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new guide on virt/mailhosts

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link =" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
4
5 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
6 <author title="Author"><mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
7 <author title="Author"><mail link="ezra@kickasskungfu.com">Ezra Gorman</mail></author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9
10 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
11
12 <version>1.1</version>
13
14 <date>13 Jan 2003</date>
15
16 <chapter>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19 <p>For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client implemented with fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
20
21 <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
22
23 <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
24
25 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org</uri> to explore your options. </p>
26
27
28 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
29
30 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
31
32 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
33
34 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
35
36 <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
37
38
39 <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary; this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
40 </body>
41
42 </chapter>
43
44 <chapter>
45 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
46 <body>
47 <pre caption="Install Postfix"># <c>emerge postfix</c></pre>
48
49
50 <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
51
52 <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
53
54 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
55 myhostname = $host.domain.name
56 mydomain = $domain.name
57 myorigin = $mydomain
58 inet_interfaces = all
59 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
60 relay_domains = $mydestination
61 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
62 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
63 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
64
65
66 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
67
68
69 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
70 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72 #
73 ==========================================================================
74 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75
76 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
80
81
82 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
83 # <c>/usr/bin/newaliases</c>
84
85 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
86 <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
87
88 # <c>/etc/init.d/postfix start</c>
89 </pre>
90
91 <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, and once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
92
93
94 <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic Postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
95 </body>
96
97 </chapter>
98
99
100 <chapter>
101 <title>Courier-imap</title>
102 <body>
103 <pre caption="Install courier-imap"># <c>emerge courier-imap</c></pre>
104
105
106 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
107 # <c>cd /etc/courier-imap</c>
108
109 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
110 <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
111 <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
112
113 # <c>nano -w pop3d.cnf</c>
114 # <c>nano -w imapd.cnf</c>
115
116 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
117
118 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
119 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
120 </pre>
121
122 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
123 # <c>courier-imapd start</c>
124 # <c>courier-imapd-ssl start</c>
125 # <c>courier-pop3d start</c>
126 # <c>courier-pop3d-ssl start</c>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
130
131 </body>
132 </chapter>
133
134 <chapter>
135 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
136 <body>
137 <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
138
139 <note>For some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
140
141 <p>Just to get sasl installed is going to require a bit of hacking. Open up the ebuild file and change the configure flags to disable digest and cram. Here's why: mail clients will try to authenticate against the <e>first</e> method presented to it, usually cram-md5. Since we're not going to set that up, cram authentication will fail and most clients will not by default try another method. This is mostly due to the way mail clients are currently put together. So we're going to disable auth methods we're not using in order to not confuse the clients out there.</p>
142
143
144 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
145 # <c>cd /usr/portage/dev-libs/cyrus-sasl</c>
146 # <c>nano -w cyrus-sasl.$currentversion.ebuild</c>
147
148 <codenote>Disable digest and cram as show below.</codenote>
149
150 econf \
151 --with-saslauthd=/var/lib/sasl2 \
152 --with-pwcheck=/var/lib/sasl2 \
153 --with-configdir=/etc/sasl2 \
154 --with-openssl \
155 --with-plugindir=/usr/lib/sasl2 \
156 --with-dbpath=/etc/sasl2/sasldb2 \
157 --with-des \
158 --with-rc4 \
159 --disable-krb4 \
160 --with-gnu-ld \
161 --enable-shared \
162 --disable-sample \
163 --enable-login \
164 --disable-cram \
165 --disable-digest \
166 ${myconf} || die "bad ./configure"
167
168 # <c>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</c>
169
170 <codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
171 <codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
172 </pre>
173
174 <p>Now check that the directory <path>/var/lib/sasl2</path> exists. If it wasn't installed you need to create it. If it's there, go ahead and start sasl.</p>
175
176 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
177 # <c>mkdir /var/lib/sasl2 </c>
178
179 <!--Ken, perhaps submit the above as a bug? The ebuild should take care of creating this dir. //zhen -->
180
181 <codenote>If saslauthd can't find the dir it will spew errors at you and refuse to start.</codenote>
182
183 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
184 </pre>
185 </body>
186 </chapter>
187
188 <chapter>
189 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
190 <body>
191
192 <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
193
194 <pre>
195 # <c>cd /usr/lib/ssl/</c>
196 # <c>nano -w openssl.cnf</c>
197
198 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
199
200 countryName_default
201 stateOrProvinceName_default
202 localityName_default
203 0.organizationName_default
204 commonName_default
205 emailAddress_default.
206
207 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
208
209
210 # <c>cd misc</c>
211 # <c>nano -w CA.pl</c>
212
213 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
214 <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
215 <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
216 <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
217
218 # create a certificate
219 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
220
221 # create a certificate request
222 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
223
224 # <c>./CA.pl -newca</c>
225 # <c>./CA.pl -newreq</c>
226 # <c>./CA.pl -sign</c>
227 # <c>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</c>
228 # <c>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</c>
229 # <c>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</c>
230
231 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
232
233
234 # <c>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</c>
235 # <c>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</c>
236 # <c>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</c>
237
238 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
239 <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
240 </pre>
241 </body>
242 </chapter>
243
244 <chapter>
245 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
246 <body>
247 <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
248
249 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
250 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</c>
251
252 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
253 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
254 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
255 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
256 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
257
258 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
259 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
260 <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
261 <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
262
263 <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
264 <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
265
266 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
267 permit_sasl_authenticated,
268 permit_mynetworks,
269 check_relay_domains,
270 permit
271
272 smtpd_use_tls = yes
273 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
274 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
275 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
276 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
277 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
278 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
279 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
280 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
281
282 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
283 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
284
285 # <c>postfix reload</c>
286 </pre>
287
288 <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
289
290 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
291 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
292
293 Trying 127.0.0.1...
294 Connected to localhost.
295 Escape character is '^]'.
296 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
297 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
298 250-mail.domain.com
299 250-PIPELINING
300 250-SIZE 10240000
301 250-VRFY
302 250-ETRN
303 250-STARTTLS
304 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN OTP
305 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN OTP
306 250-XVERP
307 250 8BITMIME
308 <i>^]</i>
309 telnet> <i>quit</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
313 </p>
314
315 </body>
316 </chapter>
317
318 <chapter>
319 <title>MySQL</title>
320 <body>
321
322 <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
323
324 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
325 # <c>emerge mysql</c>
326
327 # <c>/usr/sbin/mysql_install_db</c>
328
329 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
330 <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
331 <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
332
333 # <c>/etc/init.d/mysql start</c>
334 # <c>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</c>
335 # <c>mysql -u root -p --opt mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</c>
336
337 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
338 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
339 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
340 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
341 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
342
343 -> <i>quit</i>
344
345 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
346
347 # <c>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</c>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
351 <ul>
352 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
353 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
354 <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
355 <li>users - all user account information</li>
356 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
357 </ul>
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="alias table sample">
361 id alias destination
362 1 root foo@bar.com
363 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
364 </pre>
365
366 <pre caption="user table sample">
367 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix
368 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
369 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y
370 </pre>
371
372 <pre caption="transport table sample">
373 id domain destination
374 1 bar.com local:
375 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
376 </pre>
377
378 <pre caption="virtual table sample">
379 id email destination
380 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
381 </pre>
382 </body>
383
384 </chapter>
385
386 <chapter>
387 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
388 <body>
389 <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
390
391 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
392 # <c>emerge apache php mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</c>
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
396
397 <p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
398 <ul>
399 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
400 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
401 </ul></p>
402
403 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
404 # <c>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</c>
405 # <c>cp /usr/lib/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</c>
406 # <c>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</c>
407
408 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
409
410 ServerName host.domain.name
411 ServerAdmin your@email.address
412 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
413 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
414
415 # <c>/etc/init.d/apache restart</c>
416 </pre>
417
418 <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
419
420 <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
421
422 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
423 # <c>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</c>
424
425 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
426
427 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
428 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
429 // (this user must have read-only
430 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
431 // and "mysql/db" tables)
432 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
433 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
434 </pre>
435
436 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
437 </body>
438 </chapter>
439
440 <chapter>
441 <title>The vmail user</title>
442 <body>
443 <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
444
445 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
446 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
447 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
448 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
449 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
450 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
451 </pre>
452
453 <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
454 </body>
455 </chapter>
456
457 <chapter>
458 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
462
463 <pre>
464 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i>
465
466 <codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
467 <codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
468 <codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
469
470 # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</c>
471
472 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
473
474 #auth required pam_nologin.so
475 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
476 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
477 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
478
479 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
480 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
481 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
482 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
483
484 # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</c>
485 # <c>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</c>
486
487 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
491
492 <pre>
493 # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</c>
494 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
495
496 # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</c>
497 AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
498
499 # <c>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</c>
500 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
501 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
502 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
503 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
504 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
505 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
506 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
507 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
508 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
509 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
510 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
511 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
512 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
513
514 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
515 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
516 </pre>
517
518 <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
519
520 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
521 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</c>
522 # mysql-aliases.cf
523
524 user = mailsql
525 password = $password
526 dbname = mailsql
527 table = alias
528 select_field = destination
529 where_field = alias
530 hosts = 127.0.0.1
531 </pre>
532
533 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
534 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</c>
535 # mysql-relocated.cf
536
537 user = mailsql
538 password = $password
539 dbname = mailsql
540 table = relocated
541 select_field = destination
542 where_field = email
543 hosts = 127.0.0.1
544 </pre>
545
546 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf">
547 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</c>
548 # mysql-transport.cf
549
550 user = mailsql
551 password = $password
552 dbname = mailsql
553 table = transport
554 select_field = destination
555 where_field = domain
556 hosts = 127.0.0.1
557 </pre>
558
559 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf">
560 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</c>
561 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
562
563 user = mailsql
564 password = $password
565 dbname = mailsql
566 table = users
567 select_field = gid
568 where_field = email
569 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
570 hosts = 127.0.0.1
571 </pre>
572
573 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
574 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</c>
575 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
576
577 user = mailsql
578 password = $password
579 dbname = mailsql
580 table = users
581 select_field = maildir
582 where_field = email
583 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
584 hosts = 127.0.0.1
585 </pre>
586
587 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf">
588 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</c>
589 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
590
591 user = mailsql
592 password = $password
593 dbname = mailsql
594 table = users
595 select_field = uid
596 where_field = email
597 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
598 hosts = 127.0.0.1
599 </pre>
600
601 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
602 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</c>
603 # mysql-virtual.cf
604
605 user = mailsql
606 password = $password
607 dbname = mailsql
608 table = virtual
609 select_field = destination
610 where_field = email
611 hosts = 127.0.0.1
612 </pre>
613
614 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
615
616 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
617 # <c>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</c>
618 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
619 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
620 transport_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf
621 virtual_gid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf
622 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
623 virtual_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
624 virtual_uid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf
625 virtual_mailbox_base = /
626 </pre>
627
628 <p>Shew! Alright now, let's restart postfix and see how all that went.</p>
629
630 <pre># <c>postfix reload</c></pre>
631
632 <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
633 </body>
634 </chapter>
635
636 <chapter>
637 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
638 <body>
639 <pre>
640 # <c>emerge squirrelmail</c>
641
642 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
643
644 # <c>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</c>
645 # <c>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</c>
646 # <c>./conf.pl</c>
647
648 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
649 <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
650 <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
651 </pre>
652 </body>
653
654 </chapter>
655
656 <chapter>
657 <title>Mailman</title>
658 <body>
659 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package.</p>
660
661 <pre>
662 # <c>emerge mailman</c>
663
664 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
665 <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
666 <codenote>in the README.gentoo</codenote>
667
668 # <c>nano -w /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo</c>
669
670 <codenote>Follow the rest of the install instructions in the README.</codenote>
671 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
672
673 # <c>su mailman</c>
674 # <c>cd ~</c>
675 # <c>bin/newlist $listname</c>
676
677 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
678 Initial test password:
679 Entry for aliases file:
680
681 ## test mailing list
682 ## created: 10-Jan-2003 root
683 $listname: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper post $listname"
684 $listname-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper mailowner $listname"
685 $listname-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/wrapper mailcmd $listname"
686 $listname-owner: $listname-admin
687
688 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
689 </pre>
690
691 <p>Add those aliases to the alias table in mailsql. You'll be tempted to add colons to the alias names in mailsql (because that's how the script gives them to you) DON'T DO IT! It won't work if you do. You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. When you log in to the mailman admin page for your new list, at the bottom of the general options page there is a space to declare what domain the list belongs to. With that selection you can add lists for any virtual domain you are hosting. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
692 </body>
693 </chapter>
694
695 <chapter>
696 <title>Wrap Up</title>
697 <body>
698
699 <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
700
701 <pre caption="Wrap up">
702 # <c>postfix reload</c>
703 # <c>rc-update add $service default</c>
704 </pre>
705
706 <p><e>Have fun!</e></p>
707 </body>
708 </chapter>
709
710 <chapter>
711 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
712 <section>
713 <title>Introduction</title>
714 <body>
715 <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
716 </body>
717 </section>
718 <section>
719 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
720 <body>
721 <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
722
723 <pre>
724 # <c>/etc/init.d/service restart</c>
725 </pre>
726 </body>
727 </section>
728 <section>
729
730 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
731 <body>
732 <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
733
734 <pre>
735 # <c>/etc/init.d/$service status</c>
736 # <c>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</c>
737 </pre>
738 </body>
739 </section>
740 <section>
741 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
742 <body>
743
744 <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
745
746 <pre>
747 # <c>apachectl fullstatus</c> (needs lynx installed)
748 # <c>apachectl configtest</c> (checks config sanity)
749 # <c>postconf -n</c> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
750 # <c>/etc/init.d/$service restart</c>
751 </pre>
752 </body>
753 </section>
754 <section>
755 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
756 <body>
757 <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
758
759 <pre>
760 # <c>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</c>(to turn off metalog buffering)
761 # <c>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</c>
762 # <c>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</c>
763 # <c>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</c>
764 </pre>
765 </body>
766
767 </section>
768 <section>
769 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
770 <body>
771 <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
772
773 <pre>
774 # <c>telnet localhost $port</c>
775
776 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
777 <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
778
779 Trying 127.0.0.1...
780 Connected to localhost.
781 Escape character is '^]'.
782 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information.
783 </pre>
784 </body>
785 </section>
786 <section>
787 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
788
789 <body>
790 <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
791
792 <pre>
793 # <c>emerge strace</c>
794 # <c>strace $command</c>
795 # <c>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</c>
796 </pre>
797 </body>
798 </section>
799 <section>
800 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
801 <body>
802 <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
803
804 <p>
805 <ul>
806 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
807 <li><uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
808 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
809 <li><uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
810 <li><uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
811 <li><uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
812 <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
813 </ul>
814 </p>
815
816 </body>
817 </section>
818
819 </chapter>
820
821 </guide>

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