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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 klieber 1.4 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4 zhen 1.1 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
6 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7 zhen 1.3 </author>
8     <author title="Author" >
9 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10 zhen 1.3 </author>
11 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12 zhen 1.3 <version>1.0</version>
13 swift 1.8 <date>30 April 2003</date>
14 zhen 1.3 <!--
15    
16     Contents
17    
18     I. Introduction
19     II. Postfix Basics
20     III. Courier-imap
21     IV. Cyrus-sasl
22     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24     VII. MySQL
25     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26     IX. The vmail user
27     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28     XI. Squirrelmail
29     XII. Mailman
30     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31     XIV. Wrap Up
32     XV. Troubleshooting
33 zhen 1.1
34 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
35 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
36 zhen 1.3 <body>
37     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
38     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 zhen 1.1
43     apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44 zhen 1.3 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
47 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
48     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
49     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
50     </body>
51 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
52     <chapter>
53     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
54 zhen 1.3 <body>
55     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
56     </pre>
57     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
58     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
59     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
60 zhen 1.1 myhostname = $host.domain.name
61     mydomain = $domain.name
62     inet_interfaces = all
63     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
64     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
65 zhen 1.3 home_mailbox = .maildir/
66 zhen 1.1 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
67     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
68 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
69     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
70 zhen 1.1 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72     #
73     ==========================================================================
74     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75    
76     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77 zhen 1.3 </pre>
78     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
79     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
80     # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81     <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
82     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
83    
84     # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85     </pre>
86     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
87     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
88     </body>
89 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
90     <chapter>
91     <title>Courier-imap</title>
92 zhen 1.3 <body>
93     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
94     </pre>
95     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
96     # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97     <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
98     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
99     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
100    
101     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103     <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
104 zhen 1.1
105     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107 zhen 1.3 </pre>
108     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
109     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113     </pre>
114     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
115     </body>
116 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
117     <chapter>
118     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
119 zhen 1.3 <body>
120     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
121     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
122     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123     # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124     <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126     </pre>
127 antifa 1.10 <p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
128 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
129 antifa 1.11 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
130 zhen 1.3 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131 antifa 1.9 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
132     <codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
133     <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
134 zhen 1.1 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135 zhen 1.3 </pre>
136     </body>
137 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
138     <chapter>
139     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
140 zhen 1.3 <body>
141     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
142     <pre>
143 antifa 1.6 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
145     <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
146 zhen 1.1
147     countryName_default
148     stateOrProvinceName_default
149     localityName_default
150     0.organizationName_default
151     commonName_default
152     emailAddress_default.
153    
154     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
155    
156    
157 zhen 1.3 # <i>cd misc</i>
158     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
159     <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
163 zhen 1.1
164     # create a certificate
165 zhen 1.3 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166 zhen 1.1
167     # create a certificate request
168 zhen 1.3 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169 zhen 1.1
170 zhen 1.3 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176     <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
177    
178    
179     # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
180     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
181     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
182     <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
183     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
184     </pre>
185     </body>
186 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
187     <chapter>
188     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
189 zhen 1.3 <body>
190     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
191     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
192     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
193 zhen 1.1
194     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
195     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
196     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
197     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
198     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
199    
200     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
201 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
202     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
203     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
204     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
205     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
206 zhen 1.1
207     smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
208     permit_sasl_authenticated,
209     permit_mynetworks,
210 antifa 1.5 reject_unauth_destination
211 zhen 1.3
212 zhen 1.1
213     smtpd_use_tls = yes
214     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
215     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
216     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
217     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
218     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
219     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
220     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
221     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
222    
223     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
224 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
225 zhen 1.1
226 zhen 1.3 # <i>postfix reload</i>
227     </pre>
228     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
229     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
230 zhen 1.1 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
231    
232     Trying 127.0.0.1...
233     Connected to localhost.
234     Escape character is '^]'.
235     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
236     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
237     250-mail.domain.com
238     250-PIPELINING
239     250-SIZE 10240000
240     250-VRFY
241     250-ETRN
242     250-STARTTLS
243 antifa 1.9 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
244     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
245 zhen 1.1 250-XVERP
246     250 8BITMIME
247     <i>^]</i>
248     telnet> <i>quit</i>
249 zhen 1.3 </pre>
250     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
251 zhen 1.1 </p>
252 zhen 1.3 </body>
253 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
254     <chapter>
255     <title>MySQL</title>
256 zhen 1.3 <body>
257     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
258     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
259     # <i>emerge mysql</i>
260    
261 antifa 1.10 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
262 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
263     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
264     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
265    
266     # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
267     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
268 antifa 1.10 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
269 zhen 1.1
270     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
271     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
272     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
273     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
274     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
275    
276     -> <i>quit</i>
277 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
278 zhen 1.1
279 zhen 1.3 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
280     </pre>
281     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
282 zhen 1.1 <ul>
283 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
284     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
285     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
286     <li>users - all user account information</li>
287     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
288     </ul>
289     </p>
290     <pre caption="alias table sample" >
291 zhen 1.1 id alias destination
292     1 root foo@bar.com
293     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
294     </pre>
295 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
296 zhen 1.1 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
297     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
298     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
299     </pre>
300 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
301 zhen 1.1 id domain destination
302     1 bar.com local:
303     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
304     </pre>
305 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
306 zhen 1.1 id email destination
307     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
308     </pre>
309 zhen 1.3 </body>
310 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
311     <chapter>
312     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
313 zhen 1.3 <body>
314     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
315     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
316     # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i>
317     </pre>
318     <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
319     <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
320 zhen 1.1 <ul>
321 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
322     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
323     </ul>
324     </p>
325     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
326 antifa 1.11 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
328 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
329     <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
330 zhen 1.1
331     ServerName host.domain.name
332     ServerAdmin your@email.address
333     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
334     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
335    
336 zhen 1.3 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
337     </pre>
338     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
339     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
340     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
341     # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
342     <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
343 zhen 1.1
344     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
345     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
346     // (this user must have read-only
347 zhen 1.3 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
348     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
349 zhen 1.1 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
350     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
351     </pre>
352 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
353     </body>
354 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
355     <chapter>
356     <title>The vmail user</title>
357 zhen 1.3 <body>
358     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
359     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
360 zhen 1.1 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
361     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
362     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
363     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
364     # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
365 zhen 1.3 </pre>
366     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
367     </body>
368 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
369     <chapter>
370     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
371 zhen 1.3 <body>
372     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
373     <pre>
374 zhen 1.1 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
375 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
376     <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
377     <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
378 zhen 1.1
379 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
380     <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
381 zhen 1.1
382     #auth required pam_nologin.so
383     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386    
387     auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
388     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
389     account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
390     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
391    
392 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
393     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
394     <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
395     </pre>
396     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
397     <pre>
398     # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
399     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
400 zhen 1.1
401 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
402     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
403 zhen 1.1
404 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
405 zhen 1.1 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
406     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
407     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
408     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
409     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
410     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
411     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
412     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
413     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
414     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
415     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
416     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
417     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
418    
419     # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
420     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
421 zhen 1.3 </pre>
422     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
423     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
424     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
425 zhen 1.1 # mysql-aliases.cf
426    
427     user = mailsql
428     password = $password
429     dbname = mailsql
430     table = alias
431     select_field = destination
432     where_field = alias
433 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
434 zhen 1.1 </pre>
435 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
436     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
437 zhen 1.1 # mysql-relocated.cf
438    
439     user = mailsql
440     password = $password
441     dbname = mailsql
442     table = relocated
443     select_field = destination
444     where_field = email
445 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
446 zhen 1.1 </pre>
447 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
448     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
449 zhen 1.1 # mysql-transport.cf
450    
451     user = mailsql
452     password = $password
453     dbname = mailsql
454     table = transport
455     select_field = destination
456     where_field = domain
457 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
458 zhen 1.1 </pre>
459 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
460     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
461 zhen 1.1 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
462    
463     user = mailsql
464     password = $password
465     dbname = mailsql
466     table = users
467     select_field = gid
468     where_field = email
469     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
470 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
471 zhen 1.1 </pre>
472 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
473     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
474 zhen 1.1 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
475    
476     user = mailsql
477     password = $password
478     dbname = mailsql
479     table = users
480     select_field = maildir
481     where_field = email
482     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
483 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
484 zhen 1.1 </pre>
485 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
486     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
487 zhen 1.1 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
488    
489     user = mailsql
490     password = $password
491     dbname = mailsql
492     table = users
493     select_field = uid
494     where_field = email
495     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
496 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
497 zhen 1.1 </pre>
498 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
499     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
500 zhen 1.1 # mysql-virtual.cf
501    
502     user = mailsql
503     password = $password
504     dbname = mailsql
505     table = virtual
506     select_field = destination
507     where_field = email
508 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
509 zhen 1.1 </pre>
510 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
511     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
512     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
513     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
514     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
515    
516     local_transport = local
517     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
518 zhen 1.1
519 zhen 1.3 virtual_transport = virtual
520     virtual_mailbox_domains =
521     virt-bar.com,
522     $other-virtual-domain.com
523 zhen 1.1
524 zhen 1.3 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
525 antifa 1.5 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
526 zhen 1.1 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
527 zhen 1.3 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
528 antifa 1.5 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
529 zhen 1.1 virtual_mailbox_base = /
530 zhen 1.3 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
531 zhen 1.1 </pre>
532 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
533     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
534     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
535     </pre>
536     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
537     </body>
538 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
539     <chapter>
540     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
541 zhen 1.3 <body>
542     <pre>
543     # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
544     <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
545    
546     # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
547     # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
548     # <i>./conf.pl</i>
549     <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
550     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
551     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
552     </pre>
553     </body>
554 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
555     <chapter>
556     <title>Mailman</title>
557 zhen 1.3 <body>
558 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
559 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
560 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
561     # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
562     MAILGID="280"
563     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
564     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
565     </pre>
566     <pre>
567     # <i>emerge mailman</i>
568 antifa 1.13 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
569     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
570     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
571     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
572 zhen 1.3
573 swift 1.8 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
574 zhen 1.3 </pre>
575 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
576     # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
577 antifa 1.13 <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
578 antifa 1.12 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
579     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
580     </pre>
581 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
582     # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
583     MTA = "Postfix"
584     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
585     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
586     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
587     <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
588     </pre>
589     <pre>
590 antifa 1.13 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
591 zhen 1.3
592     # <i>su mailman</i>
593     # <i>cd ~</i>
594     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
595 zhen 1.1 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
596     Initial test password:
597     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
598 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
599     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
600     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
601     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
602     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
603    
604     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
605     # STANZA START: test
606     # CREATED:
607     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
608     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
609     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
610     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
611     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
612     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
613     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
614     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
615     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
616     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
617     # STANZA END: test
618    
619     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
620     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
621     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
622     </pre>
623    
624     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
625     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
626     owner_request_special = no
627     recipient_delimiter = +
628     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
629    
630     alias_maps =
631     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
632     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
633    
634     virtual_alias_maps =
635     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
636     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
637     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
638     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
639 antifa 1.13 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
640     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
641 antifa 1.12 <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
642 zhen 1.3 </pre>
643     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
644     </body>
645     </chapter>
646     <chapter>
647     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
648 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
649 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
650     <chapter>
651     <title>Wrap Up</title>
652 zhen 1.3 <body>
653     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
654     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
655     # <i>postfix reload</i>
656     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
657     </pre>
658     <p>
659     <e>Have fun!</e>
660     </p>
661     </body>
662 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
663     <chapter>
664     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
665     <section>
666 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
667     <body>
668     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
669     </body>
670 zhen 1.1 </section>
671     <section>
672 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
673     <body>
674     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
675     <pre>
676     # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
677     </pre>
678     </body>
679 zhen 1.1 </section>
680     <section>
681 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
682     <body>
683     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
684     <pre>
685     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
686     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
687     </pre>
688     </body>
689 zhen 1.1 </section>
690     <section>
691 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
692     <body>
693     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
694     <pre>
695     # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
696     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
697     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
698     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
699     </pre>
700     </body>
701 zhen 1.1 </section>
702     <section>
703 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
704     <body>
705     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
706     <pre>
707     # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
708     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
709     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
710     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
711     </pre>
712     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
713     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
714     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
715     debug_peer_level = 5
716     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
717     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
718     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
719     </pre>
720     </body>
721 zhen 1.1 </section>
722     <section>
723 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
724     <body>
725     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
726     <pre>
727     # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
728     <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
729     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
730 zhen 1.1
731     Trying 127.0.0.1...
732     Connected to localhost.
733     Escape character is '^]'.
734     * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information.
735     </pre>
736 zhen 1.3 </body>
737 zhen 1.1 </section>
738     <section>
739 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
740     <body>
741     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
742     <pre>
743     # <i>emerge strace</i>
744     # <i>strace $command</i>
745     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
746     </pre>
747     </body>
748 zhen 1.1 </section>
749     <section>
750 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
751     <body>
752     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
753     <p>
754     <ul>
755     <li>
756     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
757     <li>
758     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
759     <li>
760     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
761     <li>
762     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
763     <li>
764     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
765     <li>
766     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
767     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
768     </ul>
769     </p>
770     </body>
771 zhen 1.1 </section>
772     </chapter>
773     </guide>

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