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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 klieber 1.4 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4 zhen 1.1 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
6 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7 zhen 1.3 </author>
8     <author title="Author" >
9 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10 zhen 1.3 </author>
11 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12 rajiv 1.14 <version>1.0.1</version>
13     <date>7 Aug 2003</date>
14 zhen 1.3 <!--
15    
16     Contents
17    
18     I. Introduction
19     II. Postfix Basics
20     III. Courier-imap
21     IV. Cyrus-sasl
22     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24     VII. MySQL
25     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26     IX. The vmail user
27     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28     XI. Squirrelmail
29     XII. Mailman
30     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31     XIV. Wrap Up
32     XV. Troubleshooting
33 zhen 1.1
34 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
35 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
36 zhen 1.3 <body>
37     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
38     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 zhen 1.1
43     apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44 zhen 1.3 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
47 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
48     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
49     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
50     </body>
51 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
52     <chapter>
53     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
54 zhen 1.3 <body>
55     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
56     </pre>
57     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
58     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
59     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
60 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
61     mydomain = $domain.name
62     inet_interfaces = all
63     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
64     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
65     home_mailbox = .maildir/
66     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
67     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
68 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
69     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
70 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72     #
73     ==========================================================================
74     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75    
76     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77 zhen 1.3 </pre>
78     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
79     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
80 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
82     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
83    
84 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85 zhen 1.3 </pre>
86     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
87     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
88     </body>
89 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
90     <chapter>
91     <title>Courier-imap</title>
92 zhen 1.3 <body>
93     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
94     </pre>
95     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
96 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
98     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
99     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
100 rajiv 1.14
101     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
104 rajiv 1.14
105     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107 zhen 1.3 </pre>
108     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
109 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113 zhen 1.3 </pre>
114     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
115     </body>
116 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
117     <chapter>
118     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
119 zhen 1.3 <body>
120     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
121     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
122     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123 rajiv 1.14 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126     </pre>
127 antifa 1.10 <p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
128 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
129 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
130     pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
132 antifa 1.9 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
133     <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
134 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135 zhen 1.3 </pre>
136     </body>
137 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
138     <chapter>
139     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
140 zhen 1.3 <body>
141     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
142     <pre>
143 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
145    
146 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
147 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
148     stateOrProvinceName_default
149     localityName_default
150     0.organizationName_default
151     commonName_default
152     emailAddress_default.
153    
154     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
155    
156 zhen 1.1
157 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
158     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
159 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
163 rajiv 1.14
164     # create a certificate
165     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166    
167     # create a certificate request
168     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169 zhen 1.1
170 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
177    
178 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
182     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
183     </pre>
184     </body>
185 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
186     <chapter>
187     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
188 zhen 1.3 <body>
189     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
190     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
191 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192    
193     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198    
199     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
200 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
201     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
202     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
203     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
204     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
205 zhen 1.1
206 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207     permit_sasl_authenticated,
208     permit_mynetworks,
209     reject_unauth_destination
210    
211    
212     smtpd_use_tls = yes
213     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221    
222     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
223 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
224 rajiv 1.14
225     # <i>postfix reload</i>
226 zhen 1.3 </pre>
227     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
228     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
229 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 zhen 1.1
231 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
232     Connected to localhost.
233     Escape character is '^]'.
234     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236     250-mail.domain.com
237     250-PIPELINING
238     250-SIZE 10240000
239     250-VRFY
240     250-ETRN
241     250-STARTTLS
242     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244     250-XVERP
245     250 8BITMIME
246     <i>^]</i>
247     telnet> <i>quit</i>
248 zhen 1.3 </pre>
249     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
250 zhen 1.1 </p>
251 zhen 1.3 </body>
252 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
253     <chapter>
254     <title>MySQL</title>
255 zhen 1.3 <body>
256     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
257     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
258 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 zhen 1.3
260 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
262     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
263     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
264 zhen 1.1
265 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268    
269     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
274    
275     -> <i>quit</i>
276 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
277 rajiv 1.14
278     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279 zhen 1.3 </pre>
280     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
281 zhen 1.1 <ul>
282 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
284     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
285     <li>users - all user account information</li>
286     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287     </ul>
288     </p>
289     <pre caption="alias table sample" >
290 rajiv 1.14 id alias destination
291     1 root foo@bar.com
292     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
293     </pre>
294 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
295 rajiv 1.14 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
296     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
297     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
298     </pre>
299 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
300 rajiv 1.14 id domain destination
301     1 bar.com local:
302     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
303     </pre>
304 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
305 rajiv 1.14 id email destination
306     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
307     </pre>
308 zhen 1.3 </body>
309 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
310     <chapter>
311     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
312 zhen 1.3 <body>
313     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
314     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
315 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i>
316 zhen 1.3 </pre>
317     <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
318     <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
319 zhen 1.1 <ul>
320 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
321     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
322     </ul>
323     </p>
324     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
325 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
326     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
328 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
329 rajiv 1.14
330     ServerName host.domain.name
331     ServerAdmin your@email.address
332     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
333     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
334    
335     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
336 zhen 1.3 </pre>
337     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
338     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
339     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
340 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
341 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
342 rajiv 1.14
343     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
344     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
345     // (this user must have read-only
346     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
347     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
348     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
349     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
350     </pre>
351 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
352     </body>
353 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
354     <chapter>
355     <title>The vmail user</title>
356 zhen 1.3 <body>
357     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
358     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
359 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
360     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
361     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
362     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
363     # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
364 zhen 1.3 </pre>
365     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
366     </body>
367 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
368     <chapter>
369     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
370 zhen 1.3 <body>
371     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
372     <pre>
373 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
374 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
375     <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
376     <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
377 zhen 1.1
378 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
379 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
380 zhen 1.1
381 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
382     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
383     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385    
386     auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
387     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
388     account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390 zhen 1.1
391 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
392     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
393 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
394     </pre>
395     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
396     <pre>
397 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
398     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
399 zhen 1.1
400 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
401     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
402 zhen 1.1
403 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
404     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
405     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
406     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
407     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
408     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
409     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
410     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
411     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
412     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
413     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
414     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
415     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
416     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
417 zhen 1.1
418 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
419     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
420 zhen 1.3 </pre>
421     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
422     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
423 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
424     # mysql-aliases.cf
425 zhen 1.1
426 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
427     password = $password
428     dbname = mailsql
429     table = alias
430     select_field = destination
431     where_field = alias
432     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
433     </pre>
434 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
435 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
436     # mysql-relocated.cf
437 zhen 1.1
438 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
439     password = $password
440     dbname = mailsql
441     table = relocated
442     select_field = destination
443     where_field = email
444     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
445     </pre>
446 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
447 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
448     # mysql-transport.cf
449 zhen 1.1
450 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
451     password = $password
452     dbname = mailsql
453     table = transport
454     select_field = destination
455     where_field = domain
456     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
457     </pre>
458 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
459 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
460     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
461 zhen 1.1
462 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
463     password = $password
464     dbname = mailsql
465     table = users
466     select_field = gid
467     where_field = email
468     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
469     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470     </pre>
471 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
472 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
473     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
474 zhen 1.1
475 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
476     password = $password
477     dbname = mailsql
478     table = users
479     select_field = maildir
480     where_field = email
481     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
482     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
483     </pre>
484 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
485 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
486     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
487 zhen 1.1
488 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
489     password = $password
490     dbname = mailsql
491     table = users
492     select_field = uid
493     where_field = email
494     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
495     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496     </pre>
497 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
498 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
499     # mysql-virtual.cf
500 zhen 1.1
501 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
502     password = $password
503     dbname = mailsql
504     table = virtual
505     select_field = destination
506     where_field = email
507     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508     </pre>
509 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
510     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
511 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
512     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
513     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
514    
515     local_transport = local
516     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
517    
518     virtual_transport = virtual
519     virtual_mailbox_domains =
520     virt-bar.com,
521     $other-virtual-domain.com
522    
523     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
524     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
525     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
526     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
527     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
528     virtual_mailbox_base = /
529     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
530     </pre>
531 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
532     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
533     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
534     </pre>
535     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
536     </body>
537 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
538     <chapter>
539     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
540 zhen 1.3 <body>
541     <pre>
542 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
543 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
544    
545 rajiv 1.14 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
546     # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
547     # <i>./conf.pl</i>
548 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
549     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
550     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
551     </pre>
552     </body>
553 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
554     <chapter>
555     <title>Mailman</title>
556 zhen 1.3 <body>
557 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
558 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
559 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
560 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
561     MAILGID="280"
562     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
563     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
564 zhen 1.3 </pre>
565     <pre>
566 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
567     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
568     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
569     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
570     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
571 zhen 1.3
572 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
573 zhen 1.3 </pre>
574 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
575 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
576     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
577     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
578     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
579 antifa 1.12 </pre>
580 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
581 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
582     MTA = "Postfix"
583     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
584     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
585     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
586 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
587     </pre>
588     <pre>
589 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
590 zhen 1.3
591 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
592     # <i>cd ~</i>
593     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
594     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
595     Initial test password:
596     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
597     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
598     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
599     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
600     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
601     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
602    
603     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
604     # STANZA START: test
605     # CREATED:
606     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
607     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
608     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
609     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
610     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
611     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
612     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
613     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
614     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
615     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
616     # STANZA END: test
617    
618     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
619     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
620     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
621 zhen 1.3 </pre>
622    
623     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
624 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
625     owner_request_special = no
626     recipient_delimiter = +
627     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
628    
629     alias_maps =
630     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
631     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
632    
633     virtual_alias_maps =
634     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
635     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
636     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
637     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
638     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
639     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
640     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
641 zhen 1.3 </pre>
642     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
643     </body>
644     </chapter>
645     <chapter>
646     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
647 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
648 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
649     <chapter>
650     <title>Wrap Up</title>
651 zhen 1.3 <body>
652     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
653     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
654 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
655     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
656 zhen 1.3 </pre>
657     <p>
658     <e>Have fun!</e>
659     </p>
660     </body>
661 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
662     <chapter>
663     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
664     <section>
665 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
666     <body>
667     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
668     </body>
669 zhen 1.1 </section>
670     <section>
671 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
672     <body>
673     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
674     <pre>
675 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
676 zhen 1.3 </pre>
677     </body>
678 zhen 1.1 </section>
679     <section>
680 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
681     <body>
682     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
683     <pre>
684 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
685     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
686 zhen 1.3 </pre>
687     </body>
688 zhen 1.1 </section>
689     <section>
690 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
691     <body>
692     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
693     <pre>
694 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
695     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
696     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
697     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
698 zhen 1.3 </pre>
699     </body>
700 zhen 1.1 </section>
701     <section>
702 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
703     <body>
704     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
705     <pre>
706 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
707     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
708     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
709     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
710 zhen 1.3 </pre>
711     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
712     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
713 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
714     debug_peer_level = 5
715     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
716     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
717     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
718 zhen 1.3 </pre>
719     </body>
720 zhen 1.1 </section>
721     <section>
722 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
723     <body>
724     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
725     <pre>
726 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
727 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
728     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
729 zhen 1.1
730 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
731     Connected to localhost.
732     Escape character is '^]'.
733     * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information.
734     </pre>
735 zhen 1.3 </body>
736 zhen 1.1 </section>
737     <section>
738 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
739     <body>
740     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
741     <pre>
742 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
743     # <i>strace $command</i>
744     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
745 zhen 1.3 </pre>
746     </body>
747 zhen 1.1 </section>
748     <section>
749 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
750     <body>
751     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
752     <p>
753     <ul>
754     <li>
755     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
756     <li>
757     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
758     <li>
759     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
760     <li>
761     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
762     <li>
763     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
764     <li>
765     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
766     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
767     </ul>
768     </p>
769     </body>
770 zhen 1.1 </section>
771     </chapter>
772     </guide>

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