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1 vapier 1.32 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 cam 1.33 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.32 2004/06/25 22:28:55 vapier Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
8 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
9 zhen 1.3 </author>
10     <author title="Author" >
11 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12 zhen 1.3 </author>
13 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail>
15     </author>
16 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
17 swift 1.31 <version>1.0.11</version>
18     <date>April 11, 2004</date>
19 zhen 1.3 <!--
20    
21     Contents
22    
23     I. Introduction
24     II. Postfix Basics
25     III. Courier-imap
26     IV. Cyrus-sasl
27     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
28     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
29     VII. MySQL
30     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
31     IX. The vmail user
32     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
33     XI. Squirrelmail
34     XII. Mailman
35     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
36     XIV. Wrap Up
37     XV. Troubleshooting
38 zhen 1.1
39 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
40 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
41 swift 1.26 <section>
42 zhen 1.3 <body>
43     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
44     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
45     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
46 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
47 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
48 zhen 1.1
49 swift 1.17 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
50 cam 1.33 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
51 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
52 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
53 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
54     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
55     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
56     </body>
57 swift 1.26 </section>
58 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
59 swift 1.26
60 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
61     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
62 swift 1.26 <section>
63 zhen 1.3 <body>
64     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
65     </pre>
66     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
67     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
68     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
69 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
70     mydomain = $domain.name
71     inet_interfaces = all
72     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
73     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
74     home_mailbox = .maildir/
75     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
76     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
77 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
78     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
79 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
80     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
81     #
82     ==========================================================================
83     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
84    
85 cam 1.30 <codenote>Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
86 zhen 1.3 </pre>
87     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
88     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
89 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
90 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
91     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
92    
93 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
94 zhen 1.3 </pre>
95     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
96     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
97     </body>
98 swift 1.26 </section>
99 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
100     <chapter>
101     <title>Courier-imap</title>
102 swift 1.26 <section>
103 zhen 1.3 <body>
104     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
105     </pre>
106     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
107 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
108 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
109     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
110     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
111 rajiv 1.14
112     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
113     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
114 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
115 rajiv 1.14
116     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
117     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
118 zhen 1.3 </pre>
119     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
120 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
121     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
122     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
123     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
124 zhen 1.3 </pre>
125     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
126     </body>
127 swift 1.26 </section>
128 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
129     <chapter>
130     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131 swift 1.26 <section>
132 zhen 1.3 <body>
133     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
134     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
135     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
136 rajiv 1.14 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
137 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
138     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
139     </pre>
140 swift 1.27 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p>
141 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
142 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
143 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
144     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
145 swift 1.28 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote>
146 antifa 1.9 <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
147 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
148 zhen 1.3 </pre>
149     </body>
150 swift 1.26 </section>
151 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
152     <chapter>
153     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
154 swift 1.26 <section>
155 zhen 1.3 <body>
156     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
157     <pre>
158 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
159     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
160    
161 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
162 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
163     stateOrProvinceName_default
164     localityName_default
165     0.organizationName_default
166     commonName_default
167     emailAddress_default.
168    
169     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
170    
171 zhen 1.1
172 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
173     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
174 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
175     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
176     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
177     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
178 rajiv 1.14
179     # create a certificate
180     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
181    
182     # create a certificate request
183     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
184 zhen 1.1
185 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
186     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
187     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
188     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
189     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
190     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
191 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
192    
193 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
194     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
195     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
196 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
197     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
198     </pre>
199     </body>
200 swift 1.26 </section>
201 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
202     <chapter>
203     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
204 swift 1.26 <section>
205 zhen 1.3 <body>
206     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
207     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
208 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
209    
210     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
211     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
212     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
213     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
214     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
215    
216     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
217 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
218     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
219     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
220     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
221     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
222 zhen 1.1
223 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
224     permit_sasl_authenticated,
225     permit_mynetworks,
226     reject_unauth_destination
227    
228    
229     smtpd_use_tls = yes
230     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
231     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
232     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
233     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
234     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
235     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
236     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
237     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
238    
239     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
240 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
241 rajiv 1.14
242     # <i>postfix reload</i>
243 zhen 1.3 </pre>
244     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
245     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
246 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
247 zhen 1.1
248 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
249     Connected to localhost.
250     Escape character is '^]'.
251     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
252     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
253     250-mail.domain.com
254     250-PIPELINING
255     250-SIZE 10240000
256     250-VRFY
257     250-ETRN
258     250-STARTTLS
259     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
260     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
261     250-XVERP
262     250 8BITMIME
263     <i>^]</i>
264     telnet> <i>quit</i>
265 zhen 1.3 </pre>
266     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
267 zhen 1.1 </p>
268 zhen 1.3 </body>
269 swift 1.26 </section>
270 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
271     <chapter>
272     <title>MySQL</title>
273 swift 1.26 <section>
274 zhen 1.3 <body>
275     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
276     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
277 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
278 zhen 1.3
279 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
280 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
281     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
282     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
283 zhen 1.1
284 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
285     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
286     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
287    
288     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
289     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
290     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
291     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
292     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
293    
294     -> <i>quit</i>
295 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
296 rajiv 1.14
297     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
298 zhen 1.3 </pre>
299 cam 1.30
300     <p>
301     Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
302     </p>
303    
304     <ul>
305 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
306     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
307     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
308     <li>users - all user account information</li>
309     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
310     </ul>
311 cam 1.30
312 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="alias table sample" >
313 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
314     1 root foo@bar.com
315     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
316 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
317 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
318 rajiv 1.15 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
319     id email clear name uid gid homedir \
320     maildir quota postfix
321     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
322     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
323     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
324     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
325 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
326 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
327 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
328     1 bar.com local:
329     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
330 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
331 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
332 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
333     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
334 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
335 zhen 1.3 </body>
336 swift 1.26 </section>
337 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
338     <chapter>
339     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
340 swift 1.26 <section>
341 zhen 1.3 <body>
342     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
343     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
344 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
345 zhen 1.3 </pre>
346 swift 1.23 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p>
347 cam 1.30
348     <p>
349     Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
350     </p>
351    
352     <ul>
353 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
354     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
355     </ul>
356 cam 1.30
357 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
358 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
359     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
360     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
361 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
362 rajiv 1.14
363     ServerName host.domain.name
364     ServerAdmin your@email.address
365     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
366     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
367    
368     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
369 zhen 1.3 </pre>
370     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
371     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
372     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
373 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
374 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
375 rajiv 1.14
376 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
377     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
378     // (this user must have read-only
379     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
380     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
381     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
382     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
383 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
384 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
385     </body>
386 swift 1.26 </section>
387 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
388     <chapter>
389     <title>The vmail user</title>
390 swift 1.26 <section>
391 zhen 1.3 <body>
392     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
393     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
394 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
395     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
396     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
397     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
398 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
399 zhen 1.3 </pre>
400     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
401     </body>
402 swift 1.26 </section>
403 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
404     <chapter>
405     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
406 swift 1.26 <section>
407 zhen 1.3 <body>
408     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
409     <pre>
410 swift 1.20 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
411 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
412 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
413 zhen 1.1
414 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
415     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
416     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
417     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
418    
419 swift 1.18 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
420 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
421 swift 1.18 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
422 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
423 zhen 1.1
424 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
425     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
426 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
427     </pre>
428     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
429     <pre>
430 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
431     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
432 zhen 1.1
433 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
434     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
435 zhen 1.1
436 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
437     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
438     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
439     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
440     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
441     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
442     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
443     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
444     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
445     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
446     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
447     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
448     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
449     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
450 zhen 1.1
451 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
452     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
453 zhen 1.3 </pre>
454     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
455     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
456 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
457     # mysql-aliases.cf
458 zhen 1.1
459 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
460     password = $password
461     dbname = mailsql
462     table = alias
463     select_field = destination
464     where_field = alias
465     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
466     </pre>
467 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
468 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
469     # mysql-relocated.cf
470 zhen 1.1
471 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
472     password = $password
473     dbname = mailsql
474     table = relocated
475     select_field = destination
476     where_field = email
477     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
478     </pre>
479 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
480 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
481     # mysql-transport.cf
482 zhen 1.1
483 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
484     password = $password
485     dbname = mailsql
486     table = transport
487     select_field = destination
488     where_field = domain
489     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
490     </pre>
491 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
492 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
493     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
494 zhen 1.1
495 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
496     password = $password
497     dbname = mailsql
498     table = users
499     select_field = gid
500     where_field = email
501     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
502     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
503     </pre>
504 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
505 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
506     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
507 zhen 1.1
508 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
509     password = $password
510     dbname = mailsql
511     table = users
512     select_field = maildir
513     where_field = email
514     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
515     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
516     </pre>
517 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
518 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
519     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
520 zhen 1.1
521 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
522     password = $password
523     dbname = mailsql
524     table = users
525     select_field = uid
526     where_field = email
527     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
528     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
529     </pre>
530 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
531 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
532     # mysql-virtual.cf
533 zhen 1.1
534 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
535     password = $password
536     dbname = mailsql
537     table = virtual
538     select_field = destination
539     where_field = email
540     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
541     </pre>
542 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
543     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
544 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
545     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
546     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
547    
548     local_transport = local
549     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
550    
551     virtual_transport = virtual
552     virtual_mailbox_domains =
553     virt-bar.com,
554     $other-virtual-domain.com
555    
556     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
557     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
558     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
559     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
560     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
561     virtual_mailbox_base = /
562     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
563     </pre>
564 swift 1.24
565     <p>
566     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
567     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
568     </p>
569    
570     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
571     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
572     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
573     </pre>
574    
575 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
576     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
577     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
578     </pre>
579     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
580     </body>
581 swift 1.26 </section>
582 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
583     <chapter>
584     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
585 swift 1.26 <section>
586 zhen 1.3 <body>
587     <pre>
588 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
589 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
590    
591 pylon 1.21 # <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
592 swift 1.31 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
593     # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
594 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
595     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
596     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
597     </pre>
598     </body>
599 swift 1.26 </section>
600 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
601     <chapter>
602     <title>Mailman</title>
603 swift 1.26 <section>
604 zhen 1.3 <body>
605 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
606 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
607 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
608 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
609     MAILGID="280"
610     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
611     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
612 zhen 1.3 </pre>
613     <pre>
614 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
615     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
616     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
617     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
618     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
619 zhen 1.3
620 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
621 zhen 1.3 </pre>
622 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
623 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
624     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
625     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
626     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
627 antifa 1.12 </pre>
628 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
629 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
630     MTA = "Postfix"
631     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
632     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
633     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
634 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
635     </pre>
636     <pre>
637 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
638 zhen 1.3
639 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
640     # <i>cd ~</i>
641     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
642     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
643     Initial test password:
644     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
645     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
646     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
647     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
648     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
649     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
650    
651     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
652     # STANZA START: test
653     # CREATED:
654     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
655     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
656     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
657     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
658     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
659     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
660     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
661     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
662     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
663     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
664     # STANZA END: test
665    
666     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
667     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
668     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
669 zhen 1.3 </pre>
670    
671     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
672 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
673     owner_request_special = no
674     recipient_delimiter = +
675     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
676    
677     alias_maps =
678     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
679     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
680    
681     virtual_alias_maps =
682     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
683     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
684     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
685     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
686     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
687     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
688     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
689 zhen 1.3 </pre>
690     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
691     </body>
692 swift 1.26 </section>
693 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
694     <chapter>
695     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
696 swift 1.26 <section>
697 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
698 swift 1.26 </section>
699 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
700     <chapter>
701     <title>Wrap Up</title>
702 swift 1.26 <section>
703 zhen 1.3 <body>
704     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
705     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
706 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
707     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
708 zhen 1.3 </pre>
709     <p>
710     <e>Have fun!</e>
711     </p>
712     </body>
713 swift 1.26 </section>
714 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
715     <chapter>
716     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
717     <section>
718 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
719     <body>
720     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
721     </body>
722 zhen 1.1 </section>
723     <section>
724 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
725     <body>
726     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
727     <pre>
728 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
729 zhen 1.3 </pre>
730     </body>
731 zhen 1.1 </section>
732     <section>
733 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
734     <body>
735     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
736     <pre>
737 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
738     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
739 zhen 1.3 </pre>
740     </body>
741 zhen 1.1 </section>
742     <section>
743 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
744     <body>
745     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
746     <pre>
747 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
748     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
749     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
750     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
751 zhen 1.3 </pre>
752     </body>
753 zhen 1.1 </section>
754     <section>
755 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
756     <body>
757     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
758     <pre>
759 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
760     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
761     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
762     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
763 zhen 1.3 </pre>
764     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
765     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
766 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
767     debug_peer_level = 5
768     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
769     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
770     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
771 zhen 1.3 </pre>
772     </body>
773 zhen 1.1 </section>
774     <section>
775 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
776     <body>
777     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
778     <pre>
779 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
780 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
781     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
782 zhen 1.1
783 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
784     Connected to localhost.
785     Escape character is '^]'.
786 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
787 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
788 zhen 1.3 </body>
789 zhen 1.1 </section>
790     <section>
791 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
792     <body>
793     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
794     <pre>
795 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
796     # <i>strace $command</i>
797     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
798 zhen 1.3 </pre>
799     </body>
800 zhen 1.1 </section>
801     <section>
802 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
803     <body>
804     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
805 cam 1.30
806 zhen 1.3 <ul>
807     <li>
808     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
809     <li>
810     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
811     <li>
812     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
813     <li>
814     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
815     <li>
816     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
817     <li>
818     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
819     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
820     </ul>
821 cam 1.30
822 zhen 1.3 </body>
823 zhen 1.1 </section>
824     </chapter>
825     </guide>

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