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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.43 2005/03/25 15:00:25 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 </author>
17
18 <abstract>
19 This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
20 postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
21 </abstract>
22
23 <version>1.0.21</version>
24 <date>2005-05-23</date>
25
26 <!--
27 Contents
28
29 I. Introduction
30 II. Postfix Basics
31 III. Courier-imap
32 IV. Cyrus-sasl
33 V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
34 VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
35 VII. MySQL
36 VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
37 IX. The vmail user
38 X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
39 XI. Squirrelmail
40 XII. Mailman
41 XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
42 XIV. Wrap Up
43 XV. Troubleshooting
44 -->
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>Introduction</title>
48 <section>
49 <body>
50
51 <p>
52 For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
53 you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
54 Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
55 need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
56 system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
61 with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
62 that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
63 domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
64 smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
65 system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
66 the system? How do you manage it all?
67 </p>
68
69 <p>
70 This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
71 mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
72 users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
73 authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
74 utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
75 mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
76 central and easy mysql database.
77 </p>
78
79 <p>
80 There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
81 system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
82 needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
83 <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql,
88 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
89 mailman.
90 </p>
91
92 <p>
93 Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
94 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir
95 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
96 get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
97 turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
98 </p>
99
100 <impo>
101 This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
102 of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
103 upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
104 well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
105 run into issues with this.
106 </impo>
107
108 <impo>
109 This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
110 However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
111 support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
112 1.3.x version.
113 </impo>
114
115 <impo>
116 You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
117 for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
118 advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
119 </impo>
120
121 <impo>
122 Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
123 server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
124 verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
125 </impo>
126
127 <note>
128 It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
129 with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
130 any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
131 Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
132 flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
133 the squirrelmail section.
134 </note>
135
136 </body>
137 </section>
138 </chapter>
139
140 <chapter>
141 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
142 <section>
143 <body>
144
145 <pre caption="Install postfix">
146 # <i>emerge postfix</i>
147 </pre>
148
149 <warn>
150 Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
151 qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
152 </warn>
153
154 <p>
155 After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
156 options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
160 myhostname = $host.domain.name
161 mydomain = $domain.name
162 inet_interfaces = all
163 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
164 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
165 home_mailbox = .maildir/
166 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
167 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
168 </pre>
169
170 <p>
171 Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
172 turn on verbose output for debugging:
173 </p>
174
175 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
176 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
177 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
178 #
179 ==========================================================================
180 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
181 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
186 should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
190 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
191 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
192 when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
193
194 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
195 </pre>
196
197 <p>
198 Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
199 yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
200 postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
201 next step.
202 </p>
203
204 <note>
205 I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
206 before you progress to the next step of the howto.
207 </note>
208
209 </body>
210 </section>
211 </chapter>
212
213 <chapter>
214 <title>Courier-imap</title>
215 <section>
216 <body>
217
218 <pre caption="Install courier-imap">
219 # <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
220 </pre>
221
222 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
223 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
224 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
225 you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
226 This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
227
228 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
229 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
230 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
231
232 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
233 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
234 </pre>
235
236 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
237 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
238 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
239 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
240 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
245 started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
246 going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
247 running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
248 progressing.
249 </p>
250
251 </body>
252 </section>
253 </chapter>
254
255 <chapter>
256 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
257 <section>
258 <body>
259
260 <p>
261 Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
262 actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that
263 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
264 not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
265 a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
266 end anyway.
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
270 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
275 </p>
276
277 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
278 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
279 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
280 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
281 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
282 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a pam -r"
283 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
284 </pre>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 </chapter>
289
290 <chapter>
291 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
292 <section>
293 <body>
294
295 <p>
296 Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
300 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
301 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
302
303 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
304 countryName_default
305 stateOrProvinceName_default
306 localityName_default
307 0.organizationName_default
308 commonName_default
309 emailAddress_default.
310
311 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
312
313 # <i>cd misc</i>
314 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
315 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
316 #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
317 certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
318 reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
319
320 # create a certificate
321 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
322
323 # create a certificate request
324 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
325
326 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
327 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
328 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
329 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
330 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
331 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
332 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
333
334 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
335 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
336 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
337 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
338 We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
339 </pre>
340
341 </body>
342 </section>
343
344 </chapter>
345 <chapter>
346 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
347 <section>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
352 capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
353 will be easy to find.
354 </p>
355
356 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
357 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
358
359 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
360 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
361 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
362 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
363 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
364
365 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
366 are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
367 Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
368 smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
369 smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
370 mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
371
372 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
373 permit_sasl_authenticated,
374 permit_mynetworks,
375 reject_unauth_destination
376
377
378 smtpd_use_tls = yes
379 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
380 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
381 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
382 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
383 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
384 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
385 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
386 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
387
388 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
389 You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
390
391 # <i>postfix reload</i>
392 </pre>
393
394 <p>
395 Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
399 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
400
401 Trying 127.0.0.1...
402 Connected to localhost.
403 Escape character is '^]'.
404 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
405 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
406 250-mail.domain.com
407 250-PIPELINING
408 250-SIZE 10240000
409 250-VRFY
410 250-ETRN
411 250-STARTTLS
412 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
413 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
414 250-XVERP
415 250 8BITMIME
416 <i>^]</i>
417 telnet> <i>quit</i>
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
422 install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
423 sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
424 unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
425 and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
426 </p>
427
428 </body>
429 </section>
430 </chapter>
431
432 <chapter>
433 <title>MySQL</title>
434 <section>
435 <body>
436
437 <p>
438 Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
439 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
440 dumpfile for this step.
441 </p>
442
443 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
444 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
445
446 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
447 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
448 for adding a root password with mysql,
449 not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
450
451 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
452 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
453 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
454
455 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
456 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
457 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
458 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
459 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
460
461 -> <i>quit</i>
462 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
463
464 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>
468 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
469 following tables are included:
470 </p>
471
472 <ul>
473 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
474 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
475 <li>
476 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
477 hosting
478 </li>
479 <li>users - all user account information</li>
480 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
481 </ul>
482
483 <pre caption="alias table sample">
484 id alias destination
485 1 root foo@bar.com
486 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
487 </pre>
488
489 <pre caption="user table sample">
490 <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
491 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
492 maildir quota postfix
493 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
494 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
495 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
496 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
497 </pre>
498
499 <p>
500 The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
501 user and group.
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="transport table sample">
505 id domain destination
506 1 bar.com local:
507 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
508 </pre>
509
510 <pre caption="virtual table sample">
511 id email destination
512 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
513 </pre>
514
515 </body>
516 </section>
517 </chapter>
518
519 <chapter>
520 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
521 <section>
522 <body>
523
524 <p>
525 Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
526 more easily.
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
530 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
531 </pre>
532
533 <p>
534 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
535 this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
536 numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
537 problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
538 not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
539 with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
540 phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
541 index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
542 phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
543 however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
544 including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
545 </p>
546
547 <p>
548 Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
549 Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
550 </p>
551
552 <ul>
553 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
554 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
555 </ul>
556
557 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
558 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
559 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
560 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
561
562 <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
563
564 ServerName host.domain.name
565 ServerAdmin your@email.address
566 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
567 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
568
569 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
570 </pre>
571
572 <note>
573 If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
574 server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
575 apache restarted successfully.
576 </note>
577
578 <p>
579 Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
580 </p>
581
582 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
583 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
584 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
585
586 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
587 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
588 // (this user must have read-only
589 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
590 // and "mysql/db" tables)
591 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
592 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
593 </pre>
594
595 <p>
596 Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
597 local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
598 transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
599 supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
600 go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
601 accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
602 correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
603 automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
604 general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
605 after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
606 </p>
607
608 </body>
609 </section>
610 </chapter>
611
612 <chapter>
613 <title>The vmail user</title>
614 <section>
615 <body>
616
617 <p>
618 At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
619 mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
620 </p>
621
622 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
623 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
624 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
625 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
626 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
627 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
628 </pre>
629
630 <p>
631 So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
632 homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
633 homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
634 haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
635 </p>
636
637 </body>
638 </section>
639 </chapter>
640
641 <chapter>
642 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
643 <section>
644 <body>
645
646 <p>
647 Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
648 courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
649 <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
650 </p>
651
652 <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
653 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
654 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
655 <comment>(Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.)</comment>
656
657 #auth required /lib/security/pam_stack.so service=system-auth
658 #account required /lib/security/pam_stack.so service=system-auth
659
660 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
661 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
662 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
663 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
664
665 </pre>
666
667 <p>
668 Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.
669 </p>
670
671 <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
672 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
673 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
674
675 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
676 AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
677
678 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
679 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
680 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
681 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
682 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
683 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
684 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
685 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
686 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
687 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
688 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
689 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
690 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
691 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
692 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
693
694 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
695 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
696 </pre>
697
698 <p>
699 We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
700 for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
701 </p>
702
703 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
704 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
705 # mysql-aliases.cf
706
707 user = mailsql
708 password = $password
709 dbname = mailsql
710 table = alias
711 select_field = destination
712 where_field = alias
713 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
714 </pre>
715
716 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
717 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
718 # mysql-relocated.cf
719
720 user = mailsql
721 password = $password
722 dbname = mailsql
723 table = relocated
724 select_field = destination
725 where_field = email
726 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
727 </pre>
728
729 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
730 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
731 # mysql-transport.cf
732
733 user = mailsql
734 password = $password
735 dbname = mailsql
736 table = transport
737 select_field = destination
738 where_field = domain
739 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
740 </pre>
741
742 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
743 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
744 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
745
746 user = mailsql
747 password = $password
748 dbname = mailsql
749 table = users
750 select_field = gid
751 where_field = email
752 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
753 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
754 </pre>
755
756 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
757 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
758 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
759
760 user = mailsql
761 password = $password
762 dbname = mailsql
763 table = users
764 select_field = maildir
765 where_field = email
766 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
767 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
768 </pre>
769
770 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
771 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
772 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
773
774 user = mailsql
775 password = $password
776 dbname = mailsql
777 table = users
778 select_field = uid
779 where_field = email
780 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
781 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
782 </pre>
783
784 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
785 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
786 # mysql-virtual.cf
787
788 user = mailsql
789 password = $password
790 dbname = mailsql
791 table = virtual
792 select_field = destination
793 where_field = email
794 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
795 </pre>
796
797 <p>
798 Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
799 </p>
800
801 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
802 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
803 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
804 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
805
806 local_transport = local
807 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
808
809 virtual_transport = virtual
810 virtual_mailbox_domains =
811 virt-bar.com,
812 $other-virtual-domain.com
813
814 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
815 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
816 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
817 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
818 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
819 virtual_mailbox_base = /
820 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
821 </pre>
822
823 <p>
824 For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
825 <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
826 </p>
827
828 <pre caption="Changing file permission">
829 # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
830 # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
831 </pre>
832
833 <p>
834 As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
835 release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
836 longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
837 </p>
838
839 <note>
840 It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
841 for more information.
842 </note>
843
844 <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
845 # <i>postfix reload</i>
846 </pre>
847
848 <p>
849 Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
850 able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
851 for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
852 everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
853 things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
854 troubleshooting section of this howto.
855 </p>
856
857 </body>
858 </section>
859 </chapter>
860
861 <chapter>
862 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
863 <section>
864 <body>
865
866 <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
867 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
868 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
869 (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
870
871 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
872 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
873 # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
874 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
875 Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
876 and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
877 </pre>
878
879 </body>
880 </section>
881 </chapter>
882
883 <chapter>
884 <title>Mailman</title>
885 <section>
886 <body>
887
888 <p>
889 Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
890 support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
891 get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
892 to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
893 documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
894 here.
895 </p>
896
897 <p>
898 One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
899 you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
900 overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
901 </p>
902
903 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
904 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
905 MAILGID="280"
906 <comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
907 This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
908 </pre>
909
910 <pre caption="Install mailman">
911 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
912 <comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
913 emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
914 in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
915 We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
916
917 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
918 </pre>
919
920 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
921 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
922 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
923 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
924 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
925 </pre>
926
927 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
928 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
929 MTA = "Postfix"
930 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
931 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
932 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
933 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
934 </pre>
935
936 <pre caption="And last but not least">
937 <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
938
939 # <i>su mailman</i>
940 # <i>cd ~</i>
941 # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
942 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
943 Initial test password:
944 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
945 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
946 list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
947 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
948 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
949 verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
950
951 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
952 # STANZA START: test
953 # CREATED:
954 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
955 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
956 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
957 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
958 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
959 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
960 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
961 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
962 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
963 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
964 # STANZA END: test
965
966 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
967 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
968 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
969 </pre>
970
971 <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
972 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
973 owner_request_special = no
974 recipient_delimiter = +
975 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
976
977 alias_maps =
978 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
979 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
980
981 virtual_alias_maps =
982 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
983 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
984 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
985 You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
986 but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
987 using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
988 to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
989 </pre>
990
991 <p>
992 You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
993 note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
994 mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
995 Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
996 lists.
997 </p>
998
999 </body>
1000 </section>
1001 </chapter>
1002
1003 <chapter>
1004 <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
1005 <section>
1006 <body>
1007
1008 <p>
1009 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
1010 link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
1011 </p>
1012
1013 </body>
1014 </section>
1015 </chapter>
1016
1017 <chapter>
1018 <title>Wrap Up</title>
1019 <section>
1020 <body>
1021
1022 <p>
1023 Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1024 verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1025 to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1026 sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1027 courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1028 up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1029 the services enabled.
1030 </p>
1031
1032 <pre caption="Wrap up">
1033 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1034 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1035 </pre>
1036
1037 <p>
1038 <e>Have fun!</e>
1039 </p>
1040
1041 </body>
1042 </section>
1043 </chapter>
1044
1045 <chapter>
1046 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1047 <section>
1048 <title>Introduction</title>
1049 <body>
1050
1051 <p>
1052 Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1053 detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1054 you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1055 it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1056 that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1057 from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1058 work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1059 </p>
1060
1061 </body>
1062 </section>
1063 <section>
1064 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1065 <body>
1066
1067 <p>
1068 Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1069 your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1070 if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1071 it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1072 make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1073 </p>
1074
1075 <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1076 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1077 </pre>
1078
1079 </body>
1080 </section>
1081 <section>
1082 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1083 <body>
1084
1085 <p>
1086 If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1087 running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1088 Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1089 component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1090 process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1091 awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1092 out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1093 </p>
1094
1095 <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1096 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1097 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1098 </pre>
1099
1100 </body>
1101 </section>
1102 <section>
1103 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1104 <body>
1105
1106 <p>
1107 If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1108 sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1109 current config's to you, like postfix.
1110 </p>
1111
1112 <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1113 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1114 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1115 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1116 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1117 </pre>
1118
1119 </body>
1120 </section>
1121 <section>
1122 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1123 <body>
1124
1125 <p>
1126 Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1127 logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1128 logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1129 logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1130 in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1131 figure out which component is having the problem.
1132 </p>
1133
1134 <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1135 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1136 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1137 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1138 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1139 </pre>
1140
1141 <p>
1142 You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1143 will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1144 </p>
1145
1146 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1147 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1148 debug_peer_level = 5
1149 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1150 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1151 commands as well.)</comment>
1152 </pre>
1153
1154 </body>
1155 </section>
1156 <section>
1157 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1158 <body>
1159
1160 <p>
1161 SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1162 we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1163 to the service itself and see what's happening.
1164 </p>
1165
1166 <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1167 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1168 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1169 letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1170
1171 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1172 Connected to localhost.
1173 Escape character is '^]'.
1174 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1175 </pre>
1176
1177 </body>
1178 </section>
1179 <section>
1180 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1181 <body>
1182
1183 <p>
1184 You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1185 software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1186 all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1187 information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1188 transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1189 </p>
1190
1191 <pre caption="Using strace">
1192 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1193 # <i>strace $command</i>
1194 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1195 </pre>
1196
1197 </body>
1198 </section>
1199 <section>
1200 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1201 <body>
1202
1203 <p>
1204 Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1205 If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1206 help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1207 already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1208 which contains some great debugging ideas.
1209 </p>
1210
1211 <ul>
1212 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1213 <li>
1214 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1215 to look for specific errors
1216 </li>
1217 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1218 <li>
1219 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1220 lists - searchable
1221 </li>
1222 <li>
1223 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1224 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1225 </li>
1226 <li>
1227 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1228 google, which has never failed me
1229 </li>
1230 <li>
1231 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1232 place to go for help.
1233 </li>
1234 </ul>
1235
1236 </body>
1237 </section>
1238 </chapter>
1239 </guide>

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