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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2 klieber 1.4 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 zhen 1.3 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4 zhen 1.1 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5 zhen 1.3 <author title="Author" >
6     <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7     </author>
8     <author title="Author" >
9     <mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10     </author>
11 zhen 1.1 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12 zhen 1.3 <version>1.0</version>
13     <date>07 Jan 2003</date>
14     <!--
15    
16     Contents
17    
18     I. Introduction
19     II. Postfix Basics
20     III. Courier-imap
21     IV. Cyrus-sasl
22     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24     VII. MySQL
25     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26     IX. The vmail user
27     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28     XI. Squirrelmail
29     XII. Mailman
30     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
31     XIV. Wrap Up
32     XV. Troubleshooting
33 zhen 1.1
34 zhen 1.3 --><chapter>
35 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
36 zhen 1.3 <body>
37     <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
38     <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39     <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40     <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41     <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 zhen 1.1
43     apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44 zhen 1.3 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45     <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is reccommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46     <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
47     <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
48     <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
49     </body>
50 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
51     <chapter>
52     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
53 zhen 1.3 <body>
54     <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
55     </pre>
56     <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
57     <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
58     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
59 zhen 1.1 myhostname = $host.domain.name
60     mydomain = $domain.name
61     inet_interfaces = all
62     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
63     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
64 zhen 1.3 home_mailbox = .maildir/
65 zhen 1.1 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
66     default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
67 zhen 1.3 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
68     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
69 zhen 1.1 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
70     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
71     #
72     ==========================================================================
73     smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
74    
75     <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
76 zhen 1.3 </pre>
77     <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
78     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
79     # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
80     <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
81     <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
82    
83     # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
84     </pre>
85     <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
86     <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
87     </body>
88 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
89     <chapter>
90     <title>Courier-imap</title>
91 zhen 1.3 <body>
92     <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
93     </pre>
94     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
95     # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
96     <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
97     <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
98     <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
99    
100     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
101     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
102     <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
103 zhen 1.1
104     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
105     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
106 zhen 1.3 </pre>
107     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
108     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
109     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
110     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
111     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
112     </pre>
113     <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
114     </body>
115 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
116     <chapter>
117     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
118 zhen 1.3 <body>
119     <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
120     <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
121     <p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p>
122     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123     # <i>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</i>
124     # <i>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</i>
125     <codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
126 zhen 1.1
127     econf \
128     --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
129     --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
130     --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
131     --with-openssl \
132     --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
133     --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
134     --with-des \
135     --with-rc4 \
136     --disable-krb4 \
137     --with-gnu-ld \
138     --enable-shared \
139     --disable-sample \
140     --enable-login \
141     --disable-cram \
142     --disable-digest \
143 zhen 1.3 ${myconf} || die &quot;bad ./configure&quot;
144 zhen 1.1
145 zhen 1.3 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
146     <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
147     <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
148     </pre>
149     <p>Next, edit <path>/var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
150     <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
151     # <i>nano -w /var/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
152     pwcheck_method: saslauthd
153 zhen 1.1
154     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
155 zhen 1.3 </pre>
156     </body>
157 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
158     <chapter>
159     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
160 zhen 1.3 <body>
161     <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
162     <pre>
163     # <i>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</i>
164     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
165     <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
166 zhen 1.1
167     countryName_default
168     stateOrProvinceName_default
169     localityName_default
170     0.organizationName_default
171     commonName_default
172     emailAddress_default.
173    
174     <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
175    
176    
177 zhen 1.3 # <i>cd misc</i>
178     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
179     <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
180     <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
181     <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
182     <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
183 zhen 1.1
184     # create a certificate
185 zhen 1.3 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
186 zhen 1.1
187     # create a certificate request
188 zhen 1.3 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
189 zhen 1.1
190 zhen 1.3 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
191     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
192     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
193     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
194     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
195     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
196     <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
197    
198    
199     # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
200     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
201     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
202     <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
203     <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
204     </pre>
205     </body>
206 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
207     <chapter>
208     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
209 zhen 1.3 <body>
210     <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
211     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
212     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
213 zhen 1.1
214     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
215     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
216     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
217     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
218     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
219    
220     <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
221 zhen 1.3 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
222     <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
223     <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
224     <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
225     <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
226 zhen 1.1
227     smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
228     permit_sasl_authenticated,
229     permit_mynetworks,
230 zhen 1.3 reject_unath_destination
231    
232 zhen 1.1
233     smtpd_use_tls = yes
234     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
235     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
236     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
237     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
238     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
239     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
240     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
241     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
242    
243     <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
244 zhen 1.3 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
245 zhen 1.1
246 zhen 1.3 # <i>postfix reload</i>
247     </pre>
248     <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
249     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
250 zhen 1.1 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
251    
252     Trying 127.0.0.1...
253     Connected to localhost.
254     Escape character is '^]'.
255     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
256     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
257     250-mail.domain.com
258     250-PIPELINING
259     250-SIZE 10240000
260     250-VRFY
261     250-ETRN
262     250-STARTTLS
263     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP
264     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP
265     250-XVERP
266     250 8BITMIME
267     <i>^]</i>
268     telnet> <i>quit</i>
269 zhen 1.3 </pre>
270     <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
271 zhen 1.1 </p>
272 zhen 1.3 </body>
273 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
274     <chapter>
275     <title>MySQL</title>
276 zhen 1.3 <body>
277     <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
278     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
279     # <i>emerge mysql</i>
280    
281     # <i>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</i>
282     <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
283     <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
284     <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
285    
286     # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
287     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
288     # <i>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
289 zhen 1.1
290     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
291     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
292     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
293     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
294     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
295    
296     -> <i>quit</i>
297 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
298 zhen 1.1
299 zhen 1.3 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
300     </pre>
301     <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
302 zhen 1.1 <ul>
303 zhen 1.3 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
304     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
305     <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
306     <li>users - all user account information</li>
307     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
308     </ul>
309     </p>
310     <pre caption="alias table sample" >
311 zhen 1.1 id alias destination
312     1 root foo@bar.com
313     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
314     </pre>
315 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="user table sample" >
316 zhen 1.1 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
317     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
318     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
319     </pre>
320 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
321 zhen 1.1 id domain destination
322     1 bar.com local:
323     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
324     </pre>
325 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
326 zhen 1.1 id email destination
327     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
328     </pre>
329 zhen 1.3 </body>
330 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
331     <chapter>
332     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
333 zhen 1.3 <body>
334     <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
335     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
336     # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i>
337     </pre>
338     <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
339     <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
340 zhen 1.1 <ul>
341 zhen 1.3 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
342     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
343     </ul>
344     </p>
345     <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
346     # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
347     # <i>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
348     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
349     <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
350 zhen 1.1
351     ServerName host.domain.name
352     ServerAdmin your@email.address
353     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
354     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
355    
356 zhen 1.3 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
357     </pre>
358     <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
359     <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
360     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
361     # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
362     <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
363 zhen 1.1
364     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
365     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
366     // (this user must have read-only
367 zhen 1.3 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
368     // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
369 zhen 1.1 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
370     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
371     </pre>
372 zhen 1.3 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
373     </body>
374 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
375     <chapter>
376     <title>The vmail user</title>
377 zhen 1.3 <body>
378     <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
379     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
380 zhen 1.1 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
381     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
382     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
383     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
384     # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
385 zhen 1.3 </pre>
386     <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
387     </body>
388 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
389     <chapter>
390     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
391 zhen 1.3 <body>
392     <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
393     <pre>
394 zhen 1.1 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
395 zhen 1.3 <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
396     <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
397     <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
398 zhen 1.1
399 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
400     <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
401 zhen 1.1
402     #auth required pam_nologin.so
403     #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
404     #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
405     #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
406    
407     auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
408     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
409     account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
410     passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
411    
412 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
413     # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
414     <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
415     </pre>
416     <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
417     <pre>
418     # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
419     authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
420 zhen 1.1
421 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
422     AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
423 zhen 1.1
424 zhen 1.3 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
425 zhen 1.1 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
426     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
427     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
428     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
429     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
430     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
431     MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
432     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
433     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
434     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
435     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
436     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
437     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
438    
439     # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
440     # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
441 zhen 1.3 </pre>
442     <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
443     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
444     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
445 zhen 1.1 # mysql-aliases.cf
446    
447     user = mailsql
448     password = $password
449     dbname = mailsql
450     table = alias
451     select_field = destination
452     where_field = alias
453 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
454 zhen 1.1 </pre>
455 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
456     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
457 zhen 1.1 # mysql-relocated.cf
458    
459     user = mailsql
460     password = $password
461     dbname = mailsql
462     table = relocated
463     select_field = destination
464     where_field = email
465 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
466 zhen 1.1 </pre>
467 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
468     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
469 zhen 1.1 # mysql-transport.cf
470    
471     user = mailsql
472     password = $password
473     dbname = mailsql
474     table = transport
475     select_field = destination
476     where_field = domain
477 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
478 zhen 1.1 </pre>
479 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
480     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
481 zhen 1.1 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
482    
483     user = mailsql
484     password = $password
485     dbname = mailsql
486     table = users
487     select_field = gid
488     where_field = email
489     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
490 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
491 zhen 1.1 </pre>
492 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
493     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
494 zhen 1.1 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
495    
496     user = mailsql
497     password = $password
498     dbname = mailsql
499     table = users
500     select_field = maildir
501     where_field = email
502     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
503 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
504 zhen 1.1 </pre>
505 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
506     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
507 zhen 1.1 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
508    
509     user = mailsql
510     password = $password
511     dbname = mailsql
512     table = users
513     select_field = uid
514     where_field = email
515     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
516 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
517 zhen 1.1 </pre>
518 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
519     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
520 zhen 1.1 # mysql-virtual.cf
521    
522     user = mailsql
523     password = $password
524     dbname = mailsql
525     table = virtual
526     select_field = destination
527     where_field = email
528 zhen 1.3 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
529 zhen 1.1 </pre>
530 zhen 1.3 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
531     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
532     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
533     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
534     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
535    
536     local_transport = local
537     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
538 zhen 1.1
539 zhen 1.3 virtual_transport = virtual
540     virtual_mailbox_domains =
541     virt-bar.com,
542     $other-virtual-domain.com
543 zhen 1.1
544 zhen 1.3 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
545     virtual_gid_maps = static: $vmail-gid
546 zhen 1.1 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
547 zhen 1.3 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
548     virtual_uid_maps = static: $vmail-uid
549 zhen 1.1 virtual_mailbox_base = /
550 zhen 1.3 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
551 zhen 1.1 </pre>
552 zhen 1.3 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
553     <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
554     <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
555     </pre>
556     <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
557     </body>
558 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
559     <chapter>
560     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
561 zhen 1.3 <body>
562     <pre>
563     # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
564     <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
565    
566     # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
567     # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
568     # <i>./conf.pl</i>
569     <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
570     <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
571     <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
572     </pre>
573     </body>
574 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
575     <chapter>
576     <title>Mailman</title>
577 zhen 1.3 <body>
578     <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correclty for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really reccommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
579     <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
580     # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
581     MAILGID="280"
582     <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
583     <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
584     </pre>
585     <pre>
586     # <i>emerge mailman</i>
587     <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
588     <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
589     <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz</codenote>
590    
591     # <i>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
592     </pre>
593     <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
594     # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
595     MTA = "Postfix"
596     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
597     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
598     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
599     <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
600     </pre>
601     <pre>
602     <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
603    
604     # <i>su mailman</i>
605     # <i>cd ~</i>
606     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
607 zhen 1.1 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
608     Initial test password:
609     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
610 zhen 1.3 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
611     <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
612     # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
613     <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
614     <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
615    
616     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
617     # STANZA START: test
618     # CREATED:
619     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
620     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
621     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
622     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
623     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
624     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
625     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
626     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
627     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
628     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
629     # STANZA END: test
630    
631     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
632     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
633     <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
634     </pre>
635    
636     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
637     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
638     owner_request_special = no
639     recipient_delimiter = +
640     <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
641    
642     alias_maps =
643     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
644     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
645    
646     virtual_alias_maps =
647     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
648     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
649     <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
650     <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
651     <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand.</codenote>
652     </pre>
653     <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
654     </body>
655     </chapter>
656     <chapter>
657     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
658     <body><p>Coming soon...</p></body>
659 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
660     <chapter>
661     <title>Wrap Up</title>
662 zhen 1.3 <body>
663     <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
664     <pre caption="Wrap up" >
665     # <i>postfix reload</i>
666     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
667     </pre>
668     <p>
669     <e>Have fun!</e>
670     </p>
671     </body>
672 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
673     <chapter>
674     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
675     <section>
676 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
677     <body>
678     <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
679     </body>
680 zhen 1.1 </section>
681     <section>
682 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
683     <body>
684     <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
685     <pre>
686     # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
687     </pre>
688     </body>
689 zhen 1.1 </section>
690     <section>
691 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
692     <body>
693     <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
694     <pre>
695     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
696     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
697     </pre>
698     </body>
699 zhen 1.1 </section>
700     <section>
701 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
702     <body>
703     <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
704     <pre>
705     # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
706     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
707     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
708     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
709     </pre>
710     </body>
711 zhen 1.1 </section>
712     <section>
713 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
714     <body>
715     <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
716     <pre>
717     # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
718     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
719     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
720     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
721     </pre>
722     <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
723     <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
724     # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
725     debug_peer_level = 5
726     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
727     <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
728     <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
729     </pre>
730     </body>
731 zhen 1.1 </section>
732     <section>
733 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
734     <body>
735     <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
736     <pre>
737     # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
738     <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
739     <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
740 zhen 1.1
741     Trying 127.0.0.1...
742     Connected to localhost.
743     Escape character is '^]'.
744     * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information.
745     </pre>
746 zhen 1.3 </body>
747 zhen 1.1 </section>
748     <section>
749 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
750     <body>
751     <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
752     <pre>
753     # <i>emerge strace</i>
754     # <i>strace $command</i>
755     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
756     </pre>
757     </body>
758 zhen 1.1 </section>
759     <section>
760 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
761     <body>
762     <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
763     <p>
764     <ul>
765     <li>
766     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
767     <li>
768     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
769     <li>
770     <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
771     <li>
772     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
773     <li>
774     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
775     <li>
776     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
777     <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
778     </ul>
779     </p>
780     </body>
781 zhen 1.1 </section>
782     </chapter>
783     </guide>

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