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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.45 2005/05/29 16:12:29 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19 </author>
20
21 <abstract>
22 This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23 postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24 </abstract>
25
26 <version>1.0.23</version>
27 <date>2005-12-02</date>
28
29 <!--
30 Contents
31
32 I. Introduction
33 II. Postfix Basics
34 III. Courier-imap
35 IV. Cyrus-sasl
36 V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37 VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38 VII. MySQL
39 VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40 IX. The vmail user
41 X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42 XI. Squirrelmail
43 XII. Mailman
44 XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45 XIV. Wrap Up
46 XV. Troubleshooting
47 -->
48
49 <chapter>
50 <title>Introduction</title>
51 <section>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56 you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57 Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58 need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59 system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64 with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65 that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66 domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67 smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68 system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69 the system? How do you manage it all?
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74 mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75 users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76 authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77 utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78 mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79 central and easy mysql database.
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84 system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85 needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86 <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87 </p>
88
89 <p>
90 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92 mailman.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99 get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100 turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101 </p>
102
103 <impo>
104 This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105 of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106 upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107 well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108 run into issues with this.
109 </impo>
110
111 <impo>
112 This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113 However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114 support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115 1.3.x version.
116 </impo>
117
118 <impo>
119 You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120 for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121 advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122 </impo>
123
124 <impo>
125 Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126 server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127 verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128 </impo>
129
130 <note>
131 It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132 with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133 any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134 Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135 flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136 the squirrelmail section.
137 </note>
138
139 </body>
140 </section>
141 </chapter>
142
143 <chapter>
144 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
145 <section>
146 <body>
147
148 <pre caption="Install postfix">
149 # <i>emerge postfix</i>
150 </pre>
151
152 <warn>
153 Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154 qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155 </warn>
156
157 <p>
158 After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159 options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163 myhostname = $host.domain.name
164 mydomain = $domain.name
165 inet_interfaces = all
166 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168 home_mailbox = .maildir/
169 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175 turn on verbose output for debugging:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181 #
182 ==========================================================================
183 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189 should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195 when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
196
197 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202 yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203 postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204 next step.
205 </p>
206
207 <note>
208 I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209 before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210 </note>
211
212 </body>
213 </section>
214 </chapter>
215
216 <chapter>
217 <title>Courier-imap</title>
218 <section>
219 <body>
220
221 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222 # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223 </pre>
224
225 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228 you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229 This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237 </pre>
238
239 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248 started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249 going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250 running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251 progressing.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 </chapter>
257
258 <chapter>
259 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260 <section>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267 not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268 a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269 end anyway.
270 </p>
271
272 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
273 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
281 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
283 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
284 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
285 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
286 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
287 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
288 </pre>
289
290 </body>
291 </section>
292 </chapter>
293
294 <chapter>
295 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296 <section>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308 countryName_default
309 stateOrProvinceName_default
310 localityName_default
311 0.organizationName_default
312 commonName_default
313 emailAddress_default.
314
315 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317 # <i>cd misc</i>
318 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320 #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321 certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322 reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324 # create a certificate
325 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327 # create a certificate request
328 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329
330 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
331 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
332 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
337
338 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
339 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
340 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
341 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
342 We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
343 </pre>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347
348 </chapter>
349 <chapter>
350 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351 <section>
352 <body>
353
354 <p>
355 Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356 capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357 will be easy to find.
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
361 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
362
363 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
364 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
365 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
366 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
367 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
368
369 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
370 are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
371 Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
372 smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373 smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374 mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375
376 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
378 permit_mynetworks,
379 reject_unauth_destination
380
381
382 smtpd_use_tls = yes
383 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
384 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
385 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
386 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
387 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
388 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
389 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
390 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
391
392 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
393 You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
394
395 # <i>postfix reload</i>
396 </pre>
397
398 <p>
399 Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
403 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
404
405 Trying 127.0.0.1...
406 Connected to localhost.
407 Escape character is '^]'.
408 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
409 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
410 250-mail.domain.com
411 250-PIPELINING
412 250-SIZE 10240000
413 250-VRFY
414 250-ETRN
415 250-STARTTLS
416 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
417 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
418 250-XVERP
419 250 8BITMIME
420 <i>^]</i>
421 telnet> <i>quit</i>
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
426 install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
427 sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
428 unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
429 and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
430 </p>
431
432 </body>
433 </section>
434 </chapter>
435
436 <chapter>
437 <title>MySQL</title>
438 <section>
439 <body>
440
441 <p>
442 Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
443 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
444 dumpfile for this step.
445 </p>
446
447 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
448 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
449
450 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
451 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
452 for adding a root password with mysql,
453 not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
454
455 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
456 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
457 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
458
459 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
460 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
461 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
462 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
463 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
464 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
465
466 mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
467 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
468
469 mysql> <i>quit</i>
470 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
471
472 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
477 following tables are included:
478 </p>
479
480 <ul>
481 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
482 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
483 <li>
484 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
485 hosting
486 </li>
487 <li>users - all user account information</li>
488 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
489 </ul>
490
491 <pre caption="alias table sample">
492 id alias destination
493 1 root foo@bar.com
494 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
495 </pre>
496
497 <pre caption="user table sample">
498 <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
499 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
500 maildir quota postfix
501 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
502 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
503 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
504 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
505 </pre>
506
507 <p>
508 The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
509 user and group.
510 </p>
511
512 <pre caption="transport table sample">
513 id domain destination
514 1 bar.com local:
515 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
516 </pre>
517
518 <pre caption="virtual table sample">
519 id email destination
520 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
521 </pre>
522
523 </body>
524 </section>
525 </chapter>
526
527 <chapter>
528 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
529 <section>
530 <body>
531
532 <p>
533 Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
534 more easily.
535 </p>
536
537 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
538 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
539 </pre>
540
541 <p>
542 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
543 this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
544 numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
545 problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
546 not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
547 with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
548 phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
549 index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
550 phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
551 however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
552 including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
553 </p>
554
555 <p>
556 Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
557 Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
558 </p>
559
560 <ul>
561 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
562 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
563 </ul>
564
565 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
566 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
567 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
568 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
569
570 <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
571
572 ServerName host.domain.name
573 ServerAdmin your@email.address
574 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
575 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
576
577 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
578 </pre>
579
580 <note>
581 If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
582 server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
583 apache restarted successfully.
584 </note>
585
586 <p>
587 Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
588 </p>
589
590 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
591 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
592 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
593
594 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
595 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
596 // (this user must have read-only
597 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
598 // and "mysql/db" tables)
599 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
600 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
601 </pre>
602
603 <p>
604 Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
605 local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
606 transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
607 supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
608 go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
609 accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
610 correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
611 automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
612 general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
613 after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
614 </p>
615
616 </body>
617 </section>
618 </chapter>
619
620 <chapter>
621 <title>The vmail user</title>
622 <section>
623 <body>
624
625 <p>
626 At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
627 mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
628 </p>
629
630 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
631 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
632 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
633 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
634 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
635 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
636 </pre>
637
638 <p>
639 So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
640 homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
641 homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
642 haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
643 </p>
644
645 </body>
646 </section>
647 </chapter>
648
649 <chapter>
650 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
651 <section>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
656 courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
657 <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
658 </p>
659
660 <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
661 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
662 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
663
664 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
665 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
666 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
667 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
668 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
669 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
670 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
671 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
672 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
673 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
674 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
675 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
676 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
677 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
678 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
679
680 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
681 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
682 </pre>
683
684 <p>
685 We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
686 for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
687 </p>
688
689 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
690 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
691 # mysql-aliases.cf
692
693 user = mailsql
694 password = $password
695 dbname = mailsql
696 table = alias
697 select_field = destination
698 where_field = alias
699 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
700 </pre>
701
702 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
703 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
704 # mysql-relocated.cf
705
706 user = mailsql
707 password = $password
708 dbname = mailsql
709 table = relocated
710 select_field = destination
711 where_field = email
712 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
713 </pre>
714
715 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
716 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
717 # mysql-transport.cf
718
719 user = mailsql
720 password = $password
721 dbname = mailsql
722 table = transport
723 select_field = destination
724 where_field = domain
725 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
726 </pre>
727
728 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
729 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
730 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
731
732 user = mailsql
733 password = $password
734 dbname = mailsql
735 table = users
736 select_field = gid
737 where_field = email
738 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
739 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
740 </pre>
741
742 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
743 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
744 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
745
746 user = mailsql
747 password = $password
748 dbname = mailsql
749 table = users
750 select_field = maildir
751 where_field = email
752 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
753 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
754 </pre>
755
756 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
757 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
758 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
759
760 user = mailsql
761 password = $password
762 dbname = mailsql
763 table = users
764 select_field = uid
765 where_field = email
766 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
767 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
768 </pre>
769
770 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
771 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
772 # mysql-virtual.cf
773
774 user = mailsql
775 password = $password
776 dbname = mailsql
777 table = virtual
778 select_field = destination
779 where_field = email
780 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
781 </pre>
782
783 <p>
784 Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
785 </p>
786
787 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
788 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
789 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
790 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
791
792 local_transport = local
793 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
794
795 virtual_transport = virtual
796 virtual_mailbox_domains =
797 virt-bar.com,
798 $other-virtual-domain.com
799
800 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
801 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
802 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
803 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
804 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
805 virtual_mailbox_base = /
806 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
807 </pre>
808
809 <p>
810 For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
811 <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
812 </p>
813
814 <pre caption="Changing file permission">
815 # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
816 # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
817 </pre>
818
819 <p>
820 As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
821 release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
822 longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
823 </p>
824
825 <note>
826 It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
827 for more information.
828 </note>
829
830 <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
831 # <i>postfix reload</i>
832 </pre>
833
834 <p>
835 Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
836 able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
837 for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
838 everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
839 things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
840 troubleshooting section of this howto.
841 </p>
842
843 </body>
844 </section>
845 </chapter>
846
847 <chapter>
848 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
849 <section>
850 <body>
851
852 <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
853 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
854 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
855 (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
856
857 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
858 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
859 # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
860 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
861 Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
862 and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
863 </pre>
864
865 </body>
866 </section>
867 </chapter>
868
869 <chapter>
870 <title>Mailman</title>
871 <section>
872 <body>
873
874 <p>
875 Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
876 support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
877 get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
878 to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
879 documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
880 here.
881 </p>
882
883 <p>
884 One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
885 you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
886 overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
887 </p>
888
889 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
890 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
891 MAILGID="280"
892 <comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
893 This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
894 </pre>
895
896 <pre caption="Install mailman">
897 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
898 <comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
899 emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
900 in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
901 We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
902
903 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
904 </pre>
905
906 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
907 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
908 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
909 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
910 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
911 </pre>
912
913 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
914 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
915 MTA = "Postfix"
916 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
917 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
918 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
919 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
920 </pre>
921
922 <pre caption="And last but not least">
923 <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
924
925 # <i>su mailman</i>
926 # <i>cd ~</i>
927 # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
928 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
929 Initial test password:
930 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
931 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
932 list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
933 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
934 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
935 verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
936
937 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
938 # STANZA START: test
939 # CREATED:
940 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
941 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
942 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
943 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
944 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
945 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
946 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
947 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
948 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
949 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
950 # STANZA END: test
951
952 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
953 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
954 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
955 </pre>
956
957 <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
958 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
959 owner_request_special = no
960 recipient_delimiter = +
961 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
962
963 alias_maps =
964 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
965 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
966
967 virtual_alias_maps =
968 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
969 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
970 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
971 You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
972 but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
973 using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
974 to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
975 </pre>
976
977 <p>
978 You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
979 note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
980 mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
981 Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
982 lists.
983 </p>
984
985 </body>
986 </section>
987 </chapter>
988
989 <chapter>
990 <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
991 <section>
992 <body>
993
994 <p>
995 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
996 link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
997 </p>
998
999 </body>
1000 </section>
1001 </chapter>
1002
1003 <chapter>
1004 <title>Wrap Up</title>
1005 <section>
1006 <body>
1007
1008 <p>
1009 Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1010 verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1011 to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1012 sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1013 courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1014 up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1015 the services enabled.
1016 </p>
1017
1018 <pre caption="Wrap up">
1019 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1020 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1021 </pre>
1022
1023 <p>
1024 <e>Have fun!</e>
1025 </p>
1026
1027 </body>
1028 </section>
1029 </chapter>
1030
1031 <chapter>
1032 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1033 <section>
1034 <title>Introduction</title>
1035 <body>
1036
1037 <p>
1038 Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1039 detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1040 you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1041 it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1042 that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1043 from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1044 work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1045 </p>
1046
1047 </body>
1048 </section>
1049 <section>
1050 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1051 <body>
1052
1053 <p>
1054 Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1055 your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1056 if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1057 it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1058 make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1059 </p>
1060
1061 <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1062 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1063 </pre>
1064
1065 </body>
1066 </section>
1067 <section>
1068 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1069 <body>
1070
1071 <p>
1072 If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1073 running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1074 Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1075 component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1076 process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1077 awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1078 out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1079 </p>
1080
1081 <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1082 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1083 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1084 </pre>
1085
1086 </body>
1087 </section>
1088 <section>
1089 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1090 <body>
1091
1092 <p>
1093 If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1094 sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1095 current config's to you, like postfix.
1096 </p>
1097
1098 <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1099 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1100 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1101 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1102 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1103 </pre>
1104
1105 </body>
1106 </section>
1107 <section>
1108 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1109 <body>
1110
1111 <p>
1112 Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1113 logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1114 logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1115 logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1116 in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1117 figure out which component is having the problem.
1118 </p>
1119
1120 <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1121 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1122 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1123 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1124 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1125 </pre>
1126
1127 <p>
1128 You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1129 will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1130 </p>
1131
1132 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1133 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1134 debug_peer_level = 5
1135 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1136 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1137 commands as well.)</comment>
1138 </pre>
1139
1140 </body>
1141 </section>
1142 <section>
1143 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1144 <body>
1145
1146 <p>
1147 SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1148 we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1149 to the service itself and see what's happening.
1150 </p>
1151
1152 <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1153 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1154 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1155 letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1156
1157 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1158 Connected to localhost.
1159 Escape character is '^]'.
1160 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1161 </pre>
1162
1163 </body>
1164 </section>
1165 <section>
1166 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1167 <body>
1168
1169 <p>
1170 You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1171 software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1172 all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1173 information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1174 transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1175 </p>
1176
1177 <pre caption="Using strace">
1178 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1179 # <i>strace $command</i>
1180 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1181 </pre>
1182
1183 </body>
1184 </section>
1185 <section>
1186 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1187 <body>
1188
1189 <p>
1190 Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1191 If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1192 help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1193 already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1194 which contains some great debugging ideas.
1195 </p>
1196
1197 <ul>
1198 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1199 <li>
1200 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1201 to look for specific errors
1202 </li>
1203 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1204 <li>
1205 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1206 lists - searchable
1207 </li>
1208 <li>
1209 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1210 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1211 </li>
1212 <li>
1213 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1214 google, which has never failed me
1215 </li>
1216 <li>
1217 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1218 place to go for help.
1219 </li>
1220 </ul>
1221
1222 </body>
1223 </section>
1224 </chapter>
1225 </guide>

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