1 to 4 bytes per symbol. So, the first UTF-8 byte is used for
136 encoding ASCII, giving the character set full backwards compatibility with
137 ASCII. UTF-8 means that ASCII and Latin characters are interchangeable with
138 little increase in the size of the data, because only the first bit is used.
139 Users of Eastern alphabets such as Japanese, who have been assigned a higher
140 byte range are unhappy, as this results in as much as a 50% redundancy in their
141 data.
142 </p>
143
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section>
147 <title>What UTF-8 Can Do for You</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 UTF-8 allows you to work in a standards-compliant and internationally accepted
152 multilingual environment, with a comparatively low data redundancy. UTF-8 is
153 the preferred way for transmitting non-ASCII characters over the Internet,
154 through Email, IRC or almost any other medium. Despite this, many people regard
155 UTF-8 in online communication as abusive. It is always best to be aware of the
156 attitude towards UTF-8 in a specific channel, mailing list or Usenet group
157 before using <e>non-ASCII</e> UTF-8.
158 </p>
159
160 </body>
161 </section>
162 </chapter>
163
164 <chapter>
165 <title>Setting up UTF-8 with Gentoo Linux</title>
166 <section>
167 <title>Finding or Creating UTF-8 Locales</title>
168 <body>
169
170 <p>
171 Now that you understand the principles behind Unicode, you're ready to start
172 using UTF-8 with your system.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 The preliminary requirement for UTF-8 is to have a version of glibc installed
177 that has national language support. The recommend means to do this is the
178 <path>/etc/locales.build</path> file in combination with the <c>userlocales</c>
179 USE flag. It is beyond the scope of this document to explain the usage of this
180 file though, luckily, the usage of this file is well documented in the comments
181 within it. It is also explained in the <uri
182 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3_sect3"> Gentoo Localisation
183 Guide</uri>.
184 </p>
185
186 <p>
187 Next, we'll need to decide whether a UTF-8 locale is already available for our
188 language, or whether we need to create one.
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Checking for an existing UTF-8 locale">
192 <comment>(Replace "en_GB" with your desired locale setting)</comment>
193 # <i>locale -a | grep 'en_GB'</i>
194 en_GB
195 en_GB.utf8
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 From the output of this command line, we need to take the result with a suffix
200 similar to <c>.utf8</c>. If there is no result with a suffix similar to
201 <c>.utf8</c>, we need to create a UTF-8 compatible locale.
202 </p>
203
204 <note>
205 Only execute the following code listing if you do not have a UTF-8 locale
206 available for your language.
207 </note>
208
209 <pre caption="Creating a UTF-8 locale">
210 <comment>(Replace "en_GB" with your desired locale setting)</comment>
211 # <i>localedef -i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.utf8</i>
212 </pre>
213
214 <p>
215 Another way to include a UTF-8 locale is to add it to the
216 <path>/etc/locales.build</path> file and rebuild <c>glibc</c> with the
217 <c>userlocales</c> USE flag set.
218 </p>
219
220 <pre caption="Line in /etc/locales.build">
221 en_GB.UTF-8/UTF-8
222 </pre>
223
224 </body>
225 </section>
226 <section>
227 <title>Setting the Locale</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 Although by now you might be determined to use UTF-8 system wide, the author
232 does not recommend setting UTF-8 for the root user. Instead, it is best to set
233 the locale in your user's <path>~/.profile</path> (or, if you are using a C
234 shell, <path>~/.login</path>).
235 </p>
236
237 <note>
238 If you are not sure which file to use, use <path>~/.profile</path>. Also, if
239 you are unsure which code listing to use, use the Bourne version.
240 </note>
241
242 <pre caption="Setting the locale with environment variables (Bourne version)">
243 export LANG="en_GB.utf8"
244 export LC_ALL="en_GB.utf8"
245 </pre>
246
247 <pre caption="Setting the locale with environment variables (C shell version)">
248 setenv LANG "en_GB.utf8"
249 setenv LC_ALL "en_GB.utf8"
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 Now, logout and back in to apply the change. We want these environment
254 variables in our entire environment, so it is best to logout and back in, or at
255 the very least to source <path>~/.profile</path> or <path>~/.login</path> in
256 the console from which you have started other processes.
257 </p>
258
259 </body>
260 </section>
261 </chapter>
262
263 <chapter>
264 <title>Application Support</title>
265 <section>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 When Unicode first started gaining momentum in the software world, multibyte
270 character sets were not well suited to languages like C, in which many of the
271 day-to-day programs people use are written. Even today, some programs are not
272 able to handle UTF-8 properly. Fortunately, most are!
273 </p>
274
275 </body>
276 </section>
277 <section>
278 <title>Filenames, NTFS, and FAT</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 There are several NLS options in the Linux kernel configuration menu, but it is
283 important to not become confused! For the most part, the only thing you need to
284 do is to build UTF-8 NLS support into your kernel, and change the default NLS
285 option to utf8.
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Kernel configuration steps for UTF-8 NLS">
289 File Systems --&gt;
290 Native Language Support --&gt;
291 (utf8) Default NLS Option
292 &lt;*&gt; NLS UTF8
293 <comment>(Also &lt;*&gt; other character sets that are in use in
294 your FAT filesystems or Joilet CD-ROMs.)</comment>
295 </pre>
296
297 <p>
298 If you plan on mounting NTFS partitions, you may need to specify an <c>nls=</c>
299 option with mount. For more information, see <c>man mount</c>.
300 </p>
301
302 <p>
303 For changing the encoding of filenames, <c>app-text/convmv</c> can be used.
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Example usage of convmv">
307 # <i>emerge --ask app-text/convmv</i>
308 # <i>convmv -f current-encoding -t utf-8 filename</i>
309 </pre>
310
311 <p>
312 For changing the <e>contents</e> of files, use the <c>iconv</c> utility,
313 bundled with <c>glibc</c>:
314 </p>
315
316 <pre caption="Example usage of iconv">
317 <comment>(substitute iso-8859-1 with the charset you are converting from)</comment>
318 <comment>(Check the output is sane)</comment>
319 # <i>iconv -f iso-8859-1 -t utf-8 filename</i>
320 <comment>(Convert a file, you must create another file)</comment>
321 # <i>iconv -f iso-8859-1 -t utf-8 filename > newfile</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 <c>app-text/recode</c> can also be used for this purpose.
326 </p>
327
328 </body>
329 </section>
330 <section>
331 <title>The System Console</title>
332 <body>
333
334 <impo>
335 You need >=sys-apps/baselayout-1.11.9 for Unicode on the console.
336 </impo>
337
338 <p>
339 To enable UTF-8 on the console, you should edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and
340 set <c>UNICODE="yes"</c>, and also read the comments in that file -- it is
341 important to have a font that has a good range of characters if you plan on
342 making the most of Unicode.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 The <c>KEYMAP</c> variable, set in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, should
347 have a Unicode keymap specified. To do this, simply prepend the keymap already
348 specified there with -u.
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Example /etc/conf.d/keymaps snippet">
352 <comment>(Change "uk" to your local layout)</comment>
353 KEYMAP="-u uk"
354 </pre>
355
356 </body>
357 </section>
358 <section>
359 <title>Ncurses and Slang</title>
360 <body>
361
362 <note>
363 Ignore any mention of Slang in this section if you do not have it installed or
364 do not use it.
365 </note>
366
367 <p>
368 It is wise to add <c>unicode</c> to your global USE flags in
369 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, and then to remerge <c>sys-libs/ncurses</c> and
370 also <c>sys-libs/slang</c> if appropriate:
371 </p>
372
373 <pre caption="Emerging ncurses and slang">
374 <comment>(We avoid putting these libraries in our world file with --oneshot)</comment>
375 # <i>emerge --oneshot --verbose --ask sys-libs/ncurses sys-libs/slang</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <p>
379 We also need to rebuild packages that link to these, now the USE changes have
380 been applied. The tool we use (<c>revdep-rebuild</c>) is part of the
381 <c>gentoolkit</c> package.
382 </p>
383
384 <pre caption="Rebuilding of programs that link to ncurses or slang">
385 # <i>revdep-rebuild --soname libncurses.so.5</i>
386 # <i>revdep-rebuild --soname libslang.so.1</i>
387 </pre>
388
389 </body>
390 </section>
391 <section>
392 <title>KDE, GNOME and Xfce</title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 All of the major desktop environments have full Unicode support, and will
397 require no further setup than what has already been covered in this guide. This
398 is because the underlying graphical toolkits (Qt or GTK+2) are UTF-8 aware.
399 Subsequently, all applications running on top of these toolkits should be
400 UTF-8-aware out of the box.
401 </p>
402
403 <p>
404 The exceptions to this rule come in Xlib and GTK+1. GTK+1 requires a
405 iso-10646-1 FontSpec in the ~/.gtkrc, for example
406 <c>-misc-fixed-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso10646-1</c>. Also, applications using
407 Xlib or Xaw will need to be given a similar FontSpec, otherwise they will not
408 work.
409 </p>
410
411 <note>
412 If you have a version of the gnome1 control center around, use that instead.
413 Pick any iso10646-1 font from there.
414 </note>
415
416 <pre caption="Example ~/.gtkrc (for GTK+1) that defines a Unicode compatible font">
417 style "user-font"
418 {
419 fontset="-misc-fixed-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso10646-1"
420 }
421 widget_class "*" style "user-font"
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 If an application has support for both a Qt and GTK+2 GUI, the GTK+2 GUI will
426 generally give better results with Unicode.
427 </p>
428
429 </body>
430 </section>
431 <section>
432 <title>X11 and Fonts</title>
433 <body>
434
435 <impo>
436 <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c> has far better support for Unicode than XFree86
437 and is <e>highly</e> recommended.
438 </impo>
439
440 <p>
441 TrueType fonts have support for Unicode, and most of the fonts that ship with
442 Xorg have impressive character support, although, obviously, not every single
443 glyph available in Unicode has been created for that font. To build fonts
444 (including the Bitstream Vera set) with support for East Asian letters with X,
445 make sure you have the <c>cjk</c> USE flag set. Many other applications utilise
446 this flag, so it may be worthwhile to add it as a permanent USE flag.
447 </p>
448
449 <p>
450 Also, several font packages in Portage are Unicode aware.
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Optional: Install some more Unicode-aware fonts">
454 # <i>emerge terminus-font intlfonts freefonts cronyx-fonts corefonts</i>
455 </pre>
456
457 </body>
458 </section>
459 <section>
460 <title>Window Managers and Terminal Emulators</title>
461 <body>
462
463 <p>
464 Window managers not built on GTK or Qt generally have very good Unicode
465 support, as they often use the Xft library for handling fonts. If your window
466 manager does not use Xft for fonts, you can still use the FontSpec mentioned in
467 the previous section as a Unicode font.
468 </p>
469
470 <p>
471 Terminal emulators that use Xft and support Unicode are harder to come by.
472 Aside from Konsole and gnome-terminal, the best options in Portage are
473 <c>x11-terms/rxvt-unicode</c>, <c>xfce-extra/terminal</c>,
474 <c>gnustep-apps/terminal</c>, <c>x11-terms/mlterm</c>, <c>x11-terms/mrxvt</c> or
475 plain <c>x11-terms/xterm</c> when built with the <c>unicode</c> USE flag and
476 invoked as <c>uxterm</c>. <c>app-misc/screen</c> supports UTF-8 too, when
477 invoked as <c>screen -u</c> or the following is put into the
478 <path>~/.screenrc</path>:
479 </p>
480
481 <pre caption="~/.screenrc for UTF-8">
482 defutf8 on
483 </pre>
484
485 </body>
486 </section>
487 <section>
488 <title>Vim, Emacs, Xemacs and Nano</title>
489 <body>
490
491 <p>
492 Vim, Emacs and Xemacs provide full UTF-8 support, and also have builtin
493 detection of UTF-8 files. For further information in Vim, use <c>:help
494 mbyte.txt</c>.
495 </p>
496
497 <p>
498 Nano currently does not provide support for UTF-8, although it has been planned
499 for a long time. With luck, this will change in future. At the time of writing,
500 UTF-8 support is in Nano's CVS, and should be included in the next release.
501 </p>
502
503 </body>
504 </section>
505 <section>
506 <title>Shells</title>
507 <body>
508
509 <p>
510 Currently, <c>bash</c> provides full Unicode support through the GNU readline
511 library. Z Shell users are in a somewhat worse position -- no parts of the
512 shell have Unicode support, although there is a concerted effort to add
513 multibyte character set support underway at the moment.
514 </p>
515
516 <p>
517 The C shell, <c>tcsh</c> and <c>ksh</c> do not provide UTF-8 support at all.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </section>
522 <section>
523 <title>Irssi</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 Since 0.8.10, Irssi has complete UTF-8 support, although it does require a user
528 to set an option.
529 </p>
530
531 <pre caption="Enabling UTF-8 in Irssi">
532 /set term_charset UTF-8
533 </pre>
534
535 <p>
536 For channels where non-ASCII characters are often exchanged in non-UTF-8
537 charsets, the <c>/recode</c> command may be used to convert the characters.
538 Type <c>/help recode</c> for more information.
539 </p>
540
541 </body>
542 </section>
543 <section>
544 <title>Mutt</title>
545 <body>
546
547 <p>
548 The Mutt mail user agent has very good Unicode support. To use UTF-8 with Mutt,
549 put the following in your <path>~/.muttrc</path>:
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption="~/.muttrc for UTF-8">
553 set send_charset="utf8" <comment>(outgoing character set)</comment>
554 set charset="utf8" <comment>(display character set)</comment>
555 </pre>
556
557 <note>
558 You may still see '?' in mail you read with Mutt. This is a result of people
559 using a mail client which does not indicate the used charset. You can't do much
560 about this than to ask them to configure their client correctly.
561 </note>
562
563 <p>
564 Further information is available from the <uri
565 link="http://wiki.mutt.org/index.cgi?MuttFaq/Charset"> Mutt WikiWiki</uri>.
566 </p>
567
568 </body>
569 </section>
570 <section>
571 <title>Testing it all out</title>
572 <body>
573
574 <p>
575 There are numerous UTF-8 test websites around. <c>net-www/w3m</c>,
576 <c>net-www/links</c>, <c>net-www/elinks</c>, <c>net-www/lynx</c> and all
577 Mozilla based browsers (including Firefox) support UTF-8. Konqueror and Opera
578 have full UTF-8 support too.
579 </p>
580
581 <p>
582 When using one of the text-only web browsers, make absolutely sure you are
583 using a Unicode-aware terminal.
584 </p>
585
586 <p>
587 If you see certain characters displayed as boxes with letters or numbers
588 inside, this means that your font does not have a character for the symbol or
589 glyph that the UTF-8 wants. Instead, it displays a box with the hex code of the
590 UTF-8 symbol.
591 </p>
592
593 <ul>
594 <li>
595 <uri link="http://www.w3.org/2001/06/utf-8-test/UTF-8-demo.html">A W3C
596 UTF-8 Test Page</uri>
597 </li>
598 <li>
599 <uri link="http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/indexe.htm?/unicode/unitest.htm">
600 A UTF-8 test page provided by the University of Frankfurt</uri>
601 </li>
602 </ul>
603
604 </body>
605 </section>
606 <section>
607 <title>Input Methods</title>
608 <body>
609
610 <p>
611 <e>Dead keys</e> may be used to input characters in X that are not included on
612 your keyboard. These work by pressing your right Alt key (or in some countries,
613 AltGr) and an optional key from the non-alphabetical section of the keyboard to
614 the left of the return key at once, releasing them, and then pressing a letter.
615 The dead key should modify it. Input can be further modified by using the Shift
616 key at the same time as pressing the AltGr and modifier.
617 </p>
618
619 <p>
620 To enable dead keys in X, you need a layout that supports it. Most European
621 layouts already have dead keys with the default variant. However, this is not
622 true of North American layouts. Although there is a degree of inconsistency
623 between layouts, the easiest solution seems to be to use a layout in the form
624 "en_US" rather than "us", for example. The layout is set in
625 <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> like so:
626 </p>
627
628 <pre caption="/etc/X11/xorg.conf snippet">
629 Section "InputDevice"
630 Identifier "Keyboard0"
631 Driver "kbd"
632 Option "XkbLayout" "en_US" <comment># Rather than just "us"</comment>
633 <comment>(Other Xkb options here)</comment>
634 EndSection
635 </pre>
636
637 <note>
638 The preceding change only needs to be applied if you are using a North American
639 layout, or another layout where dead keys do not seem to be working. European
640 users should have working dead keys as is.
641 </note>
642
643 <p>
644 This change will come into effect when your X server is restarted. To apply the
645 change now, use the <c>setxkbmap</c> tool, for example, <c>setxkbmap en_US</c>.
646 </p>
647
648 <p>
649 It is probably easiest to describe dead keys with examples. Although the
650 results are locale dependent, the concepts should remain the same regardless of
651 locale. The examples contain UTF-8, so to view them you need to either tell
652 your browser to view the page as UTF-8, or have a UTF-8 locale already
653 configured.
654 </p>
655
656 <p>
657 When I press AltGr and [ at once, release them, and then press a, 'ä' is
658 produced. When I press AltGr and [ at once, and then press e, 'ë' is produced.
659 When I press AltGr and ; at once, 'á' is produced, and when I press AltGr and ;
660 at once, release them, and then press e, 'é' is produced.
661 </p>
662
663 <p>
664 By pressing AltGr, Shift and [ at once, releasing them, and then pressing a, a
665 Scandinavian 'å' is produced. Similarly, when I press AltGr, Shift and [ at
666 once, release <e>only</e> the [, and then press it again, '˚' is produced.
667 Although it looks like one, this (U+02DA) is not the same as a degree symbol
668 (U+00B0). This works for other accents produced by dead keys — AltGr and [,
669 releasing only the [, then pressing it again makes '¨'.
670 </p>
671
672 <p>
673 AltGr can be used with alphabetical keys alone. For example, AltGr and m, a
674 Greek lower-case letter mu is produced: 'µ'.
675 </p>
676
677 </body>
678 </section>
679 <section>
680 <title>Resources</title>
681 <body>
682
683 <ul>
684 <li>
685 <uri link="http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Unicode">The Wikipedia entry for
686 Unicode</uri>
687 </li>
688 <li>
689 <uri link="http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/UTF-8">The Wikipedia entry for
690 UTF-8</uri>
691 </li>
692 <li><uri link="http://www.unicode.org">Unicode.org</uri></li>
693 <li><uri link="http://www.utf-8.com">UTF-8.com</uri></li>
694 <li><uri link="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">RFC 3629</uri></li>
695 <li><uri link="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2277.txt">RFC 2277</uri></li>
696 <li>
697 <uri
698 link="http://www.tbray.org/ongoing/When/200x/2003/04/26/UTF">Characters vs.
699 Bytes</uri>
700 </li>
701 </ul>
702
703 </body>
704 </section>
705 </chapter>
706 </guide>

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