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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 swift 1.20 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.19 2003/11/15 00:35:19 neysx Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
6 zhen 1.1 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
7 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
8 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
9 zhen 1.3 </author>
10     <author title="Author" >
11 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12 zhen 1.3 </author>
13 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
14 swift 1.20 <version>1.0.5</version>
15     <date>December 6, 2003</date>
16 zhen 1.3 <!--
17    
18     Contents
19    
20     I. Introduction
21     II. Postfix Basics
22     III. Courier-imap
23     IV. Cyrus-sasl
24     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
25     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
26     VII. MySQL
27     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
28     IX. The vmail user
29     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
30     XI. Squirrelmail
31     XII. Mailman
32     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
33     XIV. Wrap Up
34     XV. Troubleshooting
35 zhen 1.1
36 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
37 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
38 zhen 1.3 <body>
39     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
40     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
41     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
42 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
43 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
44 zhen 1.1
45 swift 1.17 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
46 zhen 1.3 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
47 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
48 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
49 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
50     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
51     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
52     </body>
53 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
54     <chapter>
55     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
56 zhen 1.3 <body>
57     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
58     </pre>
59     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
60     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
61     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
62 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
63     mydomain = $domain.name
64     inet_interfaces = all
65     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
66     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
67     home_mailbox = .maildir/
68     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
69     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
70 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
71     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
72 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
73     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
74     #
75     ==========================================================================
76     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
77    
78     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
79 zhen 1.3 </pre>
80     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
81     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
82 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
83 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
84     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
85    
86 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
87 zhen 1.3 </pre>
88     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
89     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
90     </body>
91 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
92     <chapter>
93     <title>Courier-imap</title>
94 zhen 1.3 <body>
95     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
96     </pre>
97     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
98 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
99 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
100     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
101     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
102 rajiv 1.14
103     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
104     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
105 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
106 rajiv 1.14
107     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
108     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
109 zhen 1.3 </pre>
110     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
111 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
112     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
113     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
114     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
115 zhen 1.3 </pre>
116     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
117     </body>
118 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
119     <chapter>
120     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
121 zhen 1.3 <body>
122     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
123     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
124     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
125 rajiv 1.14 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
126 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
127     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
128     </pre>
129 antifa 1.10 <p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
130 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
131 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
132     pwcheck_method: saslauthd
133     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
134 antifa 1.9 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
135     <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
136 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
137 zhen 1.3 </pre>
138     </body>
139 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
140     <chapter>
141     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
142 zhen 1.3 <body>
143     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
144     <pre>
145 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
146     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
147    
148 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
149 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
150     stateOrProvinceName_default
151     localityName_default
152     0.organizationName_default
153     commonName_default
154     emailAddress_default.
155    
156     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
157    
158 zhen 1.1
159 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
160     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
161 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
162     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
163     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
164     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
165 rajiv 1.14
166     # create a certificate
167     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168    
169     # create a certificate request
170     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
171 zhen 1.1
172 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
173     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
174     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
175     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
177     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
178 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
179    
180 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
181     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
182     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
183 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
184     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
185     </pre>
186     </body>
187 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
188     <chapter>
189     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
190 zhen 1.3 <body>
191     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
192     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
193 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
194    
195     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
196     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
197     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
198     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
199     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
200    
201     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
202 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
203     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
204     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
205     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
206     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
207 zhen 1.1
208 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
209     permit_sasl_authenticated,
210     permit_mynetworks,
211     reject_unauth_destination
212    
213    
214     smtpd_use_tls = yes
215     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
216     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
217     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
218     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
219     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
220     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
221     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
222     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
223    
224     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
225 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
226 rajiv 1.14
227     # <i>postfix reload</i>
228 zhen 1.3 </pre>
229     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
230     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
231 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
232 zhen 1.1
233 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
234     Connected to localhost.
235     Escape character is '^]'.
236     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
237     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
238     250-mail.domain.com
239     250-PIPELINING
240     250-SIZE 10240000
241     250-VRFY
242     250-ETRN
243     250-STARTTLS
244     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
245     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
246     250-XVERP
247     250 8BITMIME
248     <i>^]</i>
249     telnet> <i>quit</i>
250 zhen 1.3 </pre>
251     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
252 zhen 1.1 </p>
253 zhen 1.3 </body>
254 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
255     <chapter>
256     <title>MySQL</title>
257 zhen 1.3 <body>
258     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
259     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
260 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
261 zhen 1.3
262 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
263 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
264     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
265     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
266 zhen 1.1
267 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
268     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
269     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
270    
271     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
272     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
273     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
274     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
275     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
276    
277     -> <i>quit</i>
278 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
279 rajiv 1.14
280     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
281 zhen 1.3 </pre>
282     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
283 zhen 1.1 <ul>
284 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
285     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
286     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
287     <li>users - all user account information</li>
288     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
289     </ul>
290     </p>
291     <pre caption="alias table sample" >
292 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
293     1 root foo@bar.com
294     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
295 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
296 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
297 rajiv 1.15 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
298     id email clear name uid gid homedir \
299     maildir quota postfix
300     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
301     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
302     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
303     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
304 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
305 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
306 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
307     1 bar.com local:
308     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
309 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
310 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
311 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
312     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
313 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
314 zhen 1.3 </body>
315 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
316     <chapter>
317     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
318 zhen 1.3 <body>
319     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
320     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
321 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
322 zhen 1.3 </pre>
323     <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
324     <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
325 zhen 1.1 <ul>
326 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
327     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
328     </ul>
329     </p>
330     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
331 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
332     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
333     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
334 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
335 rajiv 1.14
336     ServerName host.domain.name
337     ServerAdmin your@email.address
338     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
339     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
340    
341     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
342 zhen 1.3 </pre>
343     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
344     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
345     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
346 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
347 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
348 rajiv 1.14
349 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
350     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
351     // (this user must have read-only
352     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
353     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
354     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
355     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
356 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
357 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
358     </body>
359 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
360     <chapter>
361     <title>The vmail user</title>
362 zhen 1.3 <body>
363     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
364     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
365 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
366     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
367     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
368     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
369     # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
370 zhen 1.3 </pre>
371     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
372     </body>
373 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
374     <chapter>
375     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
376 zhen 1.3 <body>
377     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
378     <pre>
379 swift 1.20 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
380 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
381 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
382 zhen 1.1
383 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
384     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
387    
388 swift 1.18 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390 swift 1.18 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
391 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
392 zhen 1.1
393 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
394     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
395 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
396     </pre>
397     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
398     <pre>
399 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
400     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
401 zhen 1.1
402 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
403     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
404 zhen 1.1
405 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
406     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
407     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
408     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
409     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
410     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
411     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
412     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
413     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
414     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
415     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
416     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
417     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
418     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
419 zhen 1.1
420 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
421     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
422 zhen 1.3 </pre>
423     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
424     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
425 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
426     # mysql-aliases.cf
427 zhen 1.1
428 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
429     password = $password
430     dbname = mailsql
431     table = alias
432     select_field = destination
433     where_field = alias
434     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
435     </pre>
436 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
437 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
438     # mysql-relocated.cf
439 zhen 1.1
440 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
441     password = $password
442     dbname = mailsql
443     table = relocated
444     select_field = destination
445     where_field = email
446     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
447     </pre>
448 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
449 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
450     # mysql-transport.cf
451 zhen 1.1
452 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
453     password = $password
454     dbname = mailsql
455     table = transport
456     select_field = destination
457     where_field = domain
458     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
459     </pre>
460 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
461 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
462     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
463 zhen 1.1
464 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
465     password = $password
466     dbname = mailsql
467     table = users
468     select_field = gid
469     where_field = email
470     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
471     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
472     </pre>
473 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
474 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
475     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
476 zhen 1.1
477 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
478     password = $password
479     dbname = mailsql
480     table = users
481     select_field = maildir
482     where_field = email
483     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
484     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
485     </pre>
486 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
487 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
488     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
489 zhen 1.1
490 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
491     password = $password
492     dbname = mailsql
493     table = users
494     select_field = uid
495     where_field = email
496     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
497     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
498     </pre>
499 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
500 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
501     # mysql-virtual.cf
502 zhen 1.1
503 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
504     password = $password
505     dbname = mailsql
506     table = virtual
507     select_field = destination
508     where_field = email
509     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
510     </pre>
511 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
512     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
513 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
514     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
515     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
516    
517     local_transport = local
518     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
519    
520     virtual_transport = virtual
521     virtual_mailbox_domains =
522     virt-bar.com,
523     $other-virtual-domain.com
524    
525     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
526     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
527     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
528     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
529     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
530     virtual_mailbox_base = /
531     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
532     </pre>
533 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
534     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
535     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
536     </pre>
537     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
538     </body>
539 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
540     <chapter>
541     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
542 zhen 1.3 <body>
543     <pre>
544 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
545 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
546    
547 rajiv 1.14 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
548     # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
549     # <i>./conf.pl</i>
550 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
551     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
552     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
553     </pre>
554     </body>
555 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
556     <chapter>
557     <title>Mailman</title>
558 zhen 1.3 <body>
559 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
560 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
561 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
562 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
563     MAILGID="280"
564     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
565     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
566 zhen 1.3 </pre>
567     <pre>
568 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
569     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
570     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
571     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
572     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
573 zhen 1.3
574 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
575 zhen 1.3 </pre>
576 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
577 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
578     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
579     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
580     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
581 antifa 1.12 </pre>
582 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
583 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
584     MTA = "Postfix"
585     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
586     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
587     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
588 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
589     </pre>
590     <pre>
591 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
592 zhen 1.3
593 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
594     # <i>cd ~</i>
595     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
596     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
597     Initial test password:
598     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
599     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
600     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
601     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
602     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
603     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
604    
605     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
606     # STANZA START: test
607     # CREATED:
608     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
609     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
610     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
611     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
612     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
613     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
614     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
615     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
616     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
617     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
618     # STANZA END: test
619    
620     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
621     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
622     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
623 zhen 1.3 </pre>
624    
625     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
626 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
627     owner_request_special = no
628     recipient_delimiter = +
629     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
630    
631     alias_maps =
632     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
633     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
634    
635     virtual_alias_maps =
636     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
637     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
638     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
639     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
640     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
641     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
642     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
643 zhen 1.3 </pre>
644     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
645     </body>
646     </chapter>
647     <chapter>
648     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
649 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
650 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
651     <chapter>
652     <title>Wrap Up</title>
653 zhen 1.3 <body>
654     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
655     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
656 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
657     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
658 zhen 1.3 </pre>
659     <p>
660     <e>Have fun!</e>
661     </p>
662     </body>
663 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
664     <chapter>
665     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
666     <section>
667 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
668     <body>
669     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
670     </body>
671 zhen 1.1 </section>
672     <section>
673 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
674     <body>
675     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
676     <pre>
677 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
678 zhen 1.3 </pre>
679     </body>
680 zhen 1.1 </section>
681     <section>
682 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
683     <body>
684     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
685     <pre>
686 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
687     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
688 zhen 1.3 </pre>
689     </body>
690 zhen 1.1 </section>
691     <section>
692 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
693     <body>
694     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
695     <pre>
696 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
697     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
698     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
699     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
700 zhen 1.3 </pre>
701     </body>
702 zhen 1.1 </section>
703     <section>
704 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
705     <body>
706     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
707     <pre>
708 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
709     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
710     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
711     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
712 zhen 1.3 </pre>
713     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
714     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
715 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
716     debug_peer_level = 5
717     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
718     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
719     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
720 zhen 1.3 </pre>
721     </body>
722 zhen 1.1 </section>
723     <section>
724 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
725     <body>
726     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
727     <pre>
728 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
729 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
730     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
731 zhen 1.1
732 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
733     Connected to localhost.
734     Escape character is '^]'.
735 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
736 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
737 zhen 1.3 </body>
738 zhen 1.1 </section>
739     <section>
740 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
741     <body>
742     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
743     <pre>
744 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
745     # <i>strace $command</i>
746     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
747 zhen 1.3 </pre>
748     </body>
749 zhen 1.1 </section>
750     <section>
751 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
752     <body>
753     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
754     <p>
755     <ul>
756     <li>
757     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
758     <li>
759     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
760     <li>
761     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
762     <li>
763     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
764     <li>
765     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
766     <li>
767     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
768     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
769     </ul>
770     </p>
771     </body>
772 zhen 1.1 </section>
773     </chapter>
774     </guide>

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