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1 vapier 1.32 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 swift 1.45 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.44 2005/05/23 16:09:09 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 neysx 1.39 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 neysx 1.39
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 zhen 1.3 </author>
11 neysx 1.39 <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 zhen 1.3 </author>
14 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
15 neysx 1.39 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 klasikahl 1.22 </author>
17 swift 1.45 <author title="Editor">
18     <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19     </author>
20 neysx 1.39
21     <abstract>
22     This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23     postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24     </abstract>
25    
26 swift 1.45 <version>1.0.22</version>
27     <date>2005-05-29</date>
28 neysx 1.39
29 zhen 1.3 <!--
30     Contents
31    
32     I. Introduction
33     II. Postfix Basics
34     III. Courier-imap
35     IV. Cyrus-sasl
36     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38     VII. MySQL
39     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40     IX. The vmail user
41     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42     XI. Squirrelmail
43     XII. Mailman
44     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45     XIV. Wrap Up
46     XV. Troubleshooting
47 neysx 1.39 -->
48 zhen 1.1
49 neysx 1.39 <chapter>
50 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
51 swift 1.26 <section>
52 zhen 1.3 <body>
53 neysx 1.39
54     <p>
55     For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56     you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57     Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58     need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59     system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60     </p>
61    
62     <p>
63     A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64     with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65     that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66     domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67     smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68     system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69     the system? How do you manage it all?
70     </p>
71    
72     <p>
73     This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74     mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75     users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76     authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77     utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78     mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79     central and easy mysql database.
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83     There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84     system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85     needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86     <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90 swift 1.45 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 neysx 1.39 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92     mailman.
93     </p>
94    
95     <p>
96     Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 swift 1.45 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 neysx 1.39 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99     get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100     turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101     </p>
102    
103     <impo>
104     This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105     of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106     upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107     well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108     run into issues with this.
109     </impo>
110    
111     <impo>
112     This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113     However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114     support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115     1.3.x version.
116     </impo>
117    
118     <impo>
119     You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120     for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121     advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122     </impo>
123    
124     <impo>
125     Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126     server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127     verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128     </impo>
129    
130     <note>
131     It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132     with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133     any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134     Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135     flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136     the squirrelmail section.
137     </note>
138    
139 zhen 1.3 </body>
140 swift 1.26 </section>
141 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
142 swift 1.26
143 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
144     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
145 swift 1.26 <section>
146 zhen 1.3 <body>
147 neysx 1.39
148     <pre caption="Install postfix">
149     # <i>emerge postfix</i>
150 zhen 1.3 </pre>
151 neysx 1.39
152     <warn>
153     Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154     qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155     </warn>
156    
157     <p>
158     After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159     options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160     </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
164     mydomain = $domain.name
165     inet_interfaces = all
166     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168     home_mailbox = .maildir/
169     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170 neysx 1.39 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174     Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175     turn on verbose output for debugging:
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181     #
182     ==========================================================================
183 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184 rajiv 1.14 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185 neysx 1.39 </pre>
186 rajiv 1.14
187 neysx 1.39 <p>
188     Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189     should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190     </p>
191    
192     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195     when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
196 zhen 1.3
197 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
198 zhen 1.3 </pre>
199 neysx 1.39
200     <p>
201     Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202     yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203     postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204     next step.
205     </p>
206    
207     <note>
208     I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209     before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210     </note>
211    
212 zhen 1.3 </body>
213 swift 1.26 </section>
214 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
215 neysx 1.39
216 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
217     <title>Courier-imap</title>
218 swift 1.26 <section>
219 zhen 1.3 <body>
220 neysx 1.39
221 swift 1.45 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222     # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223 zhen 1.3 </pre>
224 neysx 1.39
225     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227 neysx 1.39 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228     you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229     This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230 rajiv 1.14
231     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234 rajiv 1.14
235     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237 zhen 1.3 </pre>
238 neysx 1.39
239     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244 zhen 1.3 </pre>
245 neysx 1.39
246     <p>
247     Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248     started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249     going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250     running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251     progressing.
252     </p>
253    
254 zhen 1.3 </body>
255 swift 1.26 </section>
256 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
257 neysx 1.39
258 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
259     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260 swift 1.26 <section>
261 zhen 1.3 <body>
262 neysx 1.39
263     <p>
264     Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265 swift 1.45 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266 neysx 1.39 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267     not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268     a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269     end anyway.
270     </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
273 swift 1.36 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
274 zhen 1.3 </pre>
275 neysx 1.39
276     <p>
277     Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278     </p>
279    
280     <pre caption="Starting sasl">
281 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282 swift 1.41 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
283 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
284 swift 1.41 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
285 swift 1.45 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
286     SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
287 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
288 zhen 1.3 </pre>
289 neysx 1.39
290 zhen 1.3 </body>
291 swift 1.26 </section>
292 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
293 neysx 1.39
294 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
295     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296 swift 1.26 <section>
297 zhen 1.3 <body>
298 neysx 1.39
299     <p>
300     Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301     </p>
302    
303     <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306    
307 neysx 1.39 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
309     stateOrProvinceName_default
310     localityName_default
311     0.organizationName_default
312     commonName_default
313     emailAddress_default.
314    
315 neysx 1.39 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316 zhen 1.1
317 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
318     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319 neysx 1.39 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320     #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321     certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322     reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323 rajiv 1.14
324     # create a certificate
325 neysx 1.39 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326 rajiv 1.14
327     # create a certificate request
328 neysx 1.39 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329 zhen 1.1
330 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
331     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
332     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
337 zhen 1.3
338 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
339     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
340     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
341 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
342     We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
343 zhen 1.3 </pre>
344 neysx 1.39
345 zhen 1.3 </body>
346 swift 1.26 </section>
347 neysx 1.39
348 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
349     <chapter>
350     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351 swift 1.26 <section>
352 zhen 1.3 <body>
353 neysx 1.39
354     <p>
355     Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356     capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357     will be easy to find.
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
361 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
362    
363     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
364     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
365     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
366     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
367     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
368    
369 neysx 1.39 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
370     are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
371     Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
372     smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373     smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374     mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375 zhen 1.1
376 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377     permit_sasl_authenticated,
378     permit_mynetworks,
379     reject_unauth_destination
380    
381    
382     smtpd_use_tls = yes
383     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
384     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
385     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
386     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
387     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
388     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
389     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
390     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
391    
392 neysx 1.39 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
393     You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
394 rajiv 1.14
395     # <i>postfix reload</i>
396 zhen 1.3 </pre>
397 neysx 1.39
398     <p>
399     Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
403 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
404 zhen 1.1
405 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
406     Connected to localhost.
407     Escape character is '^]'.
408     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
409     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
410     250-mail.domain.com
411     250-PIPELINING
412     250-SIZE 10240000
413     250-VRFY
414     250-ETRN
415     250-STARTTLS
416     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
417     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
418     250-XVERP
419     250 8BITMIME
420     <i>^]</i>
421     telnet> <i>quit</i>
422 zhen 1.3 </pre>
423 neysx 1.39
424     <p>
425     Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
426     install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
427     sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
428     unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
429     and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
430     </p>
431    
432 zhen 1.3 </body>
433 swift 1.26 </section>
434 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
435 neysx 1.39
436 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
437     <title>MySQL</title>
438 swift 1.26 <section>
439 zhen 1.3 <body>
440 neysx 1.39
441     <p>
442     Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
443     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
444     dumpfile for this step.
445     </p>
446    
447     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
448 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
449 zhen 1.3
450 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
451 neysx 1.39 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
452     for adding a root password with mysql,
453     not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
454 zhen 1.1
455 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
456     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
457     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
458    
459     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
460     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
461     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
462     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
463     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
464    
465     -> <i>quit</i>
466 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
467 rajiv 1.14
468     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
469 zhen 1.3 </pre>
470 cam 1.30
471     <p>
472 neysx 1.39 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
473     following tables are included:
474 cam 1.30 </p>
475    
476     <ul>
477 neysx 1.39 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
478     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
479     <li>
480     transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
481     hosting
482     </li>
483     <li>users - all user account information</li>
484     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
485 zhen 1.3 </ul>
486 cam 1.30
487 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="alias table sample">
488 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
489     1 root foo@bar.com
490     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
491 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
492 neysx 1.39
493     <pre caption="user table sample">
494     <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
495 rajiv 1.15 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
496     maildir quota postfix
497     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
498     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
499     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
500     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
501 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
502 swift 1.37
503     <p>
504     The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
505     user and group.
506     </p>
507    
508 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="transport table sample">
509 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
510     1 bar.com local:
511     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
512 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
513 neysx 1.39
514     <pre caption="virtual table sample">
515 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
516     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
517 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
518 neysx 1.39
519 zhen 1.3 </body>
520 swift 1.26 </section>
521 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
522 neysx 1.39
523 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
524     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
525 swift 1.26 <section>
526 zhen 1.3 <body>
527 neysx 1.39
528     <p>
529     Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
530     more easily.
531     </p>
532    
533     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
534 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
535 zhen 1.3 </pre>
536 cam 1.30
537     <p>
538 neysx 1.39 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
539     this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
540     numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
541     problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
542     not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
543     with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
544     phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
545     index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
546     phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
547     however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
548     including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
549     </p>
550    
551     <p>
552     Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
553     Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
554 cam 1.30 </p>
555    
556     <ul>
557 neysx 1.39 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
558     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
559 zhen 1.3 </ul>
560 cam 1.30
561 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
562 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
563     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
564     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
565 neysx 1.39
566     <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
567 rajiv 1.14
568     ServerName host.domain.name
569     ServerAdmin your@email.address
570     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
571     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
572    
573     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
574 zhen 1.3 </pre>
575 neysx 1.39
576     <note>
577     If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
578     server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
579     apache restarted successfully.
580     </note>
581    
582     <p>
583     Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
584     </p>
585    
586     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
587 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
588 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
589 rajiv 1.14
590 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
591     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
592     // (this user must have read-only
593 neysx 1.39 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
594     // and "mysql/db" tables)
595 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
596     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
597 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
598 neysx 1.39
599     <p>
600     Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
601     local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
602     transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
603     supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
604     go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
605     accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
606     correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
607     automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
608     general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
609     after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
610     </p>
611    
612 zhen 1.3 </body>
613 swift 1.26 </section>
614 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
615 neysx 1.39
616 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
617     <title>The vmail user</title>
618 swift 1.26 <section>
619 zhen 1.3 <body>
620 neysx 1.39
621     <p>
622     At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
623     mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
624     </p>
625    
626     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
627 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
628     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
629     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
630     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
631 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
632 zhen 1.3 </pre>
633 neysx 1.39
634     <p>
635     So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
636     homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
637     homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
638     haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
639     </p>
640    
641 zhen 1.3 </body>
642 swift 1.26 </section>
643 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
644 neysx 1.39
645 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
646     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
647 swift 1.26 <section>
648 zhen 1.3 <body>
649 neysx 1.39
650     <p>
651     Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
652     courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
653     <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
654     </p>
655    
656     <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
657 swift 1.45 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
658 neysx 1.39 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
659 zhen 1.1
660 swift 1.45 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
661 rajiv 1.14 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
662     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
663     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
664     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
665     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
666 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
667     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
668 rajiv 1.14 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
669     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
670     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
671     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
672     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
673     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
674     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
675 zhen 1.1
676 swift 1.44 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
677 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
678 zhen 1.3 </pre>
679 neysx 1.39
680     <p>
681     We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
682     for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
683     </p>
684    
685     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
686 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
687     # mysql-aliases.cf
688 zhen 1.1
689 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
690     password = $password
691     dbname = mailsql
692     table = alias
693     select_field = destination
694     where_field = alias
695     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
696     </pre>
697 neysx 1.39
698     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
699 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
700     # mysql-relocated.cf
701 zhen 1.1
702 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
703     password = $password
704     dbname = mailsql
705     table = relocated
706     select_field = destination
707     where_field = email
708     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
709     </pre>
710 neysx 1.39
711     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
712 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
713     # mysql-transport.cf
714 zhen 1.1
715 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
716     password = $password
717     dbname = mailsql
718     table = transport
719     select_field = destination
720     where_field = domain
721     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
722     </pre>
723 neysx 1.39
724     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
725 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
726     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
727 zhen 1.1
728 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
729     password = $password
730     dbname = mailsql
731     table = users
732     select_field = gid
733     where_field = email
734     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
735     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
736     </pre>
737 neysx 1.39
738     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
739 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
740     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
741 zhen 1.1
742 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
743     password = $password
744     dbname = mailsql
745     table = users
746     select_field = maildir
747     where_field = email
748     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
749     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
750     </pre>
751 neysx 1.39
752     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
753 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
754     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
755 zhen 1.1
756 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
757     password = $password
758     dbname = mailsql
759     table = users
760     select_field = uid
761     where_field = email
762     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
763     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
764     </pre>
765 neysx 1.39
766     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
767 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
768     # mysql-virtual.cf
769 zhen 1.1
770 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
771     password = $password
772     dbname = mailsql
773     table = virtual
774     select_field = destination
775     where_field = email
776     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
777     </pre>
778 neysx 1.39
779     <p>
780     Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
781     </p>
782    
783     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
784 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
785     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
786     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
787    
788     local_transport = local
789     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
790    
791     virtual_transport = virtual
792     virtual_mailbox_domains =
793     virt-bar.com,
794     $other-virtual-domain.com
795    
796     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
797     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
798     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
799     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
800     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
801     virtual_mailbox_base = /
802     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
803     </pre>
804 swift 1.24
805     <p>
806     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
807     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
808     </p>
809    
810     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
811     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
812     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
813     </pre>
814    
815 neysx 1.39 <p>
816     As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
817     release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
818     longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
819     </p>
820    
821     <note>
822     It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
823     for more information.
824     </note>
825    
826     <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
827     # <i>postfix reload</i>
828 zhen 1.3 </pre>
829 neysx 1.39
830     <p>
831     Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
832     able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
833     for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
834     everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
835     things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
836     troubleshooting section of this howto.
837     </p>
838    
839 zhen 1.3 </body>
840 swift 1.26 </section>
841 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
842 neysx 1.39
843 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
844     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
845 swift 1.26 <section>
846 zhen 1.3 <body>
847 neysx 1.39
848     <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
849 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
850 swift 1.40 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
851     (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
852 zhen 1.3
853 swift 1.40 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
854 swift 1.31 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
855     # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
856 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
857     Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
858     and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
859 zhen 1.3 </pre>
860 neysx 1.39
861 zhen 1.3 </body>
862 swift 1.26 </section>
863 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
864 neysx 1.39
865 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
866     <title>Mailman</title>
867 swift 1.26 <section>
868 zhen 1.3 <body>
869 neysx 1.39
870     <p>
871     Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
872     support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
873     get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
874     to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
875     documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
876     here.
877     </p>
878    
879     <p>
880     One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
881     you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
882     overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
883     </p>
884    
885 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
886 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
887     MAILGID="280"
888 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
889     This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
890 zhen 1.3 </pre>
891 neysx 1.39
892     <pre caption="Install mailman">
893 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
894 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
895     emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
896     in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
897     We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
898 zhen 1.3
899 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
900 zhen 1.3 </pre>
901 neysx 1.39
902 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
903 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
904 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
905 rajiv 1.14 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
906     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
907 antifa 1.12 </pre>
908 neysx 1.39
909 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
910 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
911     MTA = "Postfix"
912     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
913     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
914     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
915 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
916 zhen 1.3 </pre>
917 neysx 1.39
918     <pre caption="And last but not least">
919     <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
920 zhen 1.3
921 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
922     # <i>cd ~</i>
923     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
924 neysx 1.39 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
925 rajiv 1.14 Initial test password:
926     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
927 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
928     list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
929 rajiv 1.14 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
930 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
931     verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
932 rajiv 1.14
933     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
934     # STANZA START: test
935     # CREATED:
936     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
937     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
938     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
939     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
940     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
941     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
942     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
943     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
944     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
945     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
946     # STANZA END: test
947    
948     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
949     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
950 neysx 1.39 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
951 zhen 1.3 </pre>
952    
953     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
954 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
955     owner_request_special = no
956     recipient_delimiter = +
957 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
958 rajiv 1.14
959     alias_maps =
960     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
961     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
962    
963     virtual_alias_maps =
964     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
965     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
966 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
967     You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
968     but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
969     using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
970     to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
971 zhen 1.3 </pre>
972 neysx 1.39
973     <p>
974     You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
975     note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
976     mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
977     Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
978     lists.
979     </p>
980    
981 zhen 1.3 </body>
982 swift 1.26 </section>
983 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
984 neysx 1.39
985 zhen 1.3 <chapter>
986     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
987 swift 1.26 <section>
988 neysx 1.39 <body>
989    
990     <p>
991 neysx 1.42 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
992     link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
993 neysx 1.39 </p>
994    
995     </body>
996 swift 1.26 </section>
997 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
998 neysx 1.39
999 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
1000     <title>Wrap Up</title>
1001 swift 1.26 <section>
1002 zhen 1.3 <body>
1003 neysx 1.39
1004     <p>
1005     Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1006     verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1007     to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1008     sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1009     courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1010     up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1011     the services enabled.
1012     </p>
1013    
1014     <pre caption="Wrap up">
1015 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1016     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1017 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1018 neysx 1.39
1019 zhen 1.3 <p>
1020     <e>Have fun!</e>
1021     </p>
1022 neysx 1.39
1023 zhen 1.3 </body>
1024 swift 1.26 </section>
1025 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
1026 neysx 1.39
1027 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
1028     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1029     <section>
1030 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
1031     <body>
1032 neysx 1.39
1033     <p>
1034     Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1035     detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1036     you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1037     it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1038     that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1039     from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1040     work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1041     </p>
1042    
1043 zhen 1.3 </body>
1044 zhen 1.1 </section>
1045     <section>
1046 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1047 zhen 1.3 <body>
1048 neysx 1.39
1049     <p>
1050     Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1051     your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1052     if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1053     it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1054     make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1055     </p>
1056    
1057     <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1058 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1059 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1060 neysx 1.39
1061 zhen 1.3 </body>
1062 zhen 1.1 </section>
1063     <section>
1064 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1065     <body>
1066 neysx 1.39
1067     <p>
1068     If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1069     running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1070     Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1071     component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1072     process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1073     awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1074     out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1075     </p>
1076    
1077     <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1078 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1079     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1080 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1081 neysx 1.39
1082 zhen 1.3 </body>
1083 zhen 1.1 </section>
1084     <section>
1085 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1086     <body>
1087 neysx 1.39
1088     <p>
1089     If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1090     sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1091     current config's to you, like postfix.
1092     </p>
1093    
1094     <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1095 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1096     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1097     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1098     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1099 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1100 neysx 1.39
1101 zhen 1.3 </body>
1102 zhen 1.1 </section>
1103     <section>
1104 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1105 zhen 1.3 <body>
1106 neysx 1.39
1107     <p>
1108     Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1109     logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1110     logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1111     logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1112     in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1113     figure out which component is having the problem.
1114     </p>
1115    
1116     <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1117 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1118     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1119     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1120     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1121 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1122 neysx 1.39
1123     <p>
1124     You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1125     will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1126     </p>
1127    
1128 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1129 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1130     debug_peer_level = 5
1131     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1132 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1133     commands as well.)</comment>
1134 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1135 neysx 1.39
1136 zhen 1.3 </body>
1137 zhen 1.1 </section>
1138     <section>
1139 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1140 zhen 1.3 <body>
1141 neysx 1.39
1142     <p>
1143     SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1144     we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1145     to the service itself and see what's happening.
1146     </p>
1147    
1148     <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1149 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1150 neysx 1.39 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1151     letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1152 zhen 1.1
1153 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1154     Connected to localhost.
1155     Escape character is '^]'.
1156 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1157 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
1158 neysx 1.39
1159 zhen 1.3 </body>
1160 zhen 1.1 </section>
1161     <section>
1162 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1163 zhen 1.3 <body>
1164 neysx 1.39
1165     <p>
1166     You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1167     software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1168     all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1169     information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1170     transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1171     </p>
1172    
1173     <pre caption="Using strace">
1174 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1175     # <i>strace $command</i>
1176     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1177 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1178 neysx 1.39
1179 zhen 1.3 </body>
1180 zhen 1.1 </section>
1181     <section>
1182 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1183     <body>
1184 neysx 1.39
1185     <p>
1186     Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1187     If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1188     help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1189     already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1190     which contains some great debugging ideas.
1191     </p>
1192 cam 1.30
1193 zhen 1.3 <ul>
1194 neysx 1.39 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1195     <li>
1196     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1197     to look for specific errors
1198     </li>
1199     <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1200     <li>
1201     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1202     lists - searchable
1203     </li>
1204     <li>
1205     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1206     Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1207     </li>
1208     <li>
1209     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1210     google, which has never failed me
1211     </li>
1212     <li>
1213     I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1214     place to go for help.
1215     </li>
1216 zhen 1.3 </ul>
1217 cam 1.30
1218 zhen 1.3 </body>
1219 zhen 1.1 </section>
1220     </chapter>
1221     </guide>

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