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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/vi-guide.xml,v 1.12 2004/08/26 17:39:17 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/vi-guide.xml">
6 <title>Learning vi -- the "cheatsheet" technique</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Author">
11 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
15 </author>
16
17 <abstract>
18 This guide will teach you how to use vi, using a cheat sheet method to
19 accelerate the learning process. This will be the first guide for vi,
20 catering to beginners.
21 </abstract>
22
23 <version>1.1.6</version>
24 <date>2005-05-12</date>
25
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Getting Started</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Introduction</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 This tutorial will show you how to use vi, a powerful visual editor.
34 Using a special accelerated <e>cheat sheet</e> method, this tutorial is
35 designed to make you a proficient vi user without requiring a huge
36 time commitment. In this vi tutorial, you'll learn how to move
37 around, edit text, use insert mode, copy and paste text, and use
38 important vim extensions like visual mode and multi-window editing.
39 </p>
40
41 <p>
42 If you either don't know or aren't comfortable using vi, then you owe
43 it to yourself to take this tutorial and get up to speed with one of
44 the most popular and powerful Linux/UNIX visual editing programs.
45 </p>
46
47 </body>
48 </section>
49 <section>
50 <title>About the guide</title>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 There's one thing in particular that makes it difficult to learn vi --
55 vi has lots of commands. In order to use vi effectively, you need to
56 memorize quite a few. This can take a long time, and one of the goals
57 of this tutorial is not to take up a lot of your time. So, initially,
58 we have a challenge -- how exactly do I help you to memorize lots of
59 commands in a short period of time?
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 To tackle this challenge, as we proceed through this tutorial, we're
64 going to gradually put together a vi cheat sheet. This sheet will
65 contain all the important vi commands. After you've completed this
66 tutorial, you'll be able to refer to this cheat sheet if you forget a
67 particular command. Over time, as you memorize commands, you'll
68 gradually become less and less dependent on the cheat sheet. By using
69 the cheat-sheet technique, you'll be able to learn how to use vi
70 faster than ever possible before!
71 </p>
72
73 </body>
74 </section>
75 <section>
76 <title>The learning process</title>
77 <body>
78
79 <p>
80 In this guide, I'm going to use several techniques to help you
81 learn. First, I'm going to describe how a particular command works,
82 as you'd expect. Then, I'm going to ask you to try to use the command
83 in vi (for practice), and then I'm going to ask you to transcribe the
84 command to the cheat sheet (for later reference.) If you want to
85 learn vi quickly, it's important that you perform all these steps.
86 Trying out a command in vi and transcribing the command onto your
87 cheat sheet will help you to memorize the command.
88 </p>
89
90 </body>
91 </section>
92 <section>
93 <title>Introducing vim</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 There are many versions of vi, and I'm going to be showing you how to
98 use a version of vi called <c>vim</c>. vim is very popular and has a
99 number of extensions that make vi a lot nicer (whenever I demonstrate
100 a vim-specific command, I'll make a note of it.) If you need to
101 install vim, you can get it from <uri
102 link="http://www.vim.org/">www.vim.org</uri>. In addition to an
103 enhanced command-line vi, vim also comes with <c>gvim</c>, a nice graphical
104 editor which can be configured to use the excellent GTK+ gui library.
105 Here's a gvim screenshot from my system:
106 </p>
107
108 <figure link="http://www.ibiblio.org/web-gentoo/images/vishot.png"
109 short="screenshot" caption="VIM screenshot"/>
110
111 <p>
112 If you're a vi newbie, try to get gvim running on your system. Using
113 vi from a gui can make things a bit easier for beginners.
114 </p>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 </chapter>
119
120 <chapter>
121 <title>First Steps</title>
122 <section>
123 <title>Pick a file</title>
124 <body>
125
126 <p>
127 Before using vi to edit files, you need to know how to use vi to move
128 around in a file. vi has a lot of movement commands, and we're going
129 to take a look at many of them. For this part of the tutorial, find
130 an unimportant text file and load it into vi by typing:
131 </p>
132
133 <pre caption="Loading a file into vi">
134 $ <i>vi myfile.txt</i>
135 </pre>
136
137 <p>
138 If you have vim installed, type <c>vim myfile.txt</c>. If you'd prefer to
139 use gvim, type <c>gvim myfile.txt</c>. <path>myfile.txt</path> should be the name of a
140 text file on your system.
141 </p>
142
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>Inside vi</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 After vi loads, you should see a part of the text file you loaded
151 on your screen. Congratulations -- you're in vi! Unlike many
152 editors, when vi starts up, it is in a special mode called <e>command
153 mode</e>. This means that if you press <c>l</c>on the keyboard, instead of
154 inserting an <c>l</c> into the file at the current cursor position, the
155 cursor will move one character to the right instead. In command mode,
156 the characters on your keyboard are used to send commands to vi rather
157 than insert literal characters into the text. One of the most
158 essential types of commands are movement commands; let's take a look
159 at some.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </section>
164 </chapter>
165
166 <chapter>
167 <title>Moving around</title>
168 <section>
169 <title>Moving in vi, part 1</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 When in command mode, you can use the <c>h</c>,<c>j</c>,<c>k</c> and
174 <c>l</c> keys to move the cursor left, down, up and right
175 respectively. If you're using a modern version of vi, you can also
176 use the arrow keys for this purpose. The <c>h</c>,<c>j</c>,<c>k</c>
177 and <c>l</c> keys are handy because once you're comfortable with them,
178 you'll be able to move around in the file without moving your fingers
179 from the home keyboard row. Try using <c>h</c>,<c>j</c>,<c>k</c> and
180 <c>l</c> (and the arrow keys) to move around in the text file. Try
181 using <c>h</c> until you get to the beginning of a line. Notice that
182 vi doesn't allow you to "wrap around" to the previous line by hitting
183 <c>h</c> while you're on the first character. Likewise, you can't
184 "wrap around" to the next line by hitting <c>l</c> at the end of a
185 line.
186 </p>
187
188 </body>
189 </section>
190 <section>
191 <title>Moving in vi, part 2</title>
192 <body>
193
194 <p>
195 vi offers special shortcuts for jumping to the beginning or end of the
196 current line. You can press <c>0</c> (zero) to jump to the first
197 character of a line, and <c>$</c> to jump to the last character of the
198 line. Try 'em and see. Since vi has so many handy movement commands,
199 it makes a great "pager" (like the more or less commands.) Using vi
200 as a pager will also help you to learn all the movement commands very
201 quickly.
202 </p>
203
204 <p>
205 You can also use <c>&lt;CTR&gt;F</c> and <c>&lt;CTR&gt;B</c> to move
206 forwards and backwards a page at a time. Modern versions of vi (like
207 vim) will also allow you to use the <c>PGUP</c> and <c>PGDOWN</c> keys for this
208 purpose.
209 </p>
210
211 </body>
212 </section>
213 <section>
214 <title>Word moves, part 1</title>
215 <body>
216
217 <p>
218 vi also allows you to move to the left or right by word increments.
219 To move to the <e>first</e> character of the next word, press
220 <c>w</c>. To move to the <e>last</e> character of the next word,
221 press <c>e</c>. To move to the first character of the <e>previous</e>
222 word, press <c>b</c>. Test 'em out.
223 </p>
224
225 </body>
226 </section>
227 <section>
228 <title>Word moves, part 2</title>
229 <body>
230
231 <p>
232 After playing around with the word movement commands, you may have
233 noticed that vi considers words like <c>foo-bar-oni</c> as five separate
234 words! This is because by default, vi delimits words by spaces
235 <e>or</e> punctuation. <c>foo-bar-oni</c> is therefore considered five
236 words: <c>foo</c>, <c>-</c>, <c>bar</c>, <c>-</c> and <c>oni</c>.
237 </p>
238
239 <p>
240 Sometimes, this is what you want, and sometimes it isn't.
241 Fortunately, vi also understands the concept of a "bigword". vi
242 delimits bigwords by <e>spaces or newlines only</e>. This means that
243 while <c>foo-bar-oni</c> is considered five vi words, it's considered only
244 one vi bigword.
245 </p>
246
247 </body>
248 </section>
249 <section>
250 <title>Word moves, part 3</title>
251 <body>
252
253 <p>
254 To jump around to the next and previous bigword, you can use a
255 <e>capitalized</e> word move command. Use <c>W</c> to jump to the
256 first character of the next bigword, <c>E</c> to jump to the last
257 character of the next bigword, and <c>B</c> to jump to the first
258 character of the previous bigword. Test 'em out, and compare the
259 matching word and bigword movement commands until you understand their
260 differences.
261 </p>
262
263 </body>
264 </section>
265 <section>
266 <title>Bigger moves</title>
267 <body>
268
269 <p>
270 We just have a few more commands to cover before it's time to start
271 puting together our cheat sheet. You can use the <c>(</c> and
272 <c>)</c> characters to move to the beginning of the previous and next
273 sentence. In addition, you can hit <c>{</c> or <c>}</c> to jump to
274 the beginning of the current paragraph, and the beginning of the next.
275 Test 'em out.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </section>
280 </chapter>
281
282 <chapter>
283 <title>Quitting</title>
284 <section>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 We've covered the basic movement commands, but there are another
289 couple of commands that you need to know. Typing <c>:q</c> will quit
290 vi. If this doesn't work, then you probably accidentally modified the
291 file in some way. To tell vi to quit, throwing away any changes, type
292 <c>:q!</c>. You should now be at the command prompt.
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 In vi, any command that begins with a <c>:</c> is said to be an
297 <e>ex-mode</e> command. This is because vi has a built-in non-visual
298 editor called <e>ex</e>. It can be used similarly to sed to perform
299 line-based editing operations. In addition, it can also be used to
300 quit, as we've just seen. If you ever hit the <c>Q</c> key while in
301 command mode, you'll be transported to ex mode. If this ever happens
302 to you , you'll be confronted with a : prompt, and hitting enter will
303 scroll the entire screen upwards. To get back to good 'ol vi mode,
304 simply type vi and hit enter.
305 </p>
306
307 </body>
308 </section>
309 </chapter>
310
311 <chapter>
312 <title>The Cheat Sheet</title>
313 <section>
314 <title>The beginnings of the cheat sheet</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 We've covered a lot of commands, and it's time to transcribe them to
319 our cheat sheet. For the cheat sheet, you'll need a US letter or A4
320 sized piece of paper (we're going to pack a lot of info onto this
321 sheet!) Here's a picture of my cheat sheet after I've transcribed all
322 the commands that we've covered so far. Try to follow my layout if
323 possible so that we can fit everything on one sheet.
324 </p>
325
326 <figure
327 link="http://www.ibiblio.org/web-gentoo/images/vicheat-first.png"
328 short="First part of the cheat sheet" caption="Cheat Sheet"/>
329
330 </body>
331 </section>
332 <section>
333 <title>Miscellaneous vi</title>
334 <body>
335
336 <p>
337 Let's continue our rapid command-covering pace. In command-mode, you
338 can jump to a particularline by typing <c>G</c>. To jump to the first
339 line of a file, type <c>1G</c>. Note that <c>G</c> is capitalized.
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 If you want to jump to the next occurence of a particular text
344 pattern, type <c>/&lt;regexp&gt;</c> and hit <c>enter</c>. Replace
345 &lt;regexp&gt; with the regular expression you're looking for. If you
346 don't know how to use regular expressions, don't fret -- typing
347 <c>/foo</c> will move to the next occurence of <e>foo</e>. The only
348 thing you'll need to watch out for is when you want to refer to the
349 literal <c>^</c>, <c>.</c>, <c>$</c> or <c>\</c> characters. Prefix
350 these characters with a backslash (<c>\</c>), and you'll be set. For
351 example, <c>/foo\.gif</c> will search for the next occurence of
352 "foo.gif".
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 To repeat the search forwards, hit <c>n</c>. To repeat the search
357 backwards, type <c>N</c>. As always, test these commands out in your
358 very own vi editor. You can also type <c>//</c> to repeat the last
359 search.
360 </p>
361
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 </chapter>
365
366 <chapter>
367 <title>Saving and Editing</title>
368 <section>
369 <title>Save and save as...</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 We've covered how you can use the <e>ex</e> command <c>:q</c> to quit
374 from vi. If you want to save your changes, type <c>:w</c>. If you
375 want to save your changes to another file, type <c>:w filename.txt</c>
376 to save as <e>filename.txt</e>. If you want to save and quit, type
377 <c>:x</c> or <c>:wq</c>.
378 </p>
379
380 <p>
381 In vim (and other advanced vi editors, like elvis)<c>:w</c>, you can
382 have multiple buffers open at once. To open a file into a new window,
383 type <c>:sp filename.txt</c>. <path>filename.txt</path> will appear open
384 for editing in a new split window. To switch between windows, type
385 <c>&lt;CTR&gt;w&lt;CTR&gt;w</c> (control-w twice). Any <c>:q</c>,
386 <c>:q!</c>, <c>:w</c> and <c>:x</c> commands that you enter will only
387 be applied to the currently-active window.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392 <section>
393 <title>Simple edits</title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 Now, it's time to start learning some of the simple editing commands.
398 The commands that we'll cover here are considered <e>simple</e> because the
399 commands keep you in command mode. The more complex editing commands
400 automatically put you into insert mode -- a mode that allows you to
401 enter literal data from the keyboard. We'll cover those in a bit.
402 </p>
403
404 <p>
405 For now, try moving over some characters and hitting <c>x</c>
406 repeatedly. You'll see that <c>x</c> will delete the current
407 character under the cursor. Now, move to the middle of the paragraph
408 somewhere in your text file, and hit <c>J</c> (capitalized). You'll
409 see that the <c>J</c> command tells vi to join the next line to the
410 end of the current line. Now, move over a character and hit
411 <c>r</c>, and then type in a new character; you'll see that the
412 original character has been replaced. Finally, move to any line in
413 the file and type <c>dd</c>. You'll see that <c>dd</c> deletes the
414 current line of text.
415 </p>
416
417 </body>
418 </section>
419 <section>
420 <title>Repeating and deleting</title>
421 <body>
422
423 <p>
424 You can repeat any editing command by hitting the <c>.</c> key. If
425 you experiment, you'll see that typing <c>dd...</c> will delete 4
426 lines, and <c>J......</c> will join four lines. As usual, vi provides
427 with another handy shortcut.
428 </p>
429
430 <p>
431 To delete text, you can also use the <c>d</c> command combined with
432 any movement command. For example, <c>dw</c> will delete from the
433 current position to the beginning of the next word; <c>d)</c> will
434 delete up until the end of the next sentence, and <c>d}</c> will
435 delete the remainder of the paragraph. Experiment with the
436 <c>d</c> command and the other editing commands until you're
437 comfortable with them.
438 </p>
439
440 </body>
441 </section>
442 <section>
443 <title>Undo!</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <p>
447 Now that we're experimenting with deletion, it would be a good time to
448 learn how to undo any changes. By pressing <c>u</c>, the original
449 version of vi allowed you to undo the last edit only. However, modern
450 versions of vi like vim will allow you to repeatedly press <c>u</c> to
451 continue to undo changes to your file. Try combining some <c>d</c>
452 and <c>u</c> commands together.
453 </p>
454
455 </body>
456 </section>
457 <section>
458 <title>Updating the cheat sheet</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 Time to update the cheat sheet! After adding all the commands we've
463 covered so far, your cheat sheet should look like this:
464 </p>
465
466 <figure
467 link="http://www.ibiblio.org/web-gentoo/images/vicheat-edit.png"
468 short="Cheat sheet" caption="Cheat sheet with editing commands"/>
469
470 </body>
471 </section>
472 </chapter>
473
474 <chapter>
475 <title>Insert mode</title>
476 <section>
477 <body>
478
479 <p>
480 So far, we've covered how to move around in vi, perform file i/o, and
481 perform basic editing operations. However, I still haven't shown you
482 how to actually type in free-form text! This was intentional, because
483 vi's insert mode is a bit complicated at first. However, after you
484 become comfortable with insert mode, its complexity (and flexibility)
485 will become an asset.
486 </p>
487
488 <p>
489 In vi <e>insert mode</e>, you'll be able to enter text directly to the screen
490 just like you can in many other visual editors. Once you've entered
491 your modifications, you can hit escape to return to <e>command mode</e>. You
492 can enter insert mode by pressing <c>i</c> or <c>a</c>. If you press
493 <c>i</c>, your text will be <e>inserted</e> before the current
494 character, and if you hit <c>a</c>, your text will be <e>appended</e>
495 after the current character. Remember, after you enter your text, hit
496 <c>&lt;ESC&gt;</c> to return to command mode.
497 </p>
498
499 </body>
500 </section>
501 <section>
502 <title>Benefits of insert mode</title>
503 <body>
504
505 <p>
506 Go ahead and try using the <c>a</c> and <c>i</c> commands. Hit either
507 <c>a</c> or <c>i</c>, type some text, and then hit escape to get back
508 to command mode. After hitting <c>a</c> or <c>i</c>, try hitting
509 <c>&lt;ENTER&gt;</c>, and see what happens. Try using the arrow keys
510 and the <c>&lt;DEL&gt;</c> key to get a feel for how insert mode
511 works. By using the arrow keys and <c>&lt;DEL&gt;</c> key, you can
512 perform significant editing steps without repeatedly entering and
513 leaving insert mode.
514 </p>
515
516 </body>
517 </section>
518 <section>
519 <title>Insert options</title>
520 <body>
521
522 <p>
523 Here are some other handy ways to enter insert mode. Press <c>A</c>
524 (captial) to begin appending to the <e>end</e> of the current line,
525 regardless of your current position on the line. Likewise, press
526 <c>I</c> (capital) to begin inserting text at the <e>beginning</e> of
527 the current line. Press <c>o</c> to create a new blank line below the
528 current line into which you can insert text, and press <c>O</c>
529 (capital) to create a new line above the current line. To replace the
530 entire current line with a new line, press <c>cc</c>. To replace
531 everything from the current position to the end of the line, type
532 <c>c$</c>. To replace everything from the current position to the
533 beginning of the line, type <c>c0</c>.
534 </p>
535
536 <p>
537 In addition to performing a special operation, every one of these
538 commands will put you into insert mode. After typing in your text,
539 hit <c>&lt;ESC&gt;</c> to return to command mode.
540 </p>
541
542 </body>
543 </section>
544 <section>
545 <title>Changing text</title>
546 <body>
547
548 <p>
549 We've used the <c>c</c> (change) command a little bit so far when we
550 typed <c>cc</c>, <c>c0</c> and <c>c$</c>. <c>cc</c> is a special form
551 of the change command, similar to <c>dd</c>. the <c>c0</c> and
552 <c>c$</c> commands are examples of using the change command in
553 combination with a movement command. In this form, <c>c</c> works
554 similarly to <c>d</c>, except that it leaves you in insert mode so
555 that you can enter replacement text for the deleted region. Try
556 combining some movement commands with <c>c</c> and test them out on
557 your file (hint: <c>cW</c>, <c>ce</c>, <c>c(</c> .)
558 </p>
559
560 </body>
561 </section>
562 </chapter>
563
564 <chapter>
565 <title>Compound Commands</title>
566 <section>
567 <body>
568
569 <p>
570 vi <e>really</e> becomes powerful when you start using compound
571 ("combo") commands, like <c>d{</c> and <c>cw</c>. In addition to
572 these commands, you can also combine a number with any movement
573 command, such as <c>3w</c>, which will tell vi to jump three words to
574 the right. Here are some more movement "combo" command examples:
575 <c>12b</c>, <c>4j</c>.
576 </p>
577
578 <p>
579 vi, in addition to allowing (number)(movement command) combinations,
580 also allows <c>d</c> or <c>c</c> to be combined with a number or
581 movement command. So, <c>d3w</c> will delete the next three words,
582 <c>d2j</c> will delete the current and next two lines, etc. Test out
583 some <c>c</c> and <c>d</c> combo moves to get a feel for how powerful
584 and concise vi editing can be. Once these commands are second-nature,
585 you'll be able to edit files at blazing speed.
586 </p>
587
588 </body>
589 </section>
590 <section>
591 <title>Updating the cheat sheet</title>
592 <body>
593
594 <p>
595 Time to update the cheat sheet again. Here's what it looks like so
596 far:
597 </p>
598
599 <figure
600 link="http://www.ibiblio.org/web-gentoo/images/vicheat-compound.png"
601 short="Cheat Sheet" caption="Cheat sheet with compound commands"/>
602
603 </body>
604 </section>
605 <section>
606 <title>Productivity features</title>
607 <body>
608
609 <p>
610 So far, we've covered how to move, save and quit, perform simple edits
611 and deletions, and use insert mode. With everything listed on the
612 cheat sheet so far, you should be able to use vi to perform almost any
613 task.
614 </p>
615
616 <p>
617 However, vi also has many more powerful commands. In this section,
618 you'll learn how to <e>cut</e>, <e>copy</e> and <e>paste</e>,
619 <e>search</e> and <e>replace</e>, and use <e>autoindent</e> features.
620 These commands will help make vi more fun and productive.
621 </p>
622
623 </body>
624 </section>
625 <section>
626 <title>Visual mode</title>
627 <body>
628
629 <p>
630 The best way to cut and paste is to use <e>visual mode</e>, a special mode that
631 has been added to modern versions of vi, like vim and elvis. You can think
632 of visual mode as a "highlight text" mode. Once the text is highlighted,
633 it can be copied or deleted, and then pasted. If you are using gvim, you
634 can highlight by simply dragging the left mouse button over a particular
635 region:
636 </p>
637
638 <figure
639 link="http://www.ibiblio.org/web-gentoo/images/vihighlight.png"
640 short="Highlighted text" caption="VIM with highlighted text"/>
641
642 <p>
643 In addition, you can also enter visual mode by hitting <c>v</c> (this
644 may be your only option if you are using vi from the console.) Then,
645 by moving the cursor using movement commands (typically the arrow
646 keys), you'll be able to highlight a region of text. Once
647 highlighted, we are ready to cut or copy the text.
648 </p>
649
650 <p>
651 If you're copying the text, hit <c>y</c> (which stands for "yank").
652 If you're cutting the text, hit <c>d</c>. You'll be placed back in
653 command mode. Now, move to the position where you'd like to insert
654 the cut or copied text, and hit <c>P</c> to insert before the cursor,
655 or <c>p</c> to insert after the cursor. Voila, the cut/copy and
656 paste is complete! Test out several copy/cut and paste operations
657 before advancing to the next section.
658 </p>
659
660 </body>
661 </section>
662 <section>
663 <title>Replacing text</title>
664 <body>
665
666 <p>
667 To replace patterns of text, we use <e>ex</e> mode. If you'd like to
668 replace the first pattern that appears on the current line, type
669 <c>:s/&lt;regexp&gt;/&lt;replacement&gt;/</c> and hit
670 <c>&lt;ENTER&gt;</c>, where &lt;regexp&gt; is the pattern you'd like
671 to match and &lt;replacement&gt; is the replacement string. To
672 replace all matches on the current line, type
673 <c>:s/&lt;regexp&gt;/&lt;replacement&gt;/g</c> and hit enter. To
674 replace every occurence of this pattern in your file (normally what
675 you want), type <c>:%s/&lt;regexp&gt;/&lt;replacement&gt;/g</c>. If
676 you'd like to do a global replace, but have vi prompt you for each
677 change, type <c>:%s/&lt;regexp&gt;/&lt;replacement&gt;/gc</c> (stands
678 for "confirm") and hit <c>&lt;ENTER&gt;</c>.
679 </p>
680
681 </body>
682 </section>
683 <section>
684 <title>Indentation</title>
685 <body>
686
687 <p>
688 vi supports autoindentation, for when you are editing source code.
689 Most modern versions of vi (like vim) will auto-enable autoindent mode
690 when you are editing a source file (like a .c file, for example).
691 When autoindent is enabled, you can use <c>&lt;CTR&gt;d</c>
692 (control-d) to move one indent level to the left, and
693 <c>&lt;CTR&gt;t</c> (control-t) to move one indent level to the right.
694 If autoindent wasn't enabled automatically, you can manually enable it
695 by typing in the <e>ex</e> command <c>:set autoindent</c>. You can
696 also tell vi to set the tab size to your favorite setting by using the
697 <c>:set tabstop</c> command; <c>:set tabstop=4</c> is quite popular.
698 </p>
699
700 </body>
701 </section>
702 <section>
703 <title>Our final cheat sheet</title>
704 <body>
705
706 <p>
707 Well, we've reached the end of the vi tutorial! After adding all the
708 advanced editing commands to your cheat sheet, it should look like
709 this:
710 </p>
711
712 <figure
713 link="http://www.ibiblio.org/web-gentoo/images/vicheat-final.png"
714 short="Cheat Sheet" caption="Final cheet sheet"/>
715
716 <p>
717 Keep your cheat sheet handy, and begin using vi to edit files and
718 compose emails. Refer to the cheat sheet when needed; you'll find
719 that within the week, you'll have nearly all the commands memorized
720 and your vi productivity will shoot through the roof!
721 </p>
722
723 <p>
724 If you want to use vi as your default editor make the following change
725 to <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>:
726 </p>
727
728 <pre caption="Setting vi as the default editor">
729 <comment>(Set EDITOR to your preferred editor.)</comment>
730 #EDITOR="/bin/nano"
731 EDITOR="/usr/bin/vim"
732 #EDITOR="/usr/bin/emacs"
733 </pre>
734
735 </body>
736 </section>
737 <section>
738 <title>Resources</title>
739 <body>
740
741 <p>
742 Here are some resources you may find helpful as you continue to learn
743 more about vi:
744 </p>
745
746 <ul>
747 <li>
748 <uri link="http://www.thomer.com/thomer/vi/vi.html">The vi Lovers
749 Home Page</uri>, an excellent resource for all things vi
750 </li>
751 <li>
752 <uri link="http://www.vim.org/">The vim homepage</uri> is the place
753 to go for all your vim needs
754 </li>
755 <li>
756 If you're looking for a good, old-fashioned book, <uri
757 link="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/vi6/">Learning the vi Editor,
758 6th Edition</uri> would be an excellent choice. Contains good
759 coverage of vi and vi clones.
760 </li>
761 </ul>
762
763 </body>
764 </section>
765 <section>
766 <title>About this document</title>
767 <body>
768
769 <p>
770 The original version of this article was first published on IBM
771 developerWorks, and is property of Westtech Information Services. This
772 document is an updated version of the original article, and contains
773 various improvements made by the Gentoo Linux documentation team.
774 </p>
775
776 </body>
777 </section>
778 </chapter>
779 </guide>

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