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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 cam 1.29 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.28 2004/03/04 18:24:44 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
8 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
9 zhen 1.3 </author>
10     <author title="Author" >
11 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12 zhen 1.3 </author>
13 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail>
15     </author>
16 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
17 swift 1.27 <version>1.0.10</version>
18     <date>March 4, 2004</date>
19 zhen 1.3 <!--
20    
21     Contents
22    
23     I. Introduction
24     II. Postfix Basics
25     III. Courier-imap
26     IV. Cyrus-sasl
27     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
28     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
29     VII. MySQL
30     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
31     IX. The vmail user
32     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
33     XI. Squirrelmail
34     XII. Mailman
35     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
36     XIV. Wrap Up
37     XV. Troubleshooting
38 zhen 1.1
39 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
40 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
41 swift 1.26 <section>
42 zhen 1.3 <body>
43     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
44     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
45     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
46 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
47 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
48 zhen 1.1
49 swift 1.17 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
50 zhen 1.3 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
51 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
52 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
53 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
54     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
55     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
56     </body>
57 swift 1.26 </section>
58 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
59 swift 1.26
60 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
61     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
62 swift 1.26 <section>
63 zhen 1.3 <body>
64     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
65     </pre>
66     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
67     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
68     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
69 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
70     mydomain = $domain.name
71     inet_interfaces = all
72     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
73     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
74     home_mailbox = .maildir/
75     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
76     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
77 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
78     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
79 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
80     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
81     #
82     ==========================================================================
83     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
84    
85     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
86 zhen 1.3 </pre>
87     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
88     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
89 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
90 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
91     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
92    
93 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
94 zhen 1.3 </pre>
95     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
96     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
97     </body>
98 swift 1.26 </section>
99 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
100     <chapter>
101     <title>Courier-imap</title>
102 swift 1.26 <section>
103 zhen 1.3 <body>
104     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
105     </pre>
106     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
107 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
108 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
109     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
110     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
111 rajiv 1.14
112     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
113     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
114 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
115 rajiv 1.14
116     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
117     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
118 zhen 1.3 </pre>
119     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
120 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
121     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
122     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
123     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
124 zhen 1.3 </pre>
125     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
126     </body>
127 swift 1.26 </section>
128 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
129     <chapter>
130     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131 swift 1.26 <section>
132 zhen 1.3 <body>
133     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
134     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
135     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
136 rajiv 1.14 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
137 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
138     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
139     </pre>
140 swift 1.27 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p>
141 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
142 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
143 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
144     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
145 swift 1.28 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote>
146 antifa 1.9 <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
147 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
148 zhen 1.3 </pre>
149     </body>
150 swift 1.26 </section>
151 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
152     <chapter>
153     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
154 swift 1.26 <section>
155 zhen 1.3 <body>
156     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
157     <pre>
158 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
159     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
160    
161 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
162 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
163     stateOrProvinceName_default
164     localityName_default
165     0.organizationName_default
166     commonName_default
167     emailAddress_default.
168    
169     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
170    
171 zhen 1.1
172 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
173     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
174 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
175     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
176     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
177     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
178 rajiv 1.14
179     # create a certificate
180     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
181    
182     # create a certificate request
183     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
184 zhen 1.1
185 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
186     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
187     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
188     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
189     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
190     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
191 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
192    
193 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
194     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
195     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
196 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
197     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
198     </pre>
199     </body>
200 swift 1.26 </section>
201 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
202     <chapter>
203     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
204 swift 1.26 <section>
205 zhen 1.3 <body>
206     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
207     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
208 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
209    
210     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
211     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
212     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
213     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
214     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
215    
216     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
217 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
218     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
219     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
220     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
221     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
222 zhen 1.1
223 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
224     permit_sasl_authenticated,
225     permit_mynetworks,
226     reject_unauth_destination
227    
228    
229     smtpd_use_tls = yes
230     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
231     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
232     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
233     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
234     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
235     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
236     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
237     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
238    
239     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
240 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
241 rajiv 1.14
242     # <i>postfix reload</i>
243 zhen 1.3 </pre>
244     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
245     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
246 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
247 zhen 1.1
248 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
249     Connected to localhost.
250     Escape character is '^]'.
251     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
252     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
253     250-mail.domain.com
254     250-PIPELINING
255     250-SIZE 10240000
256     250-VRFY
257     250-ETRN
258     250-STARTTLS
259     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
260     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
261     250-XVERP
262     250 8BITMIME
263     <i>^]</i>
264     telnet> <i>quit</i>
265 zhen 1.3 </pre>
266     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
267 zhen 1.1 </p>
268 zhen 1.3 </body>
269 swift 1.26 </section>
270 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
271     <chapter>
272     <title>MySQL</title>
273 swift 1.26 <section>
274 zhen 1.3 <body>
275     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
276     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
277 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
278 zhen 1.3
279 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
280 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
281     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
282     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
283 zhen 1.1
284 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
285     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
286     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
287    
288     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
289     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
290     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
291     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
292     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
293    
294     -> <i>quit</i>
295 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
296 rajiv 1.14
297     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
298 zhen 1.3 </pre>
299     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
300 zhen 1.1 <ul>
301 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
302     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
303     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
304     <li>users - all user account information</li>
305     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
306     </ul>
307     </p>
308     <pre caption="alias table sample" >
309 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
310     1 root foo@bar.com
311     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
312 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
313 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
314 rajiv 1.15 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
315     id email clear name uid gid homedir \
316     maildir quota postfix
317     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
318     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
319     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
320     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
321 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
322 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
323 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
324     1 bar.com local:
325     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
326 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
327 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
328 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
329     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
330 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
331 zhen 1.3 </body>
332 swift 1.26 </section>
333 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
334     <chapter>
335     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
336 swift 1.26 <section>
337 zhen 1.3 <body>
338     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
339     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
340 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
341 zhen 1.3 </pre>
342 swift 1.23 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p>
343 zhen 1.3 <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
344 zhen 1.1 <ul>
345 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
346     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
347     </ul>
348     </p>
349     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
350 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
351     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
352     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
353 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
354 rajiv 1.14
355     ServerName host.domain.name
356     ServerAdmin your@email.address
357     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
358     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
359    
360     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
361 zhen 1.3 </pre>
362     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
363     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
364     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
365 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
366 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
367 rajiv 1.14
368 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
369     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
370     // (this user must have read-only
371     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
372     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
373     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
374     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
375 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
376 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
377     </body>
378 swift 1.26 </section>
379 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
380     <chapter>
381     <title>The vmail user</title>
382 swift 1.26 <section>
383 zhen 1.3 <body>
384     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
385     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
386 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
387     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
388     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
389     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
390 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
391 zhen 1.3 </pre>
392     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
393     </body>
394 swift 1.26 </section>
395 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
396     <chapter>
397     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
398 swift 1.26 <section>
399 zhen 1.3 <body>
400     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
401     <pre>
402 swift 1.20 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
403 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
404 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
405 zhen 1.1
406 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
407     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
408     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
409     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
410    
411 swift 1.18 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
412 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
413 swift 1.18 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
414 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
415 zhen 1.1
416 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
417     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
418 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
419     </pre>
420     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
421     <pre>
422 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
423     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
424 zhen 1.1
425 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
426     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
427 zhen 1.1
428 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
429     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
430     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
431     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
432     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
433     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
434     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
435     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
436     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
437     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
438     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
439     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
440     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
441     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
442 zhen 1.1
443 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
444     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
445 zhen 1.3 </pre>
446     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
447     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
448 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
449     # mysql-aliases.cf
450 zhen 1.1
451 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
452     password = $password
453     dbname = mailsql
454     table = alias
455     select_field = destination
456     where_field = alias
457     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
458     </pre>
459 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
460 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
461     # mysql-relocated.cf
462 zhen 1.1
463 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
464     password = $password
465     dbname = mailsql
466     table = relocated
467     select_field = destination
468     where_field = email
469     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
470     </pre>
471 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
472 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
473     # mysql-transport.cf
474 zhen 1.1
475 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
476     password = $password
477     dbname = mailsql
478     table = transport
479     select_field = destination
480     where_field = domain
481     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
482     </pre>
483 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
484 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
485     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
486 zhen 1.1
487 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
488     password = $password
489     dbname = mailsql
490     table = users
491     select_field = gid
492     where_field = email
493     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
494     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
495     </pre>
496 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
497 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
498     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
499 zhen 1.1
500 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
501     password = $password
502     dbname = mailsql
503     table = users
504     select_field = maildir
505     where_field = email
506     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
507     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508     </pre>
509 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
510 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
511     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
512 zhen 1.1
513 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
514     password = $password
515     dbname = mailsql
516     table = users
517     select_field = uid
518     where_field = email
519     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
520     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
521     </pre>
522 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
523 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
524     # mysql-virtual.cf
525 zhen 1.1
526 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
527     password = $password
528     dbname = mailsql
529     table = virtual
530     select_field = destination
531     where_field = email
532     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
533     </pre>
534 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
535     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
536 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
537     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
538     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
539    
540     local_transport = local
541     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
542    
543     virtual_transport = virtual
544     virtual_mailbox_domains =
545     virt-bar.com,
546     $other-virtual-domain.com
547    
548     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
549     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
550     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
551     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
552     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
553     virtual_mailbox_base = /
554     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
555     </pre>
556 swift 1.24
557     <p>
558     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
559     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
560     </p>
561    
562     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
563     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
564     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
565     </pre>
566    
567 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
568     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
569     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
570     </pre>
571     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
572     </body>
573 swift 1.26 </section>
574 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
575     <chapter>
576     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
577 swift 1.26 <section>
578 zhen 1.3 <body>
579     <pre>
580 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
581 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
582    
583 pylon 1.21 # <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
584     # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
585 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./conf.pl</i>
586 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
587     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
588     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
589     </pre>
590     </body>
591 swift 1.26 </section>
592 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
593     <chapter>
594     <title>Mailman</title>
595 swift 1.26 <section>
596 zhen 1.3 <body>
597 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
598 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
599 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
600 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
601     MAILGID="280"
602     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
603     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
604 zhen 1.3 </pre>
605     <pre>
606 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
607     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
608     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
609     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
610     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
611 zhen 1.3
612 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
613 zhen 1.3 </pre>
614 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
615 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
616     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
617     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
618     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
619 antifa 1.12 </pre>
620 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
621 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
622     MTA = "Postfix"
623     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
624     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
625     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
626 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
627     </pre>
628     <pre>
629 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
630 zhen 1.3
631 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
632     # <i>cd ~</i>
633     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
634     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
635     Initial test password:
636     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
637     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
638     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
639     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
640     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
641     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
642    
643     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
644     # STANZA START: test
645     # CREATED:
646     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
647     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
648     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
649     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
650     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
651     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
652     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
653     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
654     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
655     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
656     # STANZA END: test
657    
658     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
659     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
660     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
661 zhen 1.3 </pre>
662    
663     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
664 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
665     owner_request_special = no
666     recipient_delimiter = +
667     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
668    
669     alias_maps =
670     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
671     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
672    
673     virtual_alias_maps =
674     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
675     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
676     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
677     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
678     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
679     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
680     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
681 zhen 1.3 </pre>
682     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
683     </body>
684 swift 1.26 </section>
685 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
686     <chapter>
687     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
688 swift 1.26 <section>
689 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
690 swift 1.26 </section>
691 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
692     <chapter>
693     <title>Wrap Up</title>
694 swift 1.26 <section>
695 zhen 1.3 <body>
696     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
697     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
698 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
699     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
700 zhen 1.3 </pre>
701     <p>
702     <e>Have fun!</e>
703     </p>
704     </body>
705 swift 1.26 </section>
706 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
707     <chapter>
708     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
709     <section>
710 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
711     <body>
712     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
713     </body>
714 zhen 1.1 </section>
715     <section>
716 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
717     <body>
718     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
719     <pre>
720 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
721 zhen 1.3 </pre>
722     </body>
723 zhen 1.1 </section>
724     <section>
725 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
726     <body>
727     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
728     <pre>
729 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
730     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
731 zhen 1.3 </pre>
732     </body>
733 zhen 1.1 </section>
734     <section>
735 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
736     <body>
737     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
738     <pre>
739 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
740     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
741     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
742     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
743 zhen 1.3 </pre>
744     </body>
745 zhen 1.1 </section>
746     <section>
747 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
748     <body>
749     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
750     <pre>
751 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
752     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
753     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
754     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
755 zhen 1.3 </pre>
756     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
757     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
758 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
759     debug_peer_level = 5
760     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
761     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
762     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
763 zhen 1.3 </pre>
764     </body>
765 zhen 1.1 </section>
766     <section>
767 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
768     <body>
769     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
770     <pre>
771 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
772 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
773     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
774 zhen 1.1
775 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
776     Connected to localhost.
777     Escape character is '^]'.
778 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
779 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
780 zhen 1.3 </body>
781 zhen 1.1 </section>
782     <section>
783 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
784     <body>
785     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
786     <pre>
787 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
788     # <i>strace $command</i>
789     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
790 zhen 1.3 </pre>
791     </body>
792 zhen 1.1 </section>
793     <section>
794 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
795     <body>
796     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
797     <p>
798     <ul>
799     <li>
800     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
801     <li>
802     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
803     <li>
804     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
805     <li>
806     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
807     <li>
808     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
809     <li>
810     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
811     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
812     </ul>
813     </p>
814     </body>
815 zhen 1.1 </section>
816     </chapter>
817     </guide>

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