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new guide on virt/mailhosts

1 zhen 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "dtd/guide.dtd">
3     <guide link =" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4    
5     <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
6     <author title="Author"><mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
7     <author title="Author"><mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com">Ezra Gorman</mail></author>
8     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9    
10     <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
11    
12     <version>1.1</version>
13    
14     <date>13 Jan 2003</date>
15    
16     <chapter>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19     <p>For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client implemented with fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
20    
21     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
22    
23     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
24    
25     <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p>
26    
27    
28     <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
29    
30     apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
31    
32     <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
33    
34     <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
35    
36     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
37    
38    
39     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary; this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
40     </body>
41    
42     </chapter>
43    
44     <chapter>
45     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
46     <body>
47     <pre caption="Install Postfix"># <c>emerge postfix</c></pre>
48    
49    
50     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
51    
52     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
53    
54     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
55     myhostname = $host.domain.name
56     mydomain = $domain.name
57     myorigin = $mydomain
58     inet_interfaces = all
59     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
60     relay_domains = $mydestination
61     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
62     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
63     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
64    
65    
66     <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
67    
68    
69     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
70     # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72     #
73     ==========================================================================
74     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75    
76     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77     </pre>
78    
79     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
80    
81    
82     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
83     # <c>/usr/bin/newaliases</c>
84    
85     <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
86     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
87    
88     # <c>/etc/init.d/postfix start</c>
89     </pre>
90    
91     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, and once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
92    
93    
94     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic Postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
95     </body>
96    
97     </chapter>
98    
99    
100     <chapter>
101     <title>Courier-imap</title>
102     <body>
103     <pre caption="Install courier-imap"># <c>emerge courier-imap</c></pre>
104    
105    
106     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
107     # <c>cd /etc/courier-imap</c>
108    
109     <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
110     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
111     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
112    
113     # <c>nano -w pop3d.cnf</c>
114     # <c>nano -w imapd.cnf</c>
115    
116     <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
117    
118     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
119     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
120     </pre>
121    
122     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
123     # <c>courier-imapd start</c>
124     # <c>courier-imapd-ssl start</c>
125     # <c>courier-pop3d start</c>
126     # <c>courier-pop3d-ssl start</c>
127     </pre>
128    
129     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
130    
131     </body>
132     </chapter>
133    
134     <chapter>
135     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
136     <body>
137     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
138    
139     <note>For some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
140    
141     <p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p>
142    
143    
144     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
145     # <c>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</c>
146     # <c>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</c>
147    
148     <codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
149    
150     econf \
151     --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
152     --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
153     --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
154     --with-openssl \
155     --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
156     --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
157     --with-des \
158     --with-rc4 \
159     --disable-krb4 \
160     --with-gnu-ld \
161     --enable-shared \
162     --disable-sample \
163     --enable-login \
164     --disable-cram \
165     --disable-digest \
166     ${myconf} || die "bad ./configure"
167    
168     # <c>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</c>
169    
170     <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
171     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
172     </pre>
173    
174     <p>Now check that the directory <path>/var/lib/sasl2</path> exists. If it wasn't installed you need to create it. If it's there, go ahead and start sasl.</p>
175    
176     <pre caption="Starting sasl">
177     # <c>mkdir /var/lib/sasl2 </c>
178    
179     <!--Ken, perhaps submit the above as a bug? The ebuild should take care of creating this dir. //zhen -->
180    
181     <codenote>If saslauthd can't find the dir it will spew errors at you and refuse to start.</codenote>
182    
183     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
184     </pre>
185     </body>
186     </chapter>
187    
188     <chapter>
189     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
190     <body>
191    
192     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
193    
194     <pre>
195     # <c>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</c>
196     # <c>nano -w openssl.cnf</c>
197    
198     <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
199    
200     countryName_default
201     stateOrProvinceName_default
202     localityName_default
203     0.organizationName_default
204     commonName_default
205     emailAddress_default.
206    
207     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
208    
209    
210     # <c>cd misc</c>
211     # <c>nano -w CA.pl</c>
212    
213     <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
214     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
215     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
216     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
217    
218     # create a certificate
219     system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
220    
221     # create a certificate request
222     system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
223    
224     # <c>./CA.pl -newca</c>
225     # <c>./CA.pl -newreq</c>
226     # <c>./CA.pl -sign</c>
227     # <c>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</c>
228     # <c>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</c>
229     # <c>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</c>
230    
231     <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
232    
233    
234     # <c>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</c>
235     # <c>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</c>
236     # <c>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</c>
237    
238     <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
239     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
240     </pre>
241     </body>
242     </chapter>
243    
244     <chapter>
245     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
246     <body>
247     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
248    
249     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
250     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</c>
251    
252     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
253     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
254     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
255     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
256     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
257    
258     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
259     <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
260     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
261     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
262    
263     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
264     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
265    
266     smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
267     permit_sasl_authenticated,
268     permit_mynetworks,
269     check_relay_domains,
270     permit
271    
272     smtpd_use_tls = yes
273     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
274     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
275     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
276     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
277     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
278     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
279     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
280     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
281    
282     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
283     <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
284    
285     # <c>postfix reload</c>
286     </pre>
287    
288     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
289    
290     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
291     # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
292    
293     Trying 127.0.0.1...
294     Connected to localhost.
295     Escape character is '^]'.
296     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
297     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
298     250-mail.domain.com
299     250-PIPELINING
300     250-SIZE 10240000
301     250-VRFY
302     250-ETRN
303     250-STARTTLS
304     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP
305     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP
306     250-XVERP
307     250 8BITMIME
308     <i>^]</i>
309     telnet> <i>quit</i>
310     </pre>
311    
312     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
313     </p>
314    
315     </body>
316     </chapter>
317    
318     <chapter>
319     <title>MySQL</title>
320     <body>
321    
322     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
323    
324     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
325     # <c>emerge mysql</c>
326    
327     # <c>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</c>
328    
329     <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
330     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
331     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
332    
333     # <c>/etc/init.d/mysql start</c>
334     # <c>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</c>
335     # <c>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</c>
336    
337     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
338     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
339     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
340     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
341     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
342    
343     -> <i>quit</i>
344    
345     <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
346    
347     # <c>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</c>
348     </pre>
349    
350     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
351     <ul>
352     <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
353     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
354     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
355     <li>users - all user account information</li>
356     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
357     </ul>
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="alias table sample">
361     id alias destination
362     1 root foo@bar.com
363     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
364     </pre>
365    
366     <pre caption="user table sample">
367     id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
368     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
369     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
370     </pre>
371    
372     <pre caption="transport table sample">
373     id domain destination
374     1 bar.com local:
375     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
376     </pre>
377    
378     <pre caption="virtual table sample">
379     id email destination
380     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
381     </pre>
382     </body>
383    
384     </chapter>
385    
386     <chapter>
387     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
388     <body>
389     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
390    
391     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
392     # <c>emerge apache php mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</c>
393     </pre>
394    
395     <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
396    
397     <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
398     <ul>
399     <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
400     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
401     </ul></p>
402    
403     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
404     # <c>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</c>
405     # <c>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</c>
406     # <c>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</c>
407    
408     <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
409    
410     ServerName host.domain.name
411     ServerAdmin your@email.address
412     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
413     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
414    
415     # <c>/etc/init.d/apache restart</c>
416     </pre>
417    
418     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
419    
420     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
421    
422     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
423     # <c>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</c>
424    
425     <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
426    
427     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
428     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
429     // (this user must have read-only
430     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
431     // and "mysql/db" tables)
432     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
433     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
434     </pre>
435    
436     <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
437     </body>
438     </chapter>
439    
440     <chapter>
441     <title>The vmail user</title>
442     <body>
443     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
444    
445     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
446     # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
447     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
448     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
449     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
450     # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
451     </pre>
452    
453     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
454     </body>
455     </chapter>
456    
457     <chapter>
458     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
462    
463     <pre>
464     # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
465    
466     <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
467     <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
468     <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
469    
470     # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</c>
471    
472     <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
473    
474     #auth required pam_nologin.so
475     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
476     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
477     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
478    
479     auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
480     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
481     account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
482     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
483    
484     # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</c>
485     # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</c>
486    
487     <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
488     </pre>
489    
490     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
491    
492     <pre>
493     # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</c>
494     authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
495    
496     # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</c>
497     AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
498    
499     # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</c>
500     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
501     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
502     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
503     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
504     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
505     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
506     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
507     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
508     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
509     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
510     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
511     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
512     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
513    
514     # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
515     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
516     </pre>
517    
518     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
519    
520     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
521     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</c>
522     # mysql-aliases.cf
523    
524     user = mailsql
525     password = $password
526     dbname = mailsql
527     table = alias
528     select_field = destination
529     where_field = alias
530     hosts = 127.0.0.1
531     </pre>
532    
533     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
534     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</c>
535     # mysql-relocated.cf
536    
537     user = mailsql
538     password = $password
539     dbname = mailsql
540     table = relocated
541     select_field = destination
542     where_field = email
543     hosts = 127.0.0.1
544     </pre>
545    
546     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf">
547     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</c>
548     # mysql-transport.cf
549    
550     user = mailsql
551     password = $password
552     dbname = mailsql
553     table = transport
554     select_field = destination
555     where_field = domain
556     hosts = 127.0.0.1
557     </pre>
558    
559     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf">
560     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</c>
561     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
562    
563     user = mailsql
564     password = $password
565     dbname = mailsql
566     table = users
567     select_field = gid
568     where_field = email
569     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
570     hosts = 127.0.0.1
571     </pre>
572    
573     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
574     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</c>
575     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
576    
577     user = mailsql
578     password = $password
579     dbname = mailsql
580     table = users
581     select_field = maildir
582     where_field = email
583     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
584     hosts = 127.0.0.1
585     </pre>
586    
587     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf">
588     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</c>
589     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
590    
591     user = mailsql
592     password = $password
593     dbname = mailsql
594     table = users
595     select_field = uid
596     where_field = email
597     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
598     hosts = 127.0.0.1
599     </pre>
600    
601     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
602     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</c>
603     # mysql-virtual.cf
604    
605     user = mailsql
606     password = $password
607     dbname = mailsql
608     table = virtual
609     select_field = destination
610     where_field = email
611     hosts = 127.0.0.1
612     </pre>
613    
614     <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
615    
616     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
617     # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</c>
618     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
619     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
620     transport_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf
621     virtual_gid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf
622     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
623     virtual_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
624     virtual_uid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf
625     virtual_mailbox_base = /
626     </pre>
627    
628     <p>Shew! Alright now, let's restart postfix and see how all that went.</p>
629    
630     <pre># <c>postfix reload</c></pre>
631    
632     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
633     </body>
634     </chapter>
635    
636     <chapter>
637     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
638     <body>
639     <pre>
640     # <c>emerge squirrelmail</c>
641    
642     <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
643    
644     # <c>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</c>
645     # <c>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</c>
646     # <c>./conf.pl</c>
647    
648     <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
649     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
650     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
651     </pre>
652     </body>
653    
654     </chapter>
655    
656     <chapter>
657     <title>Mailman</title>
658     <body>
659     <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package.</p>
660    
661     <pre>
662     # <c>emerge mailman</c>
663    
664     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
665     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
666     <codenote>in the README.gentoo</codenote>
667    
668     # <c>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo</c>
669    
670     <codenote>Follow the rest of the install instructions in the README.</codenote>
671     <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
672    
673     # <c>su mailman</c>
674     # <c>cd ~</c>
675     # <c>bin/newlist $listname</c>
676    
677     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
678     Initial test password:
679     Entry for aliases file:
680    
681     ## test mailing list
682     ## created: 10-Jan-2003 root
683     $listname: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper post $listname"
684     $listname-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper mailowner $listname"
685     $listname-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper mailcmd $listname"
686     $listname-owner: $listname-admin
687    
688     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
689     </pre>
690    
691     <p>Add those aliases to the alias table in mailsql. You'll be tempted to add colons to the alias names in mailsql (because that's how the script gives them to you) DON'T DO IT! It won't work if you do. You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. When you log in to the mailman admin page for your new list, at the bottom of the general options page there is a space to declare what domain the list belongs to. With that selection you can add lists for any virtual domain you are hosting. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
692     </body>
693     </chapter>
694    
695     <chapter>
696     <title>Wrap Up</title>
697     <body>
698    
699     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
700    
701     <pre caption="Wrap up">
702     # <c>postfix reload</c>
703     # <c>rc-update add $service default</c>
704     </pre>
705    
706     <p><e>Have fun!</e></p>
707     </body>
708     </chapter>
709    
710     <chapter>
711     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
712     <section>
713     <title>Introduction</title>
714     <body>
715     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
716     </body>
717     </section>
718     <section>
719     <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
720     <body>
721     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
722    
723     <pre>
724     # <c>/etc/init.d/service restart</c>
725     </pre>
726     </body>
727     </section>
728     <section>
729    
730     <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
731     <body>
732     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
733    
734     <pre>
735     # <c>/etc/init.d/$service status</c>
736     # <c>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</c>
737     </pre>
738     </body>
739     </section>
740     <section>
741     <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
742     <body>
743    
744     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
745    
746     <pre>
747     # <c>apachectl fullstatus</c> (needs lynx installed)
748     # <c>apachectl configtest</c> (checks config sanity)
749     # <c>postconf -n</c> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
750     # <c>/etc/init.d/$service restart</c>
751     </pre>
752     </body>
753     </section>
754     <section>
755     <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
756     <body>
757     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
758    
759     <pre>
760     # <c>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</c>(to turn off metalog buffering)
761     # <c>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</c>
762     # <c>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</c>
763     # <c>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</c>
764     </pre>
765     </body>
766    
767     </section>
768     <section>
769     <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
770     <body>
771     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
772    
773     <pre>
774     # <c>telnet localhost $port</c>
775    
776     <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
777     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
778    
779     Trying 127.0.0.1...
780     Connected to localhost.
781     Escape character is '^]'.
782     * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information.
783     </pre>
784     </body>
785     </section>
786     <section>
787     <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
788    
789     <body>
790     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
791    
792     <pre>
793     # <c>emerge strace</c>
794     # <c>strace $command</c>
795     # <c>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</c>
796     </pre>
797     </body>
798     </section>
799     <section>
800     <title>Step 7: Research</title>
801     <body>
802     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
803    
804     <p>
805     <ul>
806     <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
807     <li><uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
808     <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
809     <li><uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
810     <li><uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
811     <li><uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
812     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
813     </ul>
814     </p>
815    
816     </body>
817     </section>
818    
819     </chapter>
820    
821     </guide>

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