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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 klieber 1.4 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4 zhen 1.1 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
6 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7 zhen 1.3 </author>
8     <author title="Author" >
9 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10 zhen 1.3 </author>
11 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12 rajiv 1.15 <version>1.0.2</version>
13 rajiv 1.14 <date>7 Aug 2003</date>
14 zhen 1.3 <!--
15    
16     Contents
17    
18     I. Introduction
19     II. Postfix Basics
20     III. Courier-imap
21     IV. Cyrus-sasl
22     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24     VII. MySQL
25     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26     IX. The vmail user
27     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28     XI. Squirrelmail
29     XII. Mailman
30     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31     XIV. Wrap Up
32     XV. Troubleshooting
33 zhen 1.1
34 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
35 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
36 zhen 1.3 <body>
37     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
38     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 zhen 1.1
43     apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44 zhen 1.3 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
47 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
48     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
49     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
50     </body>
51 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
52     <chapter>
53     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
54 zhen 1.3 <body>
55     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
56     </pre>
57     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
58     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
59     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
60 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
61     mydomain = $domain.name
62     inet_interfaces = all
63     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
64     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
65     home_mailbox = .maildir/
66     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
67     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
68 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
69     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
70 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72     #
73     ==========================================================================
74     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75    
76     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77 zhen 1.3 </pre>
78     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
79     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
80 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
82     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
83    
84 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85 zhen 1.3 </pre>
86     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
87     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
88     </body>
89 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
90     <chapter>
91     <title>Courier-imap</title>
92 zhen 1.3 <body>
93     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
94     </pre>
95     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
96 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
98     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
99     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
100 rajiv 1.14
101     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
104 rajiv 1.14
105     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107 zhen 1.3 </pre>
108     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
109 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113 zhen 1.3 </pre>
114     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
115     </body>
116 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
117     <chapter>
118     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
119 zhen 1.3 <body>
120     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
121     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
122     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123 rajiv 1.14 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126     </pre>
127 antifa 1.10 <p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
128 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
129 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
130     pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
132 antifa 1.9 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
133     <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
134 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135 zhen 1.3 </pre>
136     </body>
137 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
138     <chapter>
139     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
140 zhen 1.3 <body>
141     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
142     <pre>
143 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
145    
146 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
147 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
148     stateOrProvinceName_default
149     localityName_default
150     0.organizationName_default
151     commonName_default
152     emailAddress_default.
153    
154     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
155    
156 zhen 1.1
157 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
158     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
159 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
163 rajiv 1.14
164     # create a certificate
165     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166    
167     # create a certificate request
168     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169 zhen 1.1
170 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
177    
178 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
179     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
180     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
181 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
182     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
183     </pre>
184     </body>
185 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
186     <chapter>
187     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
188 zhen 1.3 <body>
189     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
190     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
191 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
192    
193     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
194     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
195     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
196     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
197     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
198    
199     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
200 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
201     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
202     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
203     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
204     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
205 zhen 1.1
206 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
207     permit_sasl_authenticated,
208     permit_mynetworks,
209     reject_unauth_destination
210    
211    
212     smtpd_use_tls = yes
213     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
214     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
215     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
216     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
217     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
218     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
219     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
220     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
221    
222     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
223 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
224 rajiv 1.14
225     # <i>postfix reload</i>
226 zhen 1.3 </pre>
227     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
228     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
229 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
230 zhen 1.1
231 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
232     Connected to localhost.
233     Escape character is '^]'.
234     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
235     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
236     250-mail.domain.com
237     250-PIPELINING
238     250-SIZE 10240000
239     250-VRFY
240     250-ETRN
241     250-STARTTLS
242     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
243     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
244     250-XVERP
245     250 8BITMIME
246     <i>^]</i>
247     telnet> <i>quit</i>
248 zhen 1.3 </pre>
249     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
250 zhen 1.1 </p>
251 zhen 1.3 </body>
252 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
253     <chapter>
254     <title>MySQL</title>
255 zhen 1.3 <body>
256     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
257     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
258 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
259 zhen 1.3
260 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
261 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
262     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
263     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
264 zhen 1.1
265 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
266     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
267     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
268    
269     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
270     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
271     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
272     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
273     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
274    
275     -> <i>quit</i>
276 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
277 rajiv 1.14
278     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
279 zhen 1.3 </pre>
280     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
281 zhen 1.1 <ul>
282 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
283     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
284     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
285     <li>users - all user account information</li>
286     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
287     </ul>
288     </p>
289     <pre caption="alias table sample" >
290 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
291     1 root foo@bar.com
292     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
293 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
294 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
295 rajiv 1.15 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
296     id email clear name uid gid homedir \
297     maildir quota postfix
298     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
299     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
300     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
301     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
302 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
303 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
304 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
305     1 bar.com local:
306     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
307 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
308 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
309 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
310     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
311 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
312 zhen 1.3 </body>
313 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
314     <chapter>
315     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
316 zhen 1.3 <body>
317     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
318     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
319 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i>
320 zhen 1.3 </pre>
321     <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
322     <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
323 zhen 1.1 <ul>
324 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
325     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
326     </ul>
327     </p>
328     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
329 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
330     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
331     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
332 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
333 rajiv 1.14
334     ServerName host.domain.name
335     ServerAdmin your@email.address
336     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
337     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
338    
339     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
340 zhen 1.3 </pre>
341     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
342     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
343     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
344 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
345 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
346 rajiv 1.14
347 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
348     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
349     // (this user must have read-only
350     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
351     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
352     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
353     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
354 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
355 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
356     </body>
357 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
358     <chapter>
359     <title>The vmail user</title>
360 zhen 1.3 <body>
361     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
362     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
363 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
364     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
365     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
366     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
367     # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
368 zhen 1.3 </pre>
369     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
370     </body>
371 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
372     <chapter>
373     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
374 zhen 1.3 <body>
375     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
376     <pre>
377 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
378 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
379     <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
380     <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
381 zhen 1.1
382 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
383 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
384 zhen 1.1
385 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
386     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
387     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
388     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
389    
390     auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
391     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
392     account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
393     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
394 zhen 1.1
395 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
396     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
397 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
398     </pre>
399     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
400     <pre>
401 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
402     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
403 zhen 1.1
404 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
405     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
406 zhen 1.1
407 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
408     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
409     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
410     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
411     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
412     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
413     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
414     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
415     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
416     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
417     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
418     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
419     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
420     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
421 zhen 1.1
422 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
423     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
424 zhen 1.3 </pre>
425     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
426     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
427 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
428     # mysql-aliases.cf
429 zhen 1.1
430 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
431     password = $password
432     dbname = mailsql
433     table = alias
434     select_field = destination
435     where_field = alias
436     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
437     </pre>
438 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
439 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
440     # mysql-relocated.cf
441 zhen 1.1
442 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
443     password = $password
444     dbname = mailsql
445     table = relocated
446     select_field = destination
447     where_field = email
448     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
449     </pre>
450 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
451 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
452     # mysql-transport.cf
453 zhen 1.1
454 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
455     password = $password
456     dbname = mailsql
457     table = transport
458     select_field = destination
459     where_field = domain
460     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
461     </pre>
462 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
463 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
464     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
465 zhen 1.1
466 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
467     password = $password
468     dbname = mailsql
469     table = users
470     select_field = gid
471     where_field = email
472     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
473     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
474     </pre>
475 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
476 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
477     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
478 zhen 1.1
479 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
480     password = $password
481     dbname = mailsql
482     table = users
483     select_field = maildir
484     where_field = email
485     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
486     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
487     </pre>
488 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
489 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
490     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
491 zhen 1.1
492 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
493     password = $password
494     dbname = mailsql
495     table = users
496     select_field = uid
497     where_field = email
498     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
499     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
500     </pre>
501 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
502 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
503     # mysql-virtual.cf
504 zhen 1.1
505 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
506     password = $password
507     dbname = mailsql
508     table = virtual
509     select_field = destination
510     where_field = email
511     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
512     </pre>
513 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
514     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
515 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
516     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
517     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
518    
519     local_transport = local
520     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
521    
522     virtual_transport = virtual
523     virtual_mailbox_domains =
524     virt-bar.com,
525     $other-virtual-domain.com
526    
527     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
528     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
529     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
530     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
531     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
532     virtual_mailbox_base = /
533     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
534     </pre>
535 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
536     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
537     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
538     </pre>
539     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
540     </body>
541 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
542     <chapter>
543     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
544 zhen 1.3 <body>
545     <pre>
546 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
547 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
548    
549 rajiv 1.14 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
550     # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
551     # <i>./conf.pl</i>
552 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
553     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
554     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
555     </pre>
556     </body>
557 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
558     <chapter>
559     <title>Mailman</title>
560 zhen 1.3 <body>
561 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
562 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
563 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
564 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
565     MAILGID="280"
566     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
567     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
568 zhen 1.3 </pre>
569     <pre>
570 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
571     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
572     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
573     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
574     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
575 zhen 1.3
576 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
577 zhen 1.3 </pre>
578 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
579 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
580     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
581     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
582     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
583 antifa 1.12 </pre>
584 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
585 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
586     MTA = "Postfix"
587     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
588     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
589     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
590 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
591     </pre>
592     <pre>
593 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
594 zhen 1.3
595 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
596     # <i>cd ~</i>
597     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
598     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
599     Initial test password:
600     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
601     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
602     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
603     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
604     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
605     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
606    
607     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
608     # STANZA START: test
609     # CREATED:
610     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
611     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
612     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
613     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
614     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
615     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
616     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
617     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
618     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
619     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
620     # STANZA END: test
621    
622     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
623     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
624     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
625 zhen 1.3 </pre>
626    
627     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
628 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
629     owner_request_special = no
630     recipient_delimiter = +
631     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
632    
633     alias_maps =
634     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
635     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
636    
637     virtual_alias_maps =
638     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
639     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
640     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
641     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
642     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
643     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
644     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
645 zhen 1.3 </pre>
646     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
647     </body>
648     </chapter>
649     <chapter>
650     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
651 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
652 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
653     <chapter>
654     <title>Wrap Up</title>
655 zhen 1.3 <body>
656     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
657     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
658 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
659     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
660 zhen 1.3 </pre>
661     <p>
662     <e>Have fun!</e>
663     </p>
664     </body>
665 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
666     <chapter>
667     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
668     <section>
669 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
670     <body>
671     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
672     </body>
673 zhen 1.1 </section>
674     <section>
675 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
676     <body>
677     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
678     <pre>
679 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
680 zhen 1.3 </pre>
681     </body>
682 zhen 1.1 </section>
683     <section>
684 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
685     <body>
686     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
687     <pre>
688 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
689     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
690 zhen 1.3 </pre>
691     </body>
692 zhen 1.1 </section>
693     <section>
694 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
695     <body>
696     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
697     <pre>
698 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
699     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
700     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
701     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
702 zhen 1.3 </pre>
703     </body>
704 zhen 1.1 </section>
705     <section>
706 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
707     <body>
708     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
709     <pre>
710 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
711     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
712     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
713     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
714 zhen 1.3 </pre>
715     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
716     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
717 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
718     debug_peer_level = 5
719     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
720     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
721     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
722 zhen 1.3 </pre>
723     </body>
724 zhen 1.1 </section>
725     <section>
726 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
727     <body>
728     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
729     <pre>
730 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
731 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
732     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
733 zhen 1.1
734 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
735     Connected to localhost.
736     Escape character is '^]'.
737 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
738 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
739 zhen 1.3 </body>
740 zhen 1.1 </section>
741     <section>
742 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
743     <body>
744     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
745     <pre>
746 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
747     # <i>strace $command</i>
748     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
749 zhen 1.3 </pre>
750     </body>
751 zhen 1.1 </section>
752     <section>
753 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
754     <body>
755     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
756     <p>
757     <ul>
758     <li>
759     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
760     <li>
761     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
762     <li>
763     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
764     <li>
765     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
766     <li>
767     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
768     <li>
769     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
770     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
771     </ul>
772     </p>
773     </body>
774 zhen 1.1 </section>
775     </chapter>
776     </guide>

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