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1 vapier 1.32 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 swift 1.35 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.34 2004/09/30 12:10:15 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
8 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
9 zhen 1.3 </author>
10     <author title="Author" >
11 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12 zhen 1.3 </author>
13 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail>
15     </author>
16 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
17 swift 1.35 <version>1.0.13</version>
18     <date>November 02, 2004</date>
19 zhen 1.3 <!--
20    
21     Contents
22    
23     I. Introduction
24     II. Postfix Basics
25     III. Courier-imap
26     IV. Cyrus-sasl
27     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
28     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
29     VII. MySQL
30     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
31     IX. The vmail user
32     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
33     XI. Squirrelmail
34     XII. Mailman
35     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
36     XIV. Wrap Up
37     XV. Troubleshooting
38 zhen 1.1
39 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
40 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
41 swift 1.26 <section>
42 zhen 1.3 <body>
43     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
44     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
45     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
46 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
47 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
48 zhen 1.1
49 swift 1.17 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
50 cam 1.33 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
51 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
52 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
53 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
54     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
55     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
56     </body>
57 swift 1.26 </section>
58 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
59 swift 1.26
60 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
61     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
62 swift 1.26 <section>
63 zhen 1.3 <body>
64     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
65     </pre>
66     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
67     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
68     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
69 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
70     mydomain = $domain.name
71     inet_interfaces = all
72     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
73     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
74     home_mailbox = .maildir/
75     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
76     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
77 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
78     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
79 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
80     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
81     #
82     ==========================================================================
83     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
84    
85 cam 1.30 <codenote>Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
86 zhen 1.3 </pre>
87     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
88     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
89 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
90 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
91     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
92    
93 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
94 zhen 1.3 </pre>
95     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
96     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
97     </body>
98 swift 1.26 </section>
99 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
100     <chapter>
101     <title>Courier-imap</title>
102 swift 1.26 <section>
103 zhen 1.3 <body>
104     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
105     </pre>
106     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
107 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
108 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
109     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
110     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
111 rajiv 1.14
112     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
113     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
114 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
115 rajiv 1.14
116     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
117     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
118 zhen 1.3 </pre>
119     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
120 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
121     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
122     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
123     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
124 zhen 1.3 </pre>
125     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
126     </body>
127 swift 1.26 </section>
128 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
129     <chapter>
130     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131 swift 1.26 <section>
132 zhen 1.3 <body>
133     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
134     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
135     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
136 rajiv 1.14 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
137 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
138     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
139     </pre>
140 swift 1.27 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p>
141 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
142 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
143 swift 1.34 pwcheck_method: auxprop
144     auxprop_plugin: sql
145     sql_engine: mysql
146     sql_hostnames: localhost
147     sql_user: mailsql
148     sql_passwd: <comment>&lt;password&gt;</comment>
149     sql_database: mailsql
150     sql_select: select clear from users where email = '%u@%r'
151     mech_list: plain login
152 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
153     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
154 swift 1.28 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote>
155 antifa 1.9 <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
156 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
157 zhen 1.3 </pre>
158     </body>
159 swift 1.26 </section>
160 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
161     <chapter>
162     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
163 swift 1.26 <section>
164 zhen 1.3 <body>
165     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
166     <pre>
167 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
168     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
169    
170 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
171 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
172     stateOrProvinceName_default
173     localityName_default
174     0.organizationName_default
175     commonName_default
176     emailAddress_default.
177    
178     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
179    
180 zhen 1.1
181 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
182     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
183 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
184     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
185     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
186     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
187 rajiv 1.14
188     # create a certificate
189     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
190    
191     # create a certificate request
192     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
193 zhen 1.1
194 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
195     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
196     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
197     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
198     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
199     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
200 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
201    
202 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
203     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
204     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
205 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
206     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
207     </pre>
208     </body>
209 swift 1.26 </section>
210 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
211     <chapter>
212     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
213 swift 1.26 <section>
214 zhen 1.3 <body>
215     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
216     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
217 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
218    
219     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
220     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
221     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
222     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
223     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
224    
225     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
226 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
227     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
228     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
229     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
230     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
231 zhen 1.1
232 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
233     permit_sasl_authenticated,
234     permit_mynetworks,
235     reject_unauth_destination
236    
237    
238     smtpd_use_tls = yes
239     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
240     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
241     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
242     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
243     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
244     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
245     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
246     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
247    
248     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
249 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
250 rajiv 1.14
251     # <i>postfix reload</i>
252 zhen 1.3 </pre>
253     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
254     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
255 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
256 zhen 1.1
257 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
258     Connected to localhost.
259     Escape character is '^]'.
260     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
261     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
262     250-mail.domain.com
263     250-PIPELINING
264     250-SIZE 10240000
265     250-VRFY
266     250-ETRN
267     250-STARTTLS
268     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
269     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
270     250-XVERP
271     250 8BITMIME
272     <i>^]</i>
273     telnet> <i>quit</i>
274 zhen 1.3 </pre>
275     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
276 zhen 1.1 </p>
277 zhen 1.3 </body>
278 swift 1.26 </section>
279 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
280     <chapter>
281     <title>MySQL</title>
282 swift 1.26 <section>
283 zhen 1.3 <body>
284 swift 1.35 <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~spyderous/dotfiles/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
285 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
286 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
287 zhen 1.3
288 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
289 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
290     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
291     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
292 zhen 1.1
293 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
294     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
295     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
296    
297     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
298     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
299     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
300     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
301     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
302    
303     -> <i>quit</i>
304 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
305 rajiv 1.14
306     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
307 zhen 1.3 </pre>
308 cam 1.30
309     <p>
310     Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
311     </p>
312    
313     <ul>
314 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
315     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
316     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
317     <li>users - all user account information</li>
318     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
319     </ul>
320 cam 1.30
321 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="alias table sample" >
322 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
323     1 root foo@bar.com
324     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
325 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
326 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
327 rajiv 1.15 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
328     id email clear name uid gid homedir \
329     maildir quota postfix
330     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
331     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
332     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
333     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
334 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
335 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
336 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
337     1 bar.com local:
338     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
339 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
340 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
341 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
342     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
343 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
344 zhen 1.3 </body>
345 swift 1.26 </section>
346 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
347     <chapter>
348     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
349 swift 1.26 <section>
350 zhen 1.3 <body>
351     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
352     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
353 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
354 zhen 1.3 </pre>
355 swift 1.23 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p>
356 cam 1.30
357     <p>
358     Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
359     </p>
360    
361     <ul>
362 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
363     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
364     </ul>
365 cam 1.30
366 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
367 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
368     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
369     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
370 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
371 rajiv 1.14
372     ServerName host.domain.name
373     ServerAdmin your@email.address
374     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
375     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
376    
377     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
378 zhen 1.3 </pre>
379     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
380     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
381     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
382 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
383 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
384 rajiv 1.14
385 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
386     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
387     // (this user must have read-only
388     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
389     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
390     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
391     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
392 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
393 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
394     </body>
395 swift 1.26 </section>
396 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
397     <chapter>
398     <title>The vmail user</title>
399 swift 1.26 <section>
400 zhen 1.3 <body>
401     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
402     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
403 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
404     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
405     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
406     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
407 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
408 zhen 1.3 </pre>
409     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
410     </body>
411 swift 1.26 </section>
412 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
413     <chapter>
414     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
415 swift 1.26 <section>
416 zhen 1.3 <body>
417     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
418     <pre>
419 swift 1.20 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
420 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
421 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
422 zhen 1.1
423 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
424     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
425     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
426     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
427    
428 swift 1.18 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
429 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
430 swift 1.18 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
431 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
432 zhen 1.1
433 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
434     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
435 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
436     </pre>
437     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
438     <pre>
439 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
440     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
441 zhen 1.1
442 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
443     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
444 zhen 1.1
445 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
446     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
447     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
448     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
449     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
450     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
451     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
452     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
453     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
454     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
455     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
456     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
457     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
458     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
459 zhen 1.1
460 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
461     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
462 zhen 1.3 </pre>
463     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
464     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
465 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
466     # mysql-aliases.cf
467 zhen 1.1
468 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
469     password = $password
470     dbname = mailsql
471     table = alias
472     select_field = destination
473     where_field = alias
474     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
475     </pre>
476 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
477 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
478     # mysql-relocated.cf
479 zhen 1.1
480 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
481     password = $password
482     dbname = mailsql
483     table = relocated
484     select_field = destination
485     where_field = email
486     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
487     </pre>
488 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
489 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
490     # mysql-transport.cf
491 zhen 1.1
492 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
493     password = $password
494     dbname = mailsql
495     table = transport
496     select_field = destination
497     where_field = domain
498     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
499     </pre>
500 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
501 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
502     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
503 zhen 1.1
504 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
505     password = $password
506     dbname = mailsql
507     table = users
508     select_field = gid
509     where_field = email
510     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
511     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
512     </pre>
513 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
514 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
515     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
516 zhen 1.1
517 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
518     password = $password
519     dbname = mailsql
520     table = users
521     select_field = maildir
522     where_field = email
523     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
524     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
525     </pre>
526 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
527 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
528     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
529 zhen 1.1
530 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
531     password = $password
532     dbname = mailsql
533     table = users
534     select_field = uid
535     where_field = email
536     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
537     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
538     </pre>
539 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
540 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
541     # mysql-virtual.cf
542 zhen 1.1
543 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
544     password = $password
545     dbname = mailsql
546     table = virtual
547     select_field = destination
548     where_field = email
549     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
550     </pre>
551 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
552     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
553 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
554     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
555     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
556    
557     local_transport = local
558     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
559    
560     virtual_transport = virtual
561     virtual_mailbox_domains =
562     virt-bar.com,
563     $other-virtual-domain.com
564    
565     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
566     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
567     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
568     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
569     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
570     virtual_mailbox_base = /
571     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
572     </pre>
573 swift 1.24
574     <p>
575     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
576     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
577     </p>
578    
579     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
580     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
581     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
582     </pre>
583    
584 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
585     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
586     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
587     </pre>
588     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
589     </body>
590 swift 1.26 </section>
591 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
592     <chapter>
593     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
594 swift 1.26 <section>
595 zhen 1.3 <body>
596     <pre>
597 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
598 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
599    
600 pylon 1.21 # <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
601 swift 1.31 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
602     # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
603 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
604     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
605     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
606     </pre>
607     </body>
608 swift 1.26 </section>
609 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
610     <chapter>
611     <title>Mailman</title>
612 swift 1.26 <section>
613 zhen 1.3 <body>
614 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
615 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
616 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
617 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
618     MAILGID="280"
619     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
620     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
621 zhen 1.3 </pre>
622     <pre>
623 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
624     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
625     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
626     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
627     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
628 zhen 1.3
629 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
630 zhen 1.3 </pre>
631 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
632 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
633     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
634     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
635     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
636 antifa 1.12 </pre>
637 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
638 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
639     MTA = "Postfix"
640     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
641     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
642     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
643 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
644     </pre>
645     <pre>
646 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
647 zhen 1.3
648 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
649     # <i>cd ~</i>
650     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
651     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
652     Initial test password:
653     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
654     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
655     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
656     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
657     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
658     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
659    
660     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
661     # STANZA START: test
662     # CREATED:
663     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
664     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
665     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
666     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
667     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
668     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
669     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
670     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
671     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
672     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
673     # STANZA END: test
674    
675     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
676     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
677     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
678 zhen 1.3 </pre>
679    
680     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
681 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
682     owner_request_special = no
683     recipient_delimiter = +
684     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
685    
686     alias_maps =
687     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
688     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
689    
690     virtual_alias_maps =
691     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
692     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
693     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
694     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
695     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
696     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
697     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
698 zhen 1.3 </pre>
699     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
700     </body>
701 swift 1.26 </section>
702 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
703     <chapter>
704     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
705 swift 1.26 <section>
706 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
707 swift 1.26 </section>
708 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
709     <chapter>
710     <title>Wrap Up</title>
711 swift 1.26 <section>
712 zhen 1.3 <body>
713     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
714     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
715 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
716     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
717 zhen 1.3 </pre>
718     <p>
719     <e>Have fun!</e>
720     </p>
721     </body>
722 swift 1.26 </section>
723 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
724     <chapter>
725     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
726     <section>
727 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
728     <body>
729     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
730     </body>
731 zhen 1.1 </section>
732     <section>
733 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
734     <body>
735     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
736     <pre>
737 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
738 zhen 1.3 </pre>
739     </body>
740 zhen 1.1 </section>
741     <section>
742 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
743     <body>
744     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
745     <pre>
746 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
747     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
748 zhen 1.3 </pre>
749     </body>
750 zhen 1.1 </section>
751     <section>
752 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
753     <body>
754     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
755     <pre>
756 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
757     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
758     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
759     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
760 zhen 1.3 </pre>
761     </body>
762 zhen 1.1 </section>
763     <section>
764 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
765     <body>
766     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
767     <pre>
768 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
769     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
770     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
771     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
772 zhen 1.3 </pre>
773     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
774     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
775 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
776     debug_peer_level = 5
777     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
778     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
779     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
780 zhen 1.3 </pre>
781     </body>
782 zhen 1.1 </section>
783     <section>
784 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
785     <body>
786     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
787     <pre>
788 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
789 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
790     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
791 zhen 1.1
792 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
793     Connected to localhost.
794     Escape character is '^]'.
795 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
796 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
797 zhen 1.3 </body>
798 zhen 1.1 </section>
799     <section>
800 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
801     <body>
802     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
803     <pre>
804 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
805     # <i>strace $command</i>
806     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
807 zhen 1.3 </pre>
808     </body>
809 zhen 1.1 </section>
810     <section>
811 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
812     <body>
813     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
814 cam 1.30
815 zhen 1.3 <ul>
816     <li>
817     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
818     <li>
819     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
820     <li>
821     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
822     <li>
823     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
824     <li>
825     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
826     <li>
827     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
828     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
829     </ul>
830 cam 1.30
831 zhen 1.3 </body>
832 zhen 1.1 </section>
833     </chapter>
834     </guide>

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