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1 vapier 1.32 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 nightmorph 1.54 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.53 2006/09/04 08:49:44 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.16 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 neysx 1.39 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 vapier 1.25 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 neysx 1.39
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 zhen 1.3 </author>
11 neysx 1.39 <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 zhen 1.3 </author>
14 klasikahl 1.22 <author title="Editor">
15 neysx 1.39 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 klasikahl 1.22 </author>
17 swift 1.45 <author title="Editor">
18     <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19     </author>
20 neysx 1.39
21     <abstract>
22     This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23     postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24     </abstract>
25    
26 nightmorph 1.53 <version>1.2</version>
27     <date>2006-09-04</date>
28 neysx 1.39
29 zhen 1.3 <!--
30     Contents
31    
32     I. Introduction
33     II. Postfix Basics
34     III. Courier-imap
35     IV. Cyrus-sasl
36     V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37     VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38     VII. MySQL
39     VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40     IX. The vmail user
41     X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42     XI. Squirrelmail
43     XII. Mailman
44     XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45     XIV. Wrap Up
46     XV. Troubleshooting
47 neysx 1.39 -->
48 zhen 1.1
49 neysx 1.39 <chapter>
50 zhen 1.1 <title>Introduction</title>
51 swift 1.26 <section>
52 zhen 1.3 <body>
53 neysx 1.39
54     <p>
55 nightmorph 1.51 For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56 neysx 1.39 you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57     Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58     need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59     system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60     </p>
61    
62     <p>
63     A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64     with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65     that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66     domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67     smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68     system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69     the system? How do you manage it all?
70     </p>
71    
72     <p>
73     This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74     mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75     users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76     authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77     utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78     mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79     central and easy mysql database.
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83     There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84     system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85     needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86     <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87     </p>
88    
89     <p>
90 swift 1.45 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 neysx 1.39 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92     mailman.
93     </p>
94    
95     <p>
96     Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 swift 1.45 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 neysx 1.39 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99     get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100     turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101     </p>
102    
103     <impo>
104     This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105     of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106     upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107     well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108     run into issues with this.
109     </impo>
110    
111     <impo>
112     This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113     However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114     support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115     1.3.x version.
116     </impo>
117    
118     <impo>
119     You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120     for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121     advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122     </impo>
123    
124     <impo>
125 nightmorph 1.51 Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
126     your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
127     <c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
128     <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
129     <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
130 neysx 1.39 </impo>
131    
132     <note>
133     It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
134     with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
135     any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
136     Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
137     flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
138     the squirrelmail section.
139     </note>
140    
141 zhen 1.3 </body>
142 swift 1.26 </section>
143 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
144 swift 1.26
145 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
146     <title>Postfix Basics</title>
147 swift 1.26 <section>
148 zhen 1.3 <body>
149 neysx 1.39
150     <pre caption="Install postfix">
151     # <i>emerge postfix</i>
152 zhen 1.3 </pre>
153 neysx 1.39
154     <warn>
155     Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
156 nightmorph 1.54 netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
157 neysx 1.39 </warn>
158    
159     <p>
160     After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
161 nightmorph 1.53 options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
162     <c>$variables</c> with your own names.
163 neysx 1.39 </p>
164    
165     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
166 rajiv 1.14 myhostname = $host.domain.name
167     mydomain = $domain.name
168     inet_interfaces = all
169     mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
170     mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
171     home_mailbox = .maildir/
172     local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
173 neysx 1.39 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
174     </pre>
175    
176     <p>
177     Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
178     turn on verbose output for debugging:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
182 rajiv 1.14 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
183     # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
184     #
185     ==========================================================================
186 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
187 rajiv 1.14 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
188 neysx 1.39 </pre>
189 rajiv 1.14
190 neysx 1.39 <p>
191     Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
192     should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
193     </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
196 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
197 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
198     when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
199 zhen 1.3
200 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
201 zhen 1.3 </pre>
202 neysx 1.39
203     <p>
204     Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
205     yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
206     postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
207     next step.
208     </p>
209    
210     <note>
211     I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
212     before you progress to the next step of the howto.
213     </note>
214    
215 zhen 1.3 </body>
216 swift 1.26 </section>
217 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
218 neysx 1.39
219 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
220     <title>Courier-imap</title>
221 swift 1.26 <section>
222 zhen 1.3 <body>
223 neysx 1.39
224 swift 1.45 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
225     # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
226 zhen 1.3 </pre>
227 neysx 1.39
228     <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
229 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
230 neysx 1.39 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
231     you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
232     This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
233 rajiv 1.14
234     # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
235     # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
236 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
237 rajiv 1.14
238     # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
239     # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
240 zhen 1.3 </pre>
241 neysx 1.39
242     <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
243 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
244     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
245     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
246     # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
247 zhen 1.3 </pre>
248 neysx 1.39
249     <p>
250     Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
251     started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
252     going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
253     running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
254     progressing.
255     </p>
256    
257 zhen 1.3 </body>
258 swift 1.26 </section>
259 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
260 neysx 1.39
261 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
262     <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
263 swift 1.26 <section>
264 zhen 1.3 <body>
265 neysx 1.39
266     <p>
267     Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
268 swift 1.45 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
269 neysx 1.39 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
270     not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
271     a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
272     end anyway.
273     </p>
274    
275     <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
276 swift 1.36 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
277 zhen 1.3 </pre>
278 neysx 1.39
279     <p>
280     Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
281     </p>
282    
283     <pre caption="Starting sasl">
284 swift 1.27 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
285 swift 1.41 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
286 rajiv 1.14 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
287 swift 1.41 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
288 swift 1.45 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
289     SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
290 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
291 zhen 1.3 </pre>
292 neysx 1.39
293 zhen 1.3 </body>
294 swift 1.26 </section>
295 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
296 neysx 1.39
297 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
298     <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
299 swift 1.26 <section>
300 zhen 1.3 <body>
301 neysx 1.39
302     <p>
303     Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
304     </p>
305    
306     <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
307 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
308     # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
309    
310 neysx 1.39 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
311 rajiv 1.14 countryName_default
312     stateOrProvinceName_default
313     localityName_default
314     0.organizationName_default
315     commonName_default
316     emailAddress_default.
317    
318 neysx 1.39 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
319 zhen 1.1
320 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cd misc</i>
321     # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
322 neysx 1.39 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
323     #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
324     certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
325     reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
326 rajiv 1.14
327     # create a certificate
328 neysx 1.39 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329 rajiv 1.14
330     # create a certificate request
331 neysx 1.39 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
332 zhen 1.1
333 rajiv 1.14 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
334     # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
335     # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
336     # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
337     # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
338     # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
339 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
340 zhen 1.3
341 rajiv 1.14 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
342     # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
343     # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
344 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
345     We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
346 zhen 1.3 </pre>
347 neysx 1.39
348 zhen 1.3 </body>
349 swift 1.26 </section>
350 neysx 1.39
351 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
352     <chapter>
353     <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
354 swift 1.26 <section>
355 zhen 1.3 <body>
356 neysx 1.39
357     <p>
358     Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
359     capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
360     will be easy to find.
361     </p>
362    
363     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
364 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
365    
366     smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
367     smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
368     smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
369     broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
370     smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
371    
372 neysx 1.39 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
373     are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
374     Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
375     smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
376     smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
377     mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
378 zhen 1.1
379 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
380     permit_sasl_authenticated,
381     permit_mynetworks,
382     reject_unauth_destination
383    
384    
385 vanquirius 1.48 <comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
386 nightmorph 1.49 smtp_use_tls = yes
387 vanquirius 1.48 smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
388 rajiv 1.14 smtpd_use_tls = yes
389     #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
390     smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
391     smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
392     smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
393     smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
394     smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
395     smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
396     tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
397    
398 neysx 1.39 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
399     You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
400 rajiv 1.14
401     # <i>postfix reload</i>
402 zhen 1.3 </pre>
403 neysx 1.39
404     <p>
405     Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
406     </p>
407    
408     <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
409 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
410 zhen 1.1
411 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
412     Connected to localhost.
413     Escape character is '^]'.
414     220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
415     <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
416     250-mail.domain.com
417     250-PIPELINING
418     250-SIZE 10240000
419     250-VRFY
420     250-ETRN
421     250-STARTTLS
422     250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
423     250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
424     250-XVERP
425     250 8BITMIME
426     <i>^]</i>
427     telnet> <i>quit</i>
428 zhen 1.3 </pre>
429 neysx 1.39
430     <p>
431     Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
432     install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
433     sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
434     unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
435     and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
436     </p>
437    
438 zhen 1.3 </body>
439 swift 1.26 </section>
440 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
441 neysx 1.39
442 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
443     <title>MySQL</title>
444 swift 1.26 <section>
445 zhen 1.3 <body>
446 neysx 1.39
447     <p>
448     Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
449     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
450     dumpfile for this step.
451     </p>
452    
453     <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
454 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
455 zhen 1.3
456 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
457 neysx 1.39 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
458     for adding a root password with mysql,
459     not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
460 zhen 1.1
461 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
462     # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
463     # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
464    
465     # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
466     mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
467     -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
468     -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
469     -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
470 neysx 1.46 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
471 rajiv 1.14
472 neysx 1.46 mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
473     Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
474    
475     mysql> <i>quit</i>
476 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
477 rajiv 1.14
478     # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
479 zhen 1.3 </pre>
480 cam 1.30
481     <p>
482 neysx 1.39 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
483     following tables are included:
484 cam 1.30 </p>
485    
486     <ul>
487 neysx 1.39 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
488     <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
489     <li>
490     transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
491     hosting
492     </li>
493     <li>users - all user account information</li>
494     <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
495 zhen 1.3 </ul>
496 cam 1.30
497 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="alias table sample">
498 rajiv 1.15 id alias destination
499     1 root foo@bar.com
500     2 postmaster foo@bar.com
501 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
502 neysx 1.39
503     <pre caption="user table sample">
504     <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
505 rajiv 1.15 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
506     maildir quota postfix
507     10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
508     /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
509     13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
510     /home/foo/.maildir/ y
511 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
512 swift 1.37
513     <p>
514     The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
515     user and group.
516     </p>
517    
518 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="transport table sample">
519 rajiv 1.15 id domain destination
520     1 bar.com local:
521     2 virt-bar.org virtual:
522 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
523 neysx 1.39
524     <pre caption="virtual table sample">
525 rajiv 1.15 id email destination
526     3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
527 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
528 neysx 1.39
529 zhen 1.3 </body>
530 swift 1.26 </section>
531 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
532 neysx 1.39
533 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
534     <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
535 swift 1.26 <section>
536 zhen 1.3 <body>
537 neysx 1.39
538     <p>
539     Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
540     more easily.
541     </p>
542    
543     <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
544 swift 1.17 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
545 zhen 1.3 </pre>
546 cam 1.30
547     <p>
548 neysx 1.39 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
549 rane 1.52 this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.com/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
550 neysx 1.39 numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
551     problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
552     not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
553     with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
554     phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
555     index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
556     phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
557     however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
558     including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
559     </p>
560    
561     <p>
562     Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
563     Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
564 cam 1.30 </p>
565    
566     <ul>
567 neysx 1.39 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
568     <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
569 zhen 1.3 </ul>
570 cam 1.30
571 neysx 1.39 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
572 rajiv 1.14 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
573     # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
574     # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
575 neysx 1.39
576     <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
577 rajiv 1.14
578     ServerName host.domain.name
579     ServerAdmin your@email.address
580     SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
581     SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
582    
583     # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
584 zhen 1.3 </pre>
585 neysx 1.39
586     <note>
587     If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
588     server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
589     apache restarted successfully.
590     </note>
591    
592     <p>
593     Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
594     </p>
595    
596     <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
597 pylon 1.21 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
598 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
599 rajiv 1.14
600 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
601     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
602     // (this user must have read-only
603 neysx 1.39 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
604     // and "mysql/db" tables)
605 rajiv 1.15 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
606     $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
607 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
608 neysx 1.39
609     <p>
610     Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
611     local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
612     transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
613     supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
614     go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
615 nightmorph 1.53 accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
616 neysx 1.39 correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
617     automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
618 nightmorph 1.53 general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
619     setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
620 neysx 1.39 </p>
621    
622 zhen 1.3 </body>
623 swift 1.26 </section>
624 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
625 neysx 1.39
626 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
627     <title>The vmail user</title>
628 swift 1.26 <section>
629 zhen 1.3 <body>
630 neysx 1.39
631     <p>
632     At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
633     mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
634     </p>
635    
636     <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
637 rajiv 1.14 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
638     # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
639     # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
640     # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
641 cam 1.29 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
642 zhen 1.3 </pre>
643 neysx 1.39
644     <p>
645     So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
646 nightmorph 1.53 homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that user's uid, gid, and
647 neysx 1.39 homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
648     haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
649     </p>
650    
651 zhen 1.3 </body>
652 swift 1.26 </section>
653 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
654 neysx 1.39
655 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
656     <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
657 swift 1.26 <section>
658 zhen 1.3 <body>
659 neysx 1.39
660     <p>
661     Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
662     courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
663     <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
664     </p>
665    
666     <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
667 swift 1.45 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
668 neysx 1.39 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
669 zhen 1.1
670 swift 1.45 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
671 rajiv 1.14 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
672     MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
673     MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
674     MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
675     MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
676 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
677     #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
678 rajiv 1.14 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
679     MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
680     MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
681     MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
682     MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
683     MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
684     MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
685 zhen 1.1
686 swift 1.44 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
687 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
688 zhen 1.3 </pre>
689 neysx 1.39
690     <p>
691 nightmorph 1.53 We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
692     for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
693     Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
694     password, alias, email address, and so on.
695 neysx 1.39 </p>
696    
697     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
698 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
699     # mysql-aliases.cf
700 zhen 1.1
701 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
702     password = $password
703     dbname = mailsql
704     table = alias
705     select_field = destination
706     where_field = alias
707     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
708     </pre>
709 neysx 1.39
710     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
711 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
712     # mysql-relocated.cf
713 zhen 1.1
714 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
715     password = $password
716     dbname = mailsql
717     table = relocated
718     select_field = destination
719     where_field = email
720     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
721     </pre>
722 neysx 1.39
723     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
724 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
725     # mysql-transport.cf
726 zhen 1.1
727 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
728     password = $password
729     dbname = mailsql
730     table = transport
731     select_field = destination
732     where_field = domain
733     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
734     </pre>
735 neysx 1.39
736     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
737 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
738     #myql-virtual-gid.cf
739 zhen 1.1
740 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
741     password = $password
742     dbname = mailsql
743     table = users
744     select_field = gid
745     where_field = email
746     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
747     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
748     </pre>
749 neysx 1.39
750     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
751 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
752     #myql-virtual-maps.cf
753 zhen 1.1
754 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
755     password = $password
756     dbname = mailsql
757     table = users
758     select_field = maildir
759     where_field = email
760     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
761     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
762     </pre>
763 neysx 1.39
764     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
765 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
766     # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
767 zhen 1.1
768 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
769     password = $password
770     dbname = mailsql
771     table = users
772     select_field = uid
773     where_field = email
774     additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
775     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
776     </pre>
777 neysx 1.39
778     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
779 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
780     # mysql-virtual.cf
781 zhen 1.1
782 rajiv 1.14 user = mailsql
783     password = $password
784     dbname = mailsql
785     table = virtual
786     select_field = destination
787     where_field = email
788     hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
789     </pre>
790 neysx 1.39
791     <p>
792     Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
793     </p>
794    
795     <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
796 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
797     alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
798     relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
799    
800     local_transport = local
801     local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
802    
803     virtual_transport = virtual
804     virtual_mailbox_domains =
805     virt-bar.com,
806     $other-virtual-domain.com
807    
808     virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
809     virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
810     virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
811     virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
812     virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
813     virtual_mailbox_base = /
814     #virtual_mailbox_limit =
815     </pre>
816 swift 1.24
817     <p>
818     For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
819     <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
820     </p>
821    
822     <pre caption="Changing file permission">
823     # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
824     # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
825     </pre>
826    
827 neysx 1.39 <p>
828     As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
829     release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
830     longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
831     </p>
832    
833     <note>
834     It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
835     for more information.
836     </note>
837    
838     <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
839     # <i>postfix reload</i>
840 zhen 1.3 </pre>
841 neysx 1.39
842     <p>
843     Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
844     able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
845     for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
846     everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
847     things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
848     troubleshooting section of this howto.
849     </p>
850    
851 zhen 1.3 </body>
852 swift 1.26 </section>
853 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
854 neysx 1.39
855 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
856     <title>Squirrelmail</title>
857 swift 1.26 <section>
858 zhen 1.3 <body>
859 neysx 1.39
860     <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
861 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
862 swift 1.40 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
863     (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
864 zhen 1.3
865 swift 1.40 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
866 swift 1.31 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
867     # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
868 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
869     Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
870     and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
871 zhen 1.3 </pre>
872 neysx 1.39
873 zhen 1.3 </body>
874 swift 1.26 </section>
875 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
876 neysx 1.39
877 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
878     <title>Mailman</title>
879 swift 1.26 <section>
880 zhen 1.3 <body>
881 neysx 1.39
882     <p>
883     Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
884     support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
885     get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
886     to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
887     documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
888     here.
889     </p>
890    
891     <p>
892 nightmorph 1.53 One further note, current versions of mailman install to
893     <path>/usr/local/mailman</path>. If you're like me and wish to change the
894     default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild file by changing
895     the INSTALLDIR variable.
896 neysx 1.39 </p>
897    
898     <pre caption="Install mailman">
899 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
900 zhen 1.3 </pre>
901 neysx 1.39
902 antifa 1.12 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
903 rajiv 1.14 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
904 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
905 rajiv 1.14 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
906     DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
907 antifa 1.12 </pre>
908 neysx 1.39
909 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
910 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
911     MTA = "Postfix"
912     POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
913     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
914     add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
915 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
916 zhen 1.3 </pre>
917 neysx 1.39
918     <pre caption="And last but not least">
919     <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
920 zhen 1.3
921 rajiv 1.14 # <i>su mailman</i>
922     # <i>cd ~</i>
923     # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
924 neysx 1.39 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
925 rajiv 1.14 Initial test password:
926     Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
927 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
928     list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
929 rajiv 1.14 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
930 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
931     verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
932 rajiv 1.14
933     # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
934     # STANZA START: test
935     # CREATED:
936     test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
937     test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
938     test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
939     test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
940     test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
941     test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
942     test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
943     test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
944     test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
945     test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
946     # STANZA END: test
947    
948     # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
949     # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
950 neysx 1.39 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
951 zhen 1.3 </pre>
952    
953     <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
954 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
955     owner_request_special = no
956     recipient_delimiter = +
957 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
958 rajiv 1.14
959     alias_maps =
960     hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
961     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
962    
963     virtual_alias_maps =
964     hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
965     mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
966 neysx 1.39 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
967     You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
968     but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
969     using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
970     to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
971 zhen 1.3 </pre>
972 neysx 1.39
973     <p>
974     You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
975     note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
976     mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
977     Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
978     lists.
979     </p>
980    
981 zhen 1.3 </body>
982 swift 1.26 </section>
983 zhen 1.3 </chapter>
984 neysx 1.39
985 zhen 1.3 <chapter>
986     <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
987 swift 1.26 <section>
988 neysx 1.39 <body>
989    
990     <p>
991 neysx 1.42 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
992     link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
993 neysx 1.39 </p>
994    
995     </body>
996 swift 1.26 </section>
997 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
998 neysx 1.39
999 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
1000     <title>Wrap Up</title>
1001 swift 1.26 <section>
1002 zhen 1.3 <body>
1003 neysx 1.39
1004     <p>
1005     Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1006     verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1007     to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1008     sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1009     courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1010     up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1011     the services enabled.
1012     </p>
1013    
1014     <pre caption="Wrap up">
1015 rajiv 1.14 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1016     # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1017 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1018 neysx 1.39
1019 zhen 1.3 <p>
1020     <e>Have fun!</e>
1021     </p>
1022 neysx 1.39
1023 zhen 1.3 </body>
1024 swift 1.26 </section>
1025 zhen 1.1 </chapter>
1026 neysx 1.39
1027 zhen 1.1 <chapter>
1028     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1029     <section>
1030 zhen 1.3 <title>Introduction</title>
1031     <body>
1032 neysx 1.39
1033     <p>
1034     Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1035     detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1036     you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1037     it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1038     that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1039     from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1040     work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1041     </p>
1042    
1043 zhen 1.3 </body>
1044 zhen 1.1 </section>
1045     <section>
1046 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1047 zhen 1.3 <body>
1048 neysx 1.39
1049     <p>
1050     Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1051     your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1052     if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1053     it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1054     make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1055     </p>
1056    
1057     <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1058 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1059 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1060 neysx 1.39
1061 zhen 1.3 </body>
1062 zhen 1.1 </section>
1063     <section>
1064 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1065     <body>
1066 neysx 1.39
1067     <p>
1068     If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1069     running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1070     Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1071     component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1072     process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1073     awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1074     out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1075     </p>
1076    
1077     <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1078 rajiv 1.14 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1079     # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1080 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1081 neysx 1.39
1082 zhen 1.3 </body>
1083 zhen 1.1 </section>
1084     <section>
1085 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1086     <body>
1087 neysx 1.39
1088     <p>
1089     If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1090     sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1091     current config's to you, like postfix.
1092     </p>
1093    
1094     <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1095 rajiv 1.14 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1096     # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1097     # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1098     # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1099 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1100 neysx 1.39
1101 zhen 1.3 </body>
1102 zhen 1.1 </section>
1103     <section>
1104 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1105 zhen 1.3 <body>
1106 neysx 1.39
1107     <p>
1108     Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1109     logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1110     logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1111     logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1112     in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1113     figure out which component is having the problem.
1114     </p>
1115    
1116     <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1117 rajiv 1.14 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1118     # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1119     # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1120     # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1121 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1122 neysx 1.39
1123     <p>
1124     You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1125     will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1126     </p>
1127    
1128 zhen 1.3 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1129 rajiv 1.14 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1130     debug_peer_level = 5
1131     debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1132 neysx 1.39 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1133     commands as well.)</comment>
1134 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1135 neysx 1.39
1136 zhen 1.3 </body>
1137 zhen 1.1 </section>
1138     <section>
1139 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1140 zhen 1.3 <body>
1141 neysx 1.39
1142     <p>
1143     SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1144     we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1145     to the service itself and see what's happening.
1146     </p>
1147    
1148     <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1149 rajiv 1.14 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1150 neysx 1.39 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1151     letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1152 zhen 1.1
1153 rajiv 1.14 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1154     Connected to localhost.
1155     Escape character is '^]'.
1156 rajiv 1.15 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1157 rajiv 1.14 </pre>
1158 neysx 1.39
1159 zhen 1.3 </body>
1160 zhen 1.1 </section>
1161     <section>
1162 neysx 1.39 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1163 zhen 1.3 <body>
1164 neysx 1.39
1165     <p>
1166     You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1167     software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1168     all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1169     information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1170     transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1171     </p>
1172    
1173     <pre caption="Using strace">
1174 rajiv 1.14 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1175     # <i>strace $command</i>
1176     # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1177 zhen 1.3 </pre>
1178 neysx 1.39
1179 zhen 1.3 </body>
1180 zhen 1.1 </section>
1181     <section>
1182 zhen 1.3 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1183     <body>
1184 neysx 1.39
1185     <p>
1186     Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1187     If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1188     help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1189     already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1190     which contains some great debugging ideas.
1191     </p>
1192 cam 1.30
1193 zhen 1.3 <ul>
1194 neysx 1.39 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1195     <li>
1196     <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1197     to look for specific errors
1198     </li>
1199     <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1200     <li>
1201     <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1202     lists - searchable
1203     </li>
1204     <li>
1205     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1206     Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1207     </li>
1208     <li>
1209     <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1210     google, which has never failed me
1211     </li>
1212     <li>
1213     I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1214     place to go for help.
1215     </li>
1216 zhen 1.3 </ul>
1217 cam 1.30
1218 zhen 1.3 </body>
1219 zhen 1.1 </section>
1220     </chapter>
1221     </guide>

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