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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5<author title="Author" > 5<author title="Author" >
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 7</author>
8<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author" >
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 10</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12<version>1.0</version> 12<version>1.0.1</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 13<date>7 Aug 2003</date>
14<!-- 14<!--
15 15
16Contents 16Contents
17 17
18I. Introduction 18I. Introduction
19II. Postfix Basics 19II. Postfix Basics
20III. Courier-imap 20III. Courier-imap
21IV. Cyrus-sasl 21IV. Cyrus-sasl
22V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache 22V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
23VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix 23VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
24VII. MySQL 24VII. MySQL
25VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin 25VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
26IX. The vmail user 26IX. The vmail user
27X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts 27X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
28XI. Squirrelmail 28XI. Squirrelmail
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo> 46<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
47<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 47<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
48<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 48<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
49<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note> 49<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
50</body> 50</body>
51</chapter> 51</chapter>
52<chapter> 52<chapter>
53<title>Postfix Basics</title> 53<title>Postfix Basics</title>
54<body> 54<body>
55<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 55<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
56</pre> 56</pre>
57<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 57<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
58<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 58<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
59<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 59<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
60 myhostname = $host.domain.name 60myhostname = $host.domain.name
61 mydomain = $domain.name 61mydomain = $domain.name
62 inet_interfaces = all 62inet_interfaces = all
63 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 63mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
64 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 64mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
65 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 65home_mailbox = .maildir/
66 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 66local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
67 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 67default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
68<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 68<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
69<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 69<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
70 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 70# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 71# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72 # 72#
73 ========================================================================== 73==========================================================================
74 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 74smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75 75
76 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 76<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77</pre> 77</pre>
78<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 78<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
79<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 79<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
80 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 80# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 81<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
82<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 82<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
83 83
84 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 84# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85</pre> 85</pre>
86<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 86<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
87<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 87<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
88</body> 88</body>
89</chapter> 89</chapter>
90<chapter> 90<chapter>
91<title>Courier-imap</title> 91<title>Courier-imap</title>
92<body> 92<body>
93<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 93<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
94</pre> 94</pre>
95<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 95<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
96 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 96# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 97<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
98<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 98<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
99<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 99<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
100 100
101 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 101# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 102# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 103<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
104 104
105 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 105# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106 # <i>mkimapdcert</i> 106# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107</pre> 107</pre>
108<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 108<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 109# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 110# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113</pre> 113</pre>
114<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 114<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
115</body> 115</body>
116</chapter> 116</chapter>
117<chapter> 117<chapter>
118<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 118<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
119<body> 119<body>
120<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 120<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
121<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 121<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 123# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote> 124<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote> 125<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126</pre> 126</pre>
127<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 127<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
128<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 128<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
129 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 129# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
130 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 130pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 131mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
132<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 132<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
133<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 133<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
134 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 134# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135</pre> 135</pre>
136</body> 136</body>
137</chapter> 137</chapter>
138<chapter> 138<chapter>
139<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 139<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
140<body> 140<body>
141<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 141<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
142<pre> 142<pre>
143 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 143# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 144# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
145
145<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 146<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
146
147 countryName_default 147countryName_default
148 stateOrProvinceName_default 148stateOrProvinceName_default
149 localityName_default 149localityName_default
150 0.organizationName_default 1500.organizationName_default
151 commonName_default 151commonName_default
152 emailAddress_default. 152emailAddress_default.
153 153
154 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 154<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
155 155
156 156
157 # <i>cd misc</i> 157# <i>cd misc</i>
158 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 158# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
159<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote> 159<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote> 160<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote> 161<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote> 162<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
163
164# create a certificate
165system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166
167# create a certificate request
168system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
163 169
164 # create a certificate
165 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166
167 # create a certificate request
168 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 170# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 171# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 172# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 173# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 174# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 175# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 176<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
177 177
178
179 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 178# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
180 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 179# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
181 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 180# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
182<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 181<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
183<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 182<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
184</pre> 183</pre>
185</body> 184</body>
186</chapter> 185</chapter>
187<chapter> 186<chapter>
188<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 187<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
189<body> 188<body>
190<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 189<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
191<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 190<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
192 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 191# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
193 192
194 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 193smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 194smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
196 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 195smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
197 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 196broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
198 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 197smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
199 198
200 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 199<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
201<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 200<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
202<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 201<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
203<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 202<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
204<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 203<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
205<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 204<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
206 205
207 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 206smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
208 permit_sasl_authenticated, 207 permit_sasl_authenticated,
209 permit_mynetworks, 208 permit_mynetworks,
210 reject_unauth_destination 209 reject_unauth_destination
211 210
212 211
213 smtpd_use_tls = yes 212smtpd_use_tls = yes
214 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 213#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
215 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 214smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
216 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 215smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 216smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
218 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 217smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
219 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 218smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
220 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 219smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
221 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 220tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
222 221
223 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 222<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
224<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 223<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
225 224
226 # <i>postfix reload</i> 225# <i>postfix reload</i>
227</pre> 226</pre>
228<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 227<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
229<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 228<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
230 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 229# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
231 230
232 Trying 127.0.0.1... 231Trying 127.0.0.1...
233 Connected to localhost. 232Connected to localhost.
234 Escape character is '^]'. 233Escape character is '^]'.
235 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 234220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
236 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 235<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
237 250-mail.domain.com 236250-mail.domain.com
238 250-PIPELINING 237250-PIPELINING
239 250-SIZE 10240000 238250-SIZE 10240000
240 250-VRFY 239250-VRFY
241 250-ETRN 240250-ETRN
242 250-STARTTLS 241250-STARTTLS
243 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 242250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 243250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
245 250-XVERP 244250-XVERP
246 250 8BITMIME 245250 8BITMIME
247 <i>^]</i> 246<i>^]</i>
248 telnet> <i>quit</i> 247telnet> <i>quit</i>
249</pre> 248</pre>
250<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 249<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
251 </p> 250 </p>
252</body> 251</body>
253</chapter> 252</chapter>
254<chapter> 253<chapter>
255<title>MySQL</title> 254<title>MySQL</title>
256<body> 255<body>
257<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 256<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
258<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 257<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
259 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 258# <i>emerge mysql</i>
260 259
261 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 260# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
262<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 261<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
263<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 262<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
264<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 263<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
265 264
266 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 265# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
267 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 266# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
268 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 267# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
269 268
270 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 269# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
271 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 270mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
272 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 271 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
273 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 272 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
274 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 273 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
275 274
276 -> <i>quit</i> 275 -> <i>quit</i>
277<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 276<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
278 277
279 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 278# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
280</pre> 279</pre>
281<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 280<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
282 <ul> 281 <ul>
283<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 282<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
284<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 283<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
285<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 284<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
286<li>users - all user account information</li> 285<li>users - all user account information</li>
287<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 286<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
288</ul> 287</ul>
289</p> 288</p>
290<pre caption="alias table sample" > 289<pre caption="alias table sample" >
291 id alias destination 290 id alias destination
292 1 root foo@bar.com 291 1 root foo@bar.com
293 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 292 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
294 </pre> 293</pre>
295<pre caption="user table sample" > 294<pre caption="user table sample" >
296 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 295 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
297 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 296 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
298 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 297 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
299 </pre> 298</pre>
300<pre caption="transport table sample" > 299<pre caption="transport table sample" >
301 id domain destination 300 id domain destination
302 1 bar.com local: 301 1 bar.com local:
303 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 302 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
304 </pre> 303</pre>
305<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 304<pre caption="virtual table sample" >
306 id email destination 305 id email destination
307 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 306 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
308 </pre> 307</pre>
309</body> 308</body>
310</chapter> 309</chapter>
311<chapter> 310<chapter>
312<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 311<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
313<body> 312<body>
314<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 313<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
315<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 314<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
316 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 315# <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i>
317</pre> 316</pre>
318<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 317<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
319<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 318<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
320 <ul> 319 <ul>
321<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 320<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
322<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 321<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
323</ul> 322</ul>
324</p> 323</p>
325<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 324<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
326 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 325# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 326# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
328 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 327# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
329<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 328<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
330 329
331 ServerName host.domain.name 330ServerName host.domain.name
332 ServerAdmin your@email.address 331ServerAdmin your@email.address
333 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 332SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
334 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 333SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
335 334
336 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 335# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
337</pre> 336</pre>
338<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 337<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
339<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 338<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
340<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 339<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
341 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 340# <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
342<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 341<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
343 342
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 343$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
345 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 344$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
346 // (this user must have read-only 345 // (this user must have read-only
347 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 346$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
348 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 347 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 348$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
350 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
351 </pre> 350</pre>
352<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 351<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
353</body> 352</body>
354</chapter> 353</chapter>
355<chapter> 354<chapter>
356<title>The vmail user</title> 355<title>The vmail user</title>
357<body> 356<body>
358<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 357<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
359<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 358<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
360 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 359# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
361 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 360# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
362 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 361# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
363 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 362# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
364 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 363# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
365</pre> 364</pre>
366<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 365<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
367</body> 366</body>
368</chapter> 367</chapter>
369<chapter> 368<chapter>
370<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 369<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
371<body> 370<body>
372<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 371<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
373<pre> 372<pre>
374 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 373# <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
375<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote> 374<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
376<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote> 375<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
377<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote> 376<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
378 377
379 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 378# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
380<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 379<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
381 380
382 #auth required pam_nologin.so 381#auth required pam_nologin.so
383 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 382#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 383#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 384#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386 385
387 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 386auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
388 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 387 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
389 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 388account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
390 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
391 390
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 391# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
393 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 392# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
394<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 393<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
395</pre> 394</pre>
396<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 395<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
397<pre> 396<pre>
398 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 397# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
399 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 398authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
400 399
401 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 400# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
402 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 401AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
403 402
404 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 403# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
405 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 404MYSQL_SERVER localhost
406 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 405MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
407 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 406MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
408 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 407MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
409 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 408MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
410 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 409#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
411 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 410MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
412 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 411MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
413 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 412MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
414 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 413MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
415 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 414MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
416 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 415MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
417 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 416MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
418 417
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 418# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
420 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 419# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
421</pre> 420</pre>
422<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 421<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
423<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 422<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 423# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
425 # mysql-aliases.cf 424# mysql-aliases.cf
426 425
427 user = mailsql 426user = mailsql
428 password = $password 427password = $password
429 dbname = mailsql 428dbname = mailsql
430 table = alias 429table = alias
431 select_field = destination 430select_field = destination
432 where_field = alias 431where_field = alias
433 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 432hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
434 </pre> 433</pre>
435<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 434<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
436 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
437 # mysql-relocated.cf 436# mysql-relocated.cf
438 437
439 user = mailsql 438user = mailsql
440 password = $password 439password = $password
441 dbname = mailsql 440dbname = mailsql
442 table = relocated 441table = relocated
443 select_field = destination 442select_field = destination
444 where_field = email 443where_field = email
445 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 444hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
446 </pre> 445</pre>
447<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 446<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
448 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 447# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
449 # mysql-transport.cf 448# mysql-transport.cf
450 449
451 user = mailsql 450user = mailsql
452 password = $password 451password = $password
453 dbname = mailsql 452dbname = mailsql
454 table = transport 453table = transport
455 select_field = destination 454select_field = destination
456 where_field = domain 455where_field = domain
457 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 456hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
458 </pre> 457</pre>
459<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 458<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
460 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 459# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
461 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 460#myql-virtual-gid.cf
462 461
463 user = mailsql 462user = mailsql
464 password = $password 463password = $password
465 dbname = mailsql 464dbname = mailsql
466 table = users 465table = users
467 select_field = gid 466select_field = gid
468 where_field = email 467where_field = email
469 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 468additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
470 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 469hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
471 </pre> 470</pre>
472<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 471<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
473 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 472# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
474 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 473#myql-virtual-maps.cf
475 474
476 user = mailsql 475user = mailsql
477 password = $password 476password = $password
478 dbname = mailsql 477dbname = mailsql
479 table = users 478table = users
480 select_field = maildir 479select_field = maildir
481 where_field = email 480where_field = email
482 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 481additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
483 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 482hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
484 </pre> 483</pre>
485<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 484<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
486 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 485# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
487 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 486# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
488 487
489 user = mailsql 488user = mailsql
490 password = $password 489password = $password
491 dbname = mailsql 490dbname = mailsql
492 table = users 491table = users
493 select_field = uid 492select_field = uid
494 where_field = email 493where_field = email
495 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 494additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
496 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 495hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
497 </pre> 496</pre>
498<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 497<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
499 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 498# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
500 # mysql-virtual.cf 499# mysql-virtual.cf
501 500
502 user = mailsql 501user = mailsql
503 password = $password 502password = $password
504 dbname = mailsql 503dbname = mailsql
505 table = virtual 504table = virtual
506 select_field = destination 505select_field = destination
507 where_field = email 506where_field = email
508 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 507hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
509 </pre> 508</pre>
510<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 509<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
511<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 510<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
512 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 511# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
513 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 512alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
514 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 513relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
515 514
516 local_transport = local 515local_transport = local
517 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 516local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
518 517
519 virtual_transport = virtual 518virtual_transport = virtual
520 virtual_mailbox_domains = 519virtual_mailbox_domains =
521 virt-bar.com, 520 virt-bar.com,
522 $other-virtual-domain.com 521 $other-virtual-domain.com
523 522
524 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 523virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
525 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 524virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
526 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 525virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
527 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 526virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
528 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 527virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
529 virtual_mailbox_base = / 528virtual_mailbox_base = /
530 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 529#virtual_mailbox_limit =
531 </pre> 530</pre>
532<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 531<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
533<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 532<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
534<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 533<pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
535</pre> 534</pre>
536<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 535<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
537</body> 536</body>
538</chapter> 537</chapter>
539<chapter> 538<chapter>
540<title>Squirrelmail</title> 539<title>Squirrelmail</title>
541<body> 540<body>
542<pre> 541<pre>
543 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 542# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
544<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 543<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
545 544
546 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 545# <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i>
547 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 546# <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
548 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 547# <i>./conf.pl</i>
549<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 548<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
550<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 549<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
551<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 550<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
552</pre> 551</pre>
553</body> 552</body>
554</chapter> 553</chapter>
555<chapter> 554<chapter>
556<title>Mailman</title> 555<title>Mailman</title>
557<body> 556<body>
558<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 557<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
559<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 558<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
560<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 559<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
561 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 560# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
562 MAILGID="280" 561MAILGID="280"
563 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 562<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
564 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 563<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
565</pre>
566<pre> 564</pre>
565<pre>
567 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 566# <i>emerge mailman</i>
568 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 567<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
569 <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 568<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
570 <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote> 569<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
571 <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote> 570<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
572 571
573 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 572# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
574</pre> 573</pre>
575<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 574<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
576 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 575# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
577 <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 576<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
578 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 577DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
579 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 578DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
580</pre> 579</pre>
581<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 580<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
582 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 581# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
583 MTA = "Postfix" 582MTA = "Postfix"
584 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 583POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
585 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 584add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
586 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 585add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
587<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 586<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
588</pre> 587</pre>
589<pre> 588<pre>
590 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 589<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
591 590
592 # <i>su mailman</i> 591# <i>su mailman</i>
593 # <i>cd ~</i> 592# <i>cd ~</i>
594 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 593# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
595 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 594Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
596 Initial test password: 595Initial test password:
597 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 596Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
598 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 597<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
599 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 598<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
600 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 599# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
601 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 600<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
602 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 601<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
603 602
604 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 603# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
605 # STANZA START: test 604# STANZA START: test
606 # CREATED: 605# CREATED:
607 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 606test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
608 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 607test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
609 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 608test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
610 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 609test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
611 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 610test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
612 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 611test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
613 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 612test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
614 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 613test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
615 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 614test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
616 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 615test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
617 # STANZA END: test 616# STANZA END: test
618 617
619 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 618# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
620 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 619# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
621 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 620<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
622</pre> 621</pre>
623 622
624<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 623<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
625 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 624# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
626 owner_request_special = no 625owner_request_special = no
627 recipient_delimiter = + 626recipient_delimiter = +
628 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 627<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
629 628
630 alias_maps = 629alias_maps =
631 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 630 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
632 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 631 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
633 632
634 virtual_alias_maps = 633virtual_alias_maps =
635 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 634 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
636 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 635 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
637 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 636<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
638 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 637<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
639 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 638<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
640 <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 639<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
641 <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 640<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
642</pre> 641</pre>
643<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 642<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
644</body> 643</body>
645</chapter> 644</chapter>
646<chapter> 645<chapter>
647<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 646<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
648<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 647<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
649</chapter> 648</chapter>
650<chapter> 649<chapter>
651<title>Wrap Up</title> 650<title>Wrap Up</title>
652<body> 651<body>
653<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 652<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
654<pre caption="Wrap up" > 653<pre caption="Wrap up" >
655 # <i>postfix reload</i> 654# <i>postfix reload</i>
656 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 655# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
657</pre> 656</pre>
658<p> 657<p>
659<e>Have fun!</e> 658<e>Have fun!</e>
660</p> 659</p>
661</body> 660</body>
662</chapter> 661</chapter>
663<chapter> 662<chapter>
664<title>Troubleshooting</title> 663<title>Troubleshooting</title>
665<section> 664<section>
666<title>Introduction</title> 665<title>Introduction</title>
667<body> 666<body>
668<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 667<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
669</body> 668</body>
670</section> 669</section>
671<section> 670<section>
672<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 671<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
673<body> 672<body>
674<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 673<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
675<pre> 674<pre>
676 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 675# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
677</pre> 676</pre>
678</body> 677</body>
679</section> 678</section>
680<section> 679<section>
681<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 680<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
682<body> 681<body>
683<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 682<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
684<pre> 683<pre>
685 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 684# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
686 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 685# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
687</pre> 686</pre>
688</body> 687</body>
689</section> 688</section>
690<section> 689<section>
691<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 690<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
692<body> 691<body>
693<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 692<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
694<pre> 693<pre>
695 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 694# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
696 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 695# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
697 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 696# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
698 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 697# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
699</pre> 698</pre>
700</body> 699</body>
701</section> 700</section>
702<section> 701<section>
703<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 702<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
704<body> 703<body>
705<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 704<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
706<pre> 705<pre>
707 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 706# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
708 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 707# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
709 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 708# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
710 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 709# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
711</pre> 710</pre>
712<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 711<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
713<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 712<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
714 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 713# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
715 debug_peer_level = 5 714debug_peer_level = 5
716 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 715debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
717 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 716<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
718 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 717<codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
719</pre> 718</pre>
720</body> 719</body>
721</section> 720</section>
722<section> 721<section>
723<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 722<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
724<body> 723<body>
725<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 724<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
726<pre> 725<pre>
727 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 726# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
728<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 727<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
729<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 728<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
730 729
731 Trying 127.0.0.1... 730Trying 127.0.0.1...
732 Connected to localhost. 731Connected to localhost.
733 Escape character is '^]'. 732Escape character is '^]'.
734 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 733* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information.
735 </pre> 734</pre>
736</body> 735</body>
737</section> 736</section>
738<section> 737<section>
739<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 738<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
740<body> 739<body>
741<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 740<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
742<pre> 741<pre>
743 # <i>emerge strace</i> 742# <i>emerge strace</i>
744 # <i>strace $command</i> 743# <i>strace $command</i>
745 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 744# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
746</pre> 745</pre>
747</body> 746</body>
748</section> 747</section>
749<section> 748<section>
750<title>Step 7: Research</title> 749<title>Step 7: Research</title>
751<body> 750<body>
752<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 751<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
753<p> 752<p>
754<ul> 753<ul>
755<li> 754<li>
756<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 755<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
757<li> 756<li>
758<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 757<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
759<li> 758<li>
760<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 759<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>

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