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Revision 1.48 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jan 8 01:10:07 2006 UTC (8 years, 11 months ago) by vanquirius
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.47: +5 -3 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Add smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes for bug 108317. Thanks to Johan Hellgren
<johan at insightbb dot com> and Josh Saddler <jackdark at gmail dot com>.

1 vapier 1.32 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 vanquirius 1.48 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.47 2005/12/16 07:43:40 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 neysx 1.39 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 neysx 1.39
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 zhen 1.3 </author>
11 neysx 1.39 <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 zhen 1.3 </author>
14 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
15 neysx 1.39 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 klasikahl 1.22 </author>
17 swift 1.45 <author title="Editor">
18     <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19     </author>
20 neysx 1.39
21     <abstract>
22     This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23     postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24     </abstract>
25    
26 vanquirius 1.48 <version>1.0.25</version>
27     <date>2006-01-07</date>
28 neysx 1.39
29 zhen 1.3 <!--
30     Contents
31    
32     I. Introduction
33     II. Postfix Basics
34     III. Courier-imap
35     IV. Cyrus-sasl
36     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38     VII. MySQL
39     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40     IX. The vmail user
41     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42     XI. Squirrelmail
43     XII. Mailman
44     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45     XIV. Wrap Up
46     XV. Troubleshooting
47 neysx 1.39 -->
48 zhen 1.1
49 neysx 1.39 <chapter>
50 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
51 swift 1.26 <section>
52 zhen 1.3 <body>
53 neysx 1.39
54     <p>
55     For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56     you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57     Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58     need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59     system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60     </p>
61    
62     <p>
63     A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64     with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65     that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66     domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67     smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68     system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69     the system? How do you manage it all?
70     </p>
71    
72     <p>
73     This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74     mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75     users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76     authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77     utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78     mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79     central and easy mysql database.
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83     There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84     system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85     needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86     <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90 swift 1.45 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 neysx 1.39 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92     mailman.
93     </p>
94    
95     <p>
96     Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 swift 1.45 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 neysx 1.39 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99     get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100     turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101     </p>
102    
103     <impo>
104     This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105     of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106     upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107     well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108     run into issues with this.
109     </impo>
110    
111     <impo>
112     This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113     However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114     support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115     1.3.x version.
116     </impo>
117    
118     <impo>
119     You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120     for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121     advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122     </impo>
123    
124     <impo>
125     Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126     server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127     verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128     </impo>
129    
130     <note>
131     It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132     with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133     any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134     Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135     flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136     the squirrelmail section.
137     </note>
138    
139 zhen 1.3 </body>
140 swift 1.26 </section>
141 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
142 swift 1.26
143 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
144     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
145 swift 1.26 <section>
146 zhen 1.3 <body>
147 neysx 1.39
148     <pre caption="Install postfix">
149     # <i>emerge postfix</i>
150 zhen 1.3 </pre>
151 neysx 1.39
152     <warn>
153     Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154     qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155     </warn>
156    
157     <p>
158     After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159     options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160     </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
164     mydomain = $domain.name
165     inet_interfaces = all
166     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168     home_mailbox = .maildir/
169     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170 neysx 1.39 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174     Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175     turn on verbose output for debugging:
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181     #
182     ==========================================================================
183 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184 rajiv 1.14 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185 neysx 1.39 </pre>
186 rajiv 1.14
187 neysx 1.39 <p>
188     Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189     should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190     </p>
191    
192     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195     when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
196 zhen 1.3
197 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
198 zhen 1.3 </pre>
199 neysx 1.39
200     <p>
201     Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202     yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203     postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204     next step.
205     </p>
206    
207     <note>
208     I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209     before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210     </note>
211    
212 zhen 1.3 </body>
213 swift 1.26 </section>
214 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
215 neysx 1.39
216 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
217     <title>Courier-imap</title>
218 swift 1.26 <section>
219 zhen 1.3 <body>
220 neysx 1.39
221 swift 1.45 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222     # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223 zhen 1.3 </pre>
224 neysx 1.39
225     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227 neysx 1.39 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228     you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229     This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230 rajiv 1.14
231     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234 rajiv 1.14
235     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237 zhen 1.3 </pre>
238 neysx 1.39
239     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244 zhen 1.3 </pre>
245 neysx 1.39
246     <p>
247     Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248     started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249     going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250     running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251     progressing.
252     </p>
253    
254 zhen 1.3 </body>
255 swift 1.26 </section>
256 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
257 neysx 1.39
258 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
259     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260 swift 1.26 <section>
261 zhen 1.3 <body>
262 neysx 1.39
263     <p>
264     Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265 swift 1.45 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266 neysx 1.39 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267     not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268     a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269     end anyway.
270     </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
273 swift 1.36 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
274 zhen 1.3 </pre>
275 neysx 1.39
276     <p>
277     Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278     </p>
279    
280     <pre caption="Starting sasl">
281 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282 swift 1.41 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
283 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
284 swift 1.41 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
285 swift 1.45 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
286     SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
287 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
288 zhen 1.3 </pre>
289 neysx 1.39
290 zhen 1.3 </body>
291 swift 1.26 </section>
292 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
293 neysx 1.39
294 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
295     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296 swift 1.26 <section>
297 zhen 1.3 <body>
298 neysx 1.39
299     <p>
300     Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301     </p>
302    
303     <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306    
307 neysx 1.39 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
309     stateOrProvinceName_default
310     localityName_default
311     0.organizationName_default
312     commonName_default
313     emailAddress_default.
314    
315 neysx 1.39 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316 zhen 1.1
317 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
318     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319 neysx 1.39 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320     #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321     certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322     reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323 rajiv 1.14
324     # create a certificate
325 neysx 1.39 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326 rajiv 1.14
327     # create a certificate request
328 neysx 1.39 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329 zhen 1.1
330 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
331     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
332     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
337 zhen 1.3
338 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
339     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
340     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
341 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
342     We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
343 zhen 1.3 </pre>
344 neysx 1.39
345 zhen 1.3 </body>
346 swift 1.26 </section>
347 neysx 1.39
348 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
349     <chapter>
350     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351 swift 1.26 <section>
352 zhen 1.3 <body>
353 neysx 1.39
354     <p>
355     Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356     capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357     will be easy to find.
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
361 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
362    
363     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
364     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
365     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
366     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
367     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
368    
369 neysx 1.39 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
370     are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
371     Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
372     smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373     smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374     mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375 zhen 1.1
376 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377     permit_sasl_authenticated,
378     permit_mynetworks,
379     reject_unauth_destination
380    
381    
382 vanquirius 1.48 <comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
383     smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
384 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_use_tls = yes
385     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
386     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
387     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
388     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
389     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
390     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
391     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
392     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
393    
394 neysx 1.39 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
395     You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
396 rajiv 1.14
397     # <i>postfix reload</i>
398 zhen 1.3 </pre>
399 neysx 1.39
400     <p>
401     Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
405 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
406 zhen 1.1
407 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
408     Connected to localhost.
409     Escape character is '^]'.
410     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
411     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
412     250-mail.domain.com
413     250-PIPELINING
414     250-SIZE 10240000
415     250-VRFY
416     250-ETRN
417     250-STARTTLS
418     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
419     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
420     250-XVERP
421     250 8BITMIME
422     <i>^]</i>
423     telnet> <i>quit</i>
424 zhen 1.3 </pre>
425 neysx 1.39
426     <p>
427     Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
428     install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
429     sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
430     unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
431     and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
432     </p>
433    
434 zhen 1.3 </body>
435 swift 1.26 </section>
436 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
437 neysx 1.39
438 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
439     <title>MySQL</title>
440 swift 1.26 <section>
441 zhen 1.3 <body>
442 neysx 1.39
443     <p>
444     Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
445     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
446     dumpfile for this step.
447     </p>
448    
449     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
450 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
451 zhen 1.3
452 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
453 neysx 1.39 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
454     for adding a root password with mysql,
455     not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
456 zhen 1.1
457 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
458     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
459     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
460    
461     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
462     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
463     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
464     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
465     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
466 neysx 1.46 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
467 rajiv 1.14
468 neysx 1.46 mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
469     Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
470    
471     mysql> <i>quit</i>
472 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
473 rajiv 1.14
474     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
475 zhen 1.3 </pre>
476 cam 1.30
477     <p>
478 neysx 1.39 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
479     following tables are included:
480 cam 1.30 </p>
481    
482     <ul>
483 neysx 1.39 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
484     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
485     <li>
486     transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
487     hosting
488     </li>
489     <li>users - all user account information</li>
490     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
491 zhen 1.3 </ul>
492 cam 1.30
493 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="alias table sample">
494 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
495     1 root foo@bar.com
496     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
497 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
498 neysx 1.39
499     <pre caption="user table sample">
500     <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
501 rajiv 1.15 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
502     maildir quota postfix
503     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
504     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
505     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
506     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
507 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
508 swift 1.37
509     <p>
510     The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
511     user and group.
512     </p>
513    
514 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="transport table sample">
515 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
516     1 bar.com local:
517     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
518 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
519 neysx 1.39
520     <pre caption="virtual table sample">
521 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
522     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
523 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
524 neysx 1.39
525 zhen 1.3 </body>
526 swift 1.26 </section>
527 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
528 neysx 1.39
529 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
530     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
531 swift 1.26 <section>
532 zhen 1.3 <body>
533 neysx 1.39
534     <p>
535     Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
536     more easily.
537     </p>
538    
539     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
540 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
541 zhen 1.3 </pre>
542 cam 1.30
543     <p>
544 neysx 1.39 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
545     this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
546     numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
547     problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
548     not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
549     with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
550     phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
551     index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
552     phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
553     however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
554     including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
555     </p>
556    
557     <p>
558     Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
559     Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
560 cam 1.30 </p>
561    
562     <ul>
563 neysx 1.39 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
564     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
565 zhen 1.3 </ul>
566 cam 1.30
567 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
568 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
569     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
570     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
571 neysx 1.39
572     <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
573 rajiv 1.14
574     ServerName host.domain.name
575     ServerAdmin your@email.address
576     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
577     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
578    
579     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
580 zhen 1.3 </pre>
581 neysx 1.39
582     <note>
583     If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
584     server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
585     apache restarted successfully.
586     </note>
587    
588     <p>
589     Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
590     </p>
591    
592     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
593 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
594 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
595 rajiv 1.14
596 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
597     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
598     // (this user must have read-only
599 neysx 1.39 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
600     // and "mysql/db" tables)
601 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
602     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
603 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
604 neysx 1.39
605     <p>
606     Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
607     local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
608     transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
609     supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
610     go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
611     accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
612     correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
613     automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
614     general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
615     after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
616     </p>
617    
618 zhen 1.3 </body>
619 swift 1.26 </section>
620 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
621 neysx 1.39
622 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
623     <title>The vmail user</title>
624 swift 1.26 <section>
625 zhen 1.3 <body>
626 neysx 1.39
627     <p>
628     At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
629     mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
630     </p>
631    
632     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
633 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
634     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
635     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
636     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
637 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
638 zhen 1.3 </pre>
639 neysx 1.39
640     <p>
641     So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
642     homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
643     homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
644     haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
645     </p>
646    
647 zhen 1.3 </body>
648 swift 1.26 </section>
649 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
650 neysx 1.39
651 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
652     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
653 swift 1.26 <section>
654 zhen 1.3 <body>
655 neysx 1.39
656     <p>
657     Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
658     courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
659     <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
660     </p>
661    
662     <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
663 swift 1.45 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
664 neysx 1.39 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
665 zhen 1.1
666 swift 1.45 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
667 rajiv 1.14 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
668     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
669     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
670     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
671     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
672 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
673     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
674 rajiv 1.14 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
675     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
676     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
677     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
678     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
679     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
680     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
681 zhen 1.1
682 swift 1.44 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
683 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
684 zhen 1.3 </pre>
685 neysx 1.39
686     <p>
687     We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
688     for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
689     </p>
690    
691     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
692 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
693     # mysql-aliases.cf
694 zhen 1.1
695 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
696     password = $password
697     dbname = mailsql
698     table = alias
699     select_field = destination
700     where_field = alias
701     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
702     </pre>
703 neysx 1.39
704     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
705 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
706     # mysql-relocated.cf
707 zhen 1.1
708 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
709     password = $password
710     dbname = mailsql
711     table = relocated
712     select_field = destination
713     where_field = email
714     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
715     </pre>
716 neysx 1.39
717     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
718 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
719     # mysql-transport.cf
720 zhen 1.1
721 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
722     password = $password
723     dbname = mailsql
724     table = transport
725     select_field = destination
726     where_field = domain
727     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
728     </pre>
729 neysx 1.39
730     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
731 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
732     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
733 zhen 1.1
734 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
735     password = $password
736     dbname = mailsql
737     table = users
738     select_field = gid
739     where_field = email
740     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
741     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
742     </pre>
743 neysx 1.39
744     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
745 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
746     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
747 zhen 1.1
748 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
749     password = $password
750     dbname = mailsql
751     table = users
752     select_field = maildir
753     where_field = email
754     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
755     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
756     </pre>
757 neysx 1.39
758     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
759 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
760     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
761 zhen 1.1
762 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
763     password = $password
764     dbname = mailsql
765     table = users
766     select_field = uid
767     where_field = email
768     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
769     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
770     </pre>
771 neysx 1.39
772     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
773 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
774     # mysql-virtual.cf
775 zhen 1.1
776 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
777     password = $password
778     dbname = mailsql
779     table = virtual
780     select_field = destination
781     where_field = email
782     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
783     </pre>
784 neysx 1.39
785     <p>
786     Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
787     </p>
788    
789     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
790 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
791     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
792     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
793    
794     local_transport = local
795     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
796    
797     virtual_transport = virtual
798     virtual_mailbox_domains =
799     virt-bar.com,
800     $other-virtual-domain.com
801    
802     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
803     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
804     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
805     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
806     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
807     virtual_mailbox_base = /
808     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
809     </pre>
810 swift 1.24
811     <p>
812     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
813     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
814     </p>
815    
816     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
817     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
818     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819     </pre>
820    
821 neysx 1.39 <p>
822     As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
823     release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
824     longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
825     </p>
826    
827     <note>
828     It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
829     for more information.
830     </note>
831    
832     <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
833     # <i>postfix reload</i>
834 zhen 1.3 </pre>
835 neysx 1.39
836     <p>
837     Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
838     able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
839     for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
840     everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
841     things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
842     troubleshooting section of this howto.
843     </p>
844    
845 zhen 1.3 </body>
846 swift 1.26 </section>
847 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
848 neysx 1.39
849 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
850     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
851 swift 1.26 <section>
852 zhen 1.3 <body>
853 neysx 1.39
854     <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
855 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
856 swift 1.40 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
857     (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
858 zhen 1.3
859 swift 1.40 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
860 swift 1.31 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
861     # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
862 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
863     Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
864     and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
865 zhen 1.3 </pre>
866 neysx 1.39
867 zhen 1.3 </body>
868 swift 1.26 </section>
869 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
870 neysx 1.39
871 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
872     <title>Mailman</title>
873 swift 1.26 <section>
874 zhen 1.3 <body>
875 neysx 1.39
876     <p>
877     Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
878     support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
879     get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
880     to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
881     documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
882     here.
883     </p>
884    
885     <p>
886     One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
887     you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
888     overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
889     </p>
890    
891     <pre caption="Install mailman">
892 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
893 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
894     emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
895     in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
896     We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
897 zhen 1.3
898 rajiv 1.14 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
899 zhen 1.3 </pre>
900 neysx 1.39
901 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
902 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
903 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
904 rajiv 1.14 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
905     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
906 antifa 1.12 </pre>
907 neysx 1.39
908 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
909 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
910     MTA = "Postfix"
911     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
912     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
913     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
914 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
915 zhen 1.3 </pre>
916 neysx 1.39
917     <pre caption="And last but not least">
918     <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
919 zhen 1.3
920 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
921     # <i>cd ~</i>
922     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
923 neysx 1.39 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
924 rajiv 1.14 Initial test password:
925     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
926 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
927     list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
928 rajiv 1.14 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
929 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
930     verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
931 rajiv 1.14
932     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
933     # STANZA START: test
934     # CREATED:
935     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
936     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
937     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
938     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
939     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
940     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
941     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
942     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
943     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
944     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
945     # STANZA END: test
946    
947     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
948     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
949 neysx 1.39 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
950 zhen 1.3 </pre>
951    
952     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
953 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
954     owner_request_special = no
955     recipient_delimiter = +
956 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
957 rajiv 1.14
958     alias_maps =
959     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
960     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
961    
962     virtual_alias_maps =
963     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
964     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
965 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
966     You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
967     but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
968     using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
969     to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
970 zhen 1.3 </pre>
971 neysx 1.39
972     <p>
973     You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
974     note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
975     mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
976     Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
977     lists.
978     </p>
979    
980 zhen 1.3 </body>
981 swift 1.26 </section>
982 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
983 neysx 1.39
984 zhen 1.3 <chapter>
985     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
986 swift 1.26 <section>
987 neysx 1.39 <body>
988    
989     <p>
990 neysx 1.42 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
991     link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
992 neysx 1.39 </p>
993    
994     </body>
995 swift 1.26 </section>
996 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
997 neysx 1.39
998 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
999     <title>Wrap Up</title>
1000 swift 1.26 <section>
1001 zhen 1.3 <body>
1002 neysx 1.39
1003     <p>
1004     Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1005     verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1006     to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1007     sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1008     courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1009     up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1010     the services enabled.
1011     </p>
1012    
1013     <pre caption="Wrap up">
1014 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1015     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1016 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1017 neysx 1.39
1018 zhen 1.3 <p>
1019     <e>Have fun!</e>
1020     </p>
1021 neysx 1.39
1022 zhen 1.3 </body>
1023 swift 1.26 </section>
1024 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
1025 neysx 1.39
1026 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
1027     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1028     <section>
1029 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
1030     <body>
1031 neysx 1.39
1032     <p>
1033     Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1034     detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1035     you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1036     it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1037     that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1038     from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1039     work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1040     </p>
1041    
1042 zhen 1.3 </body>
1043 zhen 1.1 </section>
1044     <section>
1045 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1046 zhen 1.3 <body>
1047 neysx 1.39
1048     <p>
1049     Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1050     your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1051     if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1052     it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1053     make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1054     </p>
1055    
1056     <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1057 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1058 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1059 neysx 1.39
1060 zhen 1.3 </body>
1061 zhen 1.1 </section>
1062     <section>
1063 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1064     <body>
1065 neysx 1.39
1066     <p>
1067     If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1068     running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1069     Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1070     component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1071     process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1072     awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1073     out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1074     </p>
1075    
1076     <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1077 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1078     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1079 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1080 neysx 1.39
1081 zhen 1.3 </body>
1082 zhen 1.1 </section>
1083     <section>
1084 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1085     <body>
1086 neysx 1.39
1087     <p>
1088     If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1089     sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1090     current config's to you, like postfix.
1091     </p>
1092    
1093     <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1094 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1095     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1096     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1097     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1098 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1099 neysx 1.39
1100 zhen 1.3 </body>
1101 zhen 1.1 </section>
1102     <section>
1103 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1104 zhen 1.3 <body>
1105 neysx 1.39
1106     <p>
1107     Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1108     logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1109     logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1110     logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1111     in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1112     figure out which component is having the problem.
1113     </p>
1114    
1115     <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1116 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1117     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1118     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1119     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1120 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1121 neysx 1.39
1122     <p>
1123     You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1124     will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1125     </p>
1126    
1127 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1128 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1129     debug_peer_level = 5
1130     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1131 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1132     commands as well.)</comment>
1133 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1134 neysx 1.39
1135 zhen 1.3 </body>
1136 zhen 1.1 </section>
1137     <section>
1138 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1139 zhen 1.3 <body>
1140 neysx 1.39
1141     <p>
1142     SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1143     we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1144     to the service itself and see what's happening.
1145     </p>
1146    
1147     <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1148 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1149 neysx 1.39 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1150     letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1151 zhen 1.1
1152 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1153     Connected to localhost.
1154     Escape character is '^]'.
1155 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1156 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
1157 neysx 1.39
1158 zhen 1.3 </body>
1159 zhen 1.1 </section>
1160     <section>
1161 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1162 zhen 1.3 <body>
1163 neysx 1.39
1164     <p>
1165     You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1166     software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1167     all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1168     information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1169     transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1170     </p>
1171    
1172     <pre caption="Using strace">
1173 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1174     # <i>strace $command</i>
1175     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1176 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1177 neysx 1.39
1178 zhen 1.3 </body>
1179 zhen 1.1 </section>
1180     <section>
1181 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1182     <body>
1183 neysx 1.39
1184     <p>
1185     Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1186     If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1187     help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1188     already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1189     which contains some great debugging ideas.
1190     </p>
1191 cam 1.30
1192 zhen 1.3 <ul>
1193 neysx 1.39 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1194     <li>
1195     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1196     to look for specific errors
1197     </li>
1198     <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1199     <li>
1200     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1201     lists - searchable
1202     </li>
1203     <li>
1204     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1205     Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1206     </li>
1207     <li>
1208     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1209     google, which has never failed me
1210     </li>
1211     <li>
1212     I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1213     place to go for help.
1214     </li>
1215 zhen 1.3 </ul>
1216 cam 1.30
1217 zhen 1.3 </body>
1218 zhen 1.1 </section>
1219     </chapter>
1220     </guide>

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