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1 vapier 1.32 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 swift 1.38 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.37 2004/11/19 08:28:14 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
8 antifa 1.9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
9 zhen 1.3 </author>
10     <author title="Author" >
11 antifa 1.9 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12 zhen 1.3 </author>
13 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail>
15     </author>
16 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
17 swift 1.38 <version>1.0.16</version>
18     <date>2004-12-06</date>
19 zhen 1.3 <!--
20    
21     Contents
22    
23     I. Introduction
24     II. Postfix Basics
25     III. Courier-imap
26     IV. Cyrus-sasl
27     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
28     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
29     VII. MySQL
30     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
31     IX. The vmail user
32     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
33     XI. Squirrelmail
34     XII. Mailman
35     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
36     XIV. Wrap Up
37     XV. Troubleshooting
38 zhen 1.1
39 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
40 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
41 swift 1.26 <section>
42 zhen 1.3 <body>
43     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
44     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
45     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
46 vapier 1.7 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
47 zhen 1.3 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
48 zhen 1.1
49 swift 1.17 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
50 cam 1.33 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
51 swift 1.8 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
52 antifa 1.12 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
53 zhen 1.3 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
54     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
55     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
56     </body>
57 swift 1.26 </section>
58 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
59 swift 1.26
60 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
61     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
62 swift 1.26 <section>
63 zhen 1.3 <body>
64     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
65     </pre>
66     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
67     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
68     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
69 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
70     mydomain = $domain.name
71     inet_interfaces = all
72     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
73     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
74     home_mailbox = .maildir/
75     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
76     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
77 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
78     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
79 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
80     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
81     #
82     ==========================================================================
83     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
84    
85 cam 1.30 <codenote>Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
86 zhen 1.3 </pre>
87     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
88     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
89 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
90 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
91     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
92    
93 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
94 zhen 1.3 </pre>
95     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
96     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
97     </body>
98 swift 1.26 </section>
99 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
100     <chapter>
101     <title>Courier-imap</title>
102 swift 1.26 <section>
103 zhen 1.3 <body>
104     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
105     </pre>
106     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
107 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
108 zhen 1.3 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
109     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
110     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
111 rajiv 1.14
112     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
113     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
114 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
115 rajiv 1.14
116     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
117     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
118 zhen 1.3 </pre>
119     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
120 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
121     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
122     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
123     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
124 zhen 1.3 </pre>
125     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
126     </body>
127 swift 1.26 </section>
128 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
129     <chapter>
130     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131 swift 1.26 <section>
132 zhen 1.3 <body>
133     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
134     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
135     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
136 swift 1.36 <comment>(We don't have ldap and we're using sasl's mysql capabilities
137     so we need to set the appropriate USE flags, but only if your USE flags
138     doesn't already contain the mysql USE flag and not the ldap one)</comment>
139     # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
140     # <i>echo "dev-libs/cyrus-sasl -ldap mysql" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
141     # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
142 zhen 1.3 </pre>
143 swift 1.27 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p>
144 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
145 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
146 swift 1.34 pwcheck_method: auxprop
147     auxprop_plugin: sql
148     sql_engine: mysql
149     sql_hostnames: localhost
150     sql_user: mailsql
151     sql_passwd: <comment>&lt;password&gt;</comment>
152     sql_database: mailsql
153     sql_select: select clear from users where email = '%u@%r'
154     mech_list: plain login
155 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
156     mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
157 swift 1.28 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote>
158 antifa 1.9 <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
159 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
160 zhen 1.3 </pre>
161     </body>
162 swift 1.26 </section>
163 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
164     <chapter>
165     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
166 swift 1.26 <section>
167 zhen 1.3 <body>
168     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
169     <pre>
170 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
171     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
172    
173 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
174 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
175     stateOrProvinceName_default
176     localityName_default
177     0.organizationName_default
178     commonName_default
179     emailAddress_default.
180    
181     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
182    
183 zhen 1.1
184 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
185     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
186 zhen 1.3 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
187     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
188     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
189     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
190 rajiv 1.14
191     # create a certificate
192     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
193    
194     # create a certificate request
195     system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
196 zhen 1.1
197 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
198     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
199     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
200     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
201     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
202     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
203 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
204    
205 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
206     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
207     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
208 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
209     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
210     </pre>
211     </body>
212 swift 1.26 </section>
213 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
214     <chapter>
215     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
216 swift 1.26 <section>
217 zhen 1.3 <body>
218     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
219     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
220 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
221    
222     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
223     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
224     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
225     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
226     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
227    
228     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
229 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
230     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
231     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
232     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
233     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
234 zhen 1.1
235 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
236     permit_sasl_authenticated,
237     permit_mynetworks,
238     reject_unauth_destination
239    
240    
241     smtpd_use_tls = yes
242     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
243     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
244     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
245     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
246     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
247     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
248     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
249     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
250    
251     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
252 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
253 rajiv 1.14
254     # <i>postfix reload</i>
255 zhen 1.3 </pre>
256     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
257     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
258 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
259 zhen 1.1
260 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
261     Connected to localhost.
262     Escape character is '^]'.
263     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
264     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
265     250-mail.domain.com
266     250-PIPELINING
267     250-SIZE 10240000
268     250-VRFY
269     250-ETRN
270     250-STARTTLS
271     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
272     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
273     250-XVERP
274     250 8BITMIME
275     <i>^]</i>
276     telnet> <i>quit</i>
277 zhen 1.3 </pre>
278     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
279 zhen 1.1 </p>
280 zhen 1.3 </body>
281 swift 1.26 </section>
282 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
283     <chapter>
284     <title>MySQL</title>
285 swift 1.26 <section>
286 zhen 1.3 <body>
287 swift 1.38 <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
288 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
289 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
290 zhen 1.3
291 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
292 zhen 1.3 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
293     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
294     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
295 zhen 1.1
296 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
297     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
298     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
299    
300     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
301     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
302     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
303     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
304     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
305    
306     -> <i>quit</i>
307 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
308 rajiv 1.14
309     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
310 zhen 1.3 </pre>
311 cam 1.30
312     <p>
313     Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
314     </p>
315    
316     <ul>
317 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
318     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
319     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
320     <li>users - all user account information</li>
321     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
322     </ul>
323 cam 1.30
324 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="alias table sample" >
325 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
326     1 root foo@bar.com
327     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
328 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
329 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
330 rajiv 1.15 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
331     id email clear name uid gid homedir \
332     maildir quota postfix
333     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
334     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
335     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
336     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
337 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
338 swift 1.37
339     <p>
340     The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
341     user and group.
342     </p>
343    
344 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
345 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
346     1 bar.com local:
347     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
348 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
349 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
350 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
351     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
352 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
353 zhen 1.3 </body>
354 swift 1.26 </section>
355 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
356     <chapter>
357     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
358 swift 1.26 <section>
359 zhen 1.3 <body>
360     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
361     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
362 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
363 zhen 1.3 </pre>
364 swift 1.23 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p>
365 cam 1.30
366     <p>
367     Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
368     </p>
369    
370     <ul>
371 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
372     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
373     </ul>
374 cam 1.30
375 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
376 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
377     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
378     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
379 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
380 rajiv 1.14
381     ServerName host.domain.name
382     ServerAdmin your@email.address
383     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
384     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
385    
386     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
387 zhen 1.3 </pre>
388     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
389     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
390     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
391 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
392 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
393 rajiv 1.14
394 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
395     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
396     // (this user must have read-only
397     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
398     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
399     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
400     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
401 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
402 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
403     </body>
404 swift 1.26 </section>
405 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
406     <chapter>
407     <title>The vmail user</title>
408 swift 1.26 <section>
409 zhen 1.3 <body>
410     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
411     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
412 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
413     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
414     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
415     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
416 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
417 zhen 1.3 </pre>
418     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
419     </body>
420 swift 1.26 </section>
421 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
422     <chapter>
423     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
424 swift 1.26 <section>
425 zhen 1.3 <body>
426     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
427     <pre>
428 swift 1.20 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
429 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
430 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
431 zhen 1.1
432 rajiv 1.14 #auth required pam_nologin.so
433     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
434     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
435     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
436    
437 swift 1.18 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
438 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
439 swift 1.18 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
440 rajiv 1.14 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
441 zhen 1.1
442 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
443     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
444 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
445     </pre>
446     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
447     <pre>
448 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
449     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
450 zhen 1.1
451 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
452     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
453 zhen 1.1
454 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
455     MYSQL_SERVER localhost
456     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
457     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
458     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
459     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
460     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
461     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
462     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
463     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
464     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
465     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
466     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
467     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
468 zhen 1.1
469 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
470     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
471 zhen 1.3 </pre>
472     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
473     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
474 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
475     # mysql-aliases.cf
476 zhen 1.1
477 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
478     password = $password
479     dbname = mailsql
480     table = alias
481     select_field = destination
482     where_field = alias
483     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
484     </pre>
485 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
486 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
487     # mysql-relocated.cf
488 zhen 1.1
489 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
490     password = $password
491     dbname = mailsql
492     table = relocated
493     select_field = destination
494     where_field = email
495     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496     </pre>
497 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
498 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
499     # mysql-transport.cf
500 zhen 1.1
501 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
502     password = $password
503     dbname = mailsql
504     table = transport
505     select_field = destination
506     where_field = domain
507     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508     </pre>
509 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
510 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
511     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
512 zhen 1.1
513 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
514     password = $password
515     dbname = mailsql
516     table = users
517     select_field = gid
518     where_field = email
519     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
520     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
521     </pre>
522 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
523 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
524     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
525 zhen 1.1
526 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
527     password = $password
528     dbname = mailsql
529     table = users
530     select_field = maildir
531     where_field = email
532     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
533     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
534     </pre>
535 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
536 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
537     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
538 zhen 1.1
539 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
540     password = $password
541     dbname = mailsql
542     table = users
543     select_field = uid
544     where_field = email
545     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
546     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
547     </pre>
548 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
549 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
550     # mysql-virtual.cf
551 zhen 1.1
552 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
553     password = $password
554     dbname = mailsql
555     table = virtual
556     select_field = destination
557     where_field = email
558     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
559     </pre>
560 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
561     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
562 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
563     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
564     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
565    
566     local_transport = local
567     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
568    
569     virtual_transport = virtual
570     virtual_mailbox_domains =
571     virt-bar.com,
572     $other-virtual-domain.com
573    
574     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
575     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
576     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
577     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
578     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
579     virtual_mailbox_base = /
580     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
581     </pre>
582 swift 1.24
583     <p>
584     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
585     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
586     </p>
587    
588     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
589     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
590     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
591     </pre>
592    
593 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
594     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
595     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
596     </pre>
597     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
598     </body>
599 swift 1.26 </section>
600 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
601     <chapter>
602     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
603 swift 1.26 <section>
604 zhen 1.3 <body>
605     <pre>
606 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
607 zhen 1.3 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
608    
609 pylon 1.21 # <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
610 swift 1.31 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
611     # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
612 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
613     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
614     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
615     </pre>
616     </body>
617 swift 1.26 </section>
618 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
619     <chapter>
620     <title>Mailman</title>
621 swift 1.26 <section>
622 zhen 1.3 <body>
623 swift 1.8 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
624 antifa 1.12 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
625 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
626 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
627     MAILGID="280"
628     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
629     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
630 zhen 1.3 </pre>
631     <pre>
632 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
633     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
634     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
635     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
636     <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
637 zhen 1.3
638 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
639 zhen 1.3 </pre>
640 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
641 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
642     <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
643     DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
644     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
645 antifa 1.12 </pre>
646 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
647 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
648     MTA = "Postfix"
649     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
650     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
651     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
652 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
653     </pre>
654     <pre>
655 rajiv 1.14 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
656 zhen 1.3
657 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
658     # <i>cd ~</i>
659     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
660     Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
661     Initial test password:
662     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
663     <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
664     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
665     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
666     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
667     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
668    
669     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
670     # STANZA START: test
671     # CREATED:
672     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
673     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
674     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
675     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
676     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
677     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
678     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
679     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
680     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
681     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
682     # STANZA END: test
683    
684     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
685     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
686     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
687 zhen 1.3 </pre>
688    
689     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
690 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
691     owner_request_special = no
692     recipient_delimiter = +
693     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
694    
695     alias_maps =
696     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
697     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
698    
699     virtual_alias_maps =
700     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
701     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
702     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
703     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
704     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
705     <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
706     <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
707 zhen 1.3 </pre>
708     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
709     </body>
710 swift 1.26 </section>
711 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
712     <chapter>
713     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
714 swift 1.26 <section>
715 antifa 1.9 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
716 swift 1.26 </section>
717 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
718     <chapter>
719     <title>Wrap Up</title>
720 swift 1.26 <section>
721 zhen 1.3 <body>
722     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
723     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
724 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
725     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
726 zhen 1.3 </pre>
727     <p>
728     <e>Have fun!</e>
729     </p>
730     </body>
731 swift 1.26 </section>
732 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
733     <chapter>
734     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
735     <section>
736 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
737     <body>
738     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
739     </body>
740 zhen 1.1 </section>
741     <section>
742 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
743     <body>
744     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
745     <pre>
746 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
747 zhen 1.3 </pre>
748     </body>
749 zhen 1.1 </section>
750     <section>
751 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
752     <body>
753     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
754     <pre>
755 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
756     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
757 zhen 1.3 </pre>
758     </body>
759 zhen 1.1 </section>
760     <section>
761 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
762     <body>
763     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
764     <pre>
765 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
766     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
767     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
768     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
769 zhen 1.3 </pre>
770     </body>
771 zhen 1.1 </section>
772     <section>
773 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
774     <body>
775     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
776     <pre>
777 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
778     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
779     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
780     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
781 zhen 1.3 </pre>
782     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
783     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
784 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
785     debug_peer_level = 5
786     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
787     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
788     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
789 zhen 1.3 </pre>
790     </body>
791 zhen 1.1 </section>
792     <section>
793 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
794     <body>
795     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
796     <pre>
797 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
798 zhen 1.3 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
799     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
800 zhen 1.1
801 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
802     Connected to localhost.
803     Escape character is '^]'.
804 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
805 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
806 zhen 1.3 </body>
807 zhen 1.1 </section>
808     <section>
809 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
810     <body>
811     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
812     <pre>
813 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
814     # <i>strace $command</i>
815     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
816 zhen 1.3 </pre>
817     </body>
818 zhen 1.1 </section>
819     <section>
820 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
821     <body>
822     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
823 cam 1.30
824 zhen 1.3 <ul>
825     <li>
826     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
827     <li>
828     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
829     <li>
830     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
831     <li>
832     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
833     <li>
834     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
835     <li>
836     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
837     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
838     </ul>
839 cam 1.30
840 zhen 1.3 </body>
841 zhen 1.1 </section>
842     </chapter>
843     </guide>

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