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Revision 1.48 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jan 8 01:10:07 2006 UTC (8 years, 8 months ago) by vanquirius
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.47: +5 -3 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Add smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes for bug 108317. Thanks to Johan Hellgren
<johan at insightbb dot com> and Josh Saddler <jackdark at gmail dot com>.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.47 2005/12/16 07:43:40 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19 </author>
20
21 <abstract>
22 This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23 postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24 </abstract>
25
26 <version>1.0.25</version>
27 <date>2006-01-07</date>
28
29 <!--
30 Contents
31
32 I. Introduction
33 II. Postfix Basics
34 III. Courier-imap
35 IV. Cyrus-sasl
36 V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37 VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38 VII. MySQL
39 VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40 IX. The vmail user
41 X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42 XI. Squirrelmail
43 XII. Mailman
44 XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45 XIV. Wrap Up
46 XV. Troubleshooting
47 -->
48
49 <chapter>
50 <title>Introduction</title>
51 <section>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56 you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57 Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58 need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59 system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64 with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65 that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66 domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67 smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68 system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69 the system? How do you manage it all?
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74 mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75 users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76 authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77 utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78 mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79 central and easy mysql database.
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84 system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85 needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86 <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87 </p>
88
89 <p>
90 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92 mailman.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99 get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100 turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101 </p>
102
103 <impo>
104 This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105 of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106 upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107 well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108 run into issues with this.
109 </impo>
110
111 <impo>
112 This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113 However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114 support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115 1.3.x version.
116 </impo>
117
118 <impo>
119 You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120 for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121 advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122 </impo>
123
124 <impo>
125 Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126 server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127 verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128 </impo>
129
130 <note>
131 It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132 with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133 any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134 Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135 flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136 the squirrelmail section.
137 </note>
138
139 </body>
140 </section>
141 </chapter>
142
143 <chapter>
144 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
145 <section>
146 <body>
147
148 <pre caption="Install postfix">
149 # <i>emerge postfix</i>
150 </pre>
151
152 <warn>
153 Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154 qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155 </warn>
156
157 <p>
158 After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159 options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163 myhostname = $host.domain.name
164 mydomain = $domain.name
165 inet_interfaces = all
166 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168 home_mailbox = .maildir/
169 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175 turn on verbose output for debugging:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181 #
182 ==========================================================================
183 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189 should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195 when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
196
197 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202 yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203 postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204 next step.
205 </p>
206
207 <note>
208 I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209 before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210 </note>
211
212 </body>
213 </section>
214 </chapter>
215
216 <chapter>
217 <title>Courier-imap</title>
218 <section>
219 <body>
220
221 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222 # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223 </pre>
224
225 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228 you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229 This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237 </pre>
238
239 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248 started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249 going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250 running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251 progressing.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 </chapter>
257
258 <chapter>
259 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260 <section>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267 not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268 a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269 end anyway.
270 </p>
271
272 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
273 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
281 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
283 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
284 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
285 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
286 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
287 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
288 </pre>
289
290 </body>
291 </section>
292 </chapter>
293
294 <chapter>
295 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296 <section>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308 countryName_default
309 stateOrProvinceName_default
310 localityName_default
311 0.organizationName_default
312 commonName_default
313 emailAddress_default.
314
315 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317 # <i>cd misc</i>
318 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320 #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321 certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322 reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324 # create a certificate
325 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327 # create a certificate request
328 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329
330 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
331 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
332 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
337
338 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
339 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
340 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
341 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
342 We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
343 </pre>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347
348 </chapter>
349 <chapter>
350 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351 <section>
352 <body>
353
354 <p>
355 Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356 capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357 will be easy to find.
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
361 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
362
363 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
364 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
365 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
366 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
367 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
368
369 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
370 are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
371 Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
372 smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373 smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374 mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375
376 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
378 permit_mynetworks,
379 reject_unauth_destination
380
381
382 <comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
383 smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
384 smtpd_use_tls = yes
385 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
386 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
387 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
388 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
389 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
390 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
391 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
392 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
393
394 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
395 You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
396
397 # <i>postfix reload</i>
398 </pre>
399
400 <p>
401 Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
405 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
406
407 Trying 127.0.0.1...
408 Connected to localhost.
409 Escape character is '^]'.
410 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
411 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
412 250-mail.domain.com
413 250-PIPELINING
414 250-SIZE 10240000
415 250-VRFY
416 250-ETRN
417 250-STARTTLS
418 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
419 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
420 250-XVERP
421 250 8BITMIME
422 <i>^]</i>
423 telnet> <i>quit</i>
424 </pre>
425
426 <p>
427 Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
428 install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
429 sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
430 unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
431 and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
432 </p>
433
434 </body>
435 </section>
436 </chapter>
437
438 <chapter>
439 <title>MySQL</title>
440 <section>
441 <body>
442
443 <p>
444 Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
445 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
446 dumpfile for this step.
447 </p>
448
449 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
450 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
451
452 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
453 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
454 for adding a root password with mysql,
455 not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
456
457 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
458 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
459 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
460
461 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
462 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
463 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
464 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
465 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
466 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
467
468 mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
469 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
470
471 mysql> <i>quit</i>
472 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
473
474 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
475 </pre>
476
477 <p>
478 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
479 following tables are included:
480 </p>
481
482 <ul>
483 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
484 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
485 <li>
486 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
487 hosting
488 </li>
489 <li>users - all user account information</li>
490 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
491 </ul>
492
493 <pre caption="alias table sample">
494 id alias destination
495 1 root foo@bar.com
496 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
497 </pre>
498
499 <pre caption="user table sample">
500 <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
501 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
502 maildir quota postfix
503 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
504 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
505 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
506 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
507 </pre>
508
509 <p>
510 The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
511 user and group.
512 </p>
513
514 <pre caption="transport table sample">
515 id domain destination
516 1 bar.com local:
517 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
518 </pre>
519
520 <pre caption="virtual table sample">
521 id email destination
522 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
523 </pre>
524
525 </body>
526 </section>
527 </chapter>
528
529 <chapter>
530 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
531 <section>
532 <body>
533
534 <p>
535 Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
536 more easily.
537 </p>
538
539 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
540 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
541 </pre>
542
543 <p>
544 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
545 this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
546 numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
547 problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
548 not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
549 with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
550 phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
551 index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
552 phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
553 however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
554 including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
555 </p>
556
557 <p>
558 Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
559 Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
560 </p>
561
562 <ul>
563 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
564 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
565 </ul>
566
567 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
568 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
569 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
570 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
571
572 <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
573
574 ServerName host.domain.name
575 ServerAdmin your@email.address
576 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
577 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
578
579 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
580 </pre>
581
582 <note>
583 If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
584 server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
585 apache restarted successfully.
586 </note>
587
588 <p>
589 Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
590 </p>
591
592 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
593 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
594 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
595
596 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
597 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
598 // (this user must have read-only
599 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
600 // and "mysql/db" tables)
601 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
602 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
603 </pre>
604
605 <p>
606 Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
607 local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
608 transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
609 supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
610 go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
611 accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
612 correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
613 automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
614 general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
615 after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
616 </p>
617
618 </body>
619 </section>
620 </chapter>
621
622 <chapter>
623 <title>The vmail user</title>
624 <section>
625 <body>
626
627 <p>
628 At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
629 mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
630 </p>
631
632 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
633 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
634 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
635 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
636 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
637 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
638 </pre>
639
640 <p>
641 So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
642 homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
643 homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
644 haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
645 </p>
646
647 </body>
648 </section>
649 </chapter>
650
651 <chapter>
652 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
653 <section>
654 <body>
655
656 <p>
657 Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
658 courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
659 <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
660 </p>
661
662 <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
663 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
664 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
665
666 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
667 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
668 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
669 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
670 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
671 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
672 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
673 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
674 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
675 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
676 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
677 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
678 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
679 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
680 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
681
682 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
683 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
684 </pre>
685
686 <p>
687 We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
688 for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
692 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
693 # mysql-aliases.cf
694
695 user = mailsql
696 password = $password
697 dbname = mailsql
698 table = alias
699 select_field = destination
700 where_field = alias
701 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
702 </pre>
703
704 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
705 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
706 # mysql-relocated.cf
707
708 user = mailsql
709 password = $password
710 dbname = mailsql
711 table = relocated
712 select_field = destination
713 where_field = email
714 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
715 </pre>
716
717 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
718 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
719 # mysql-transport.cf
720
721 user = mailsql
722 password = $password
723 dbname = mailsql
724 table = transport
725 select_field = destination
726 where_field = domain
727 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
728 </pre>
729
730 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
731 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
732 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
733
734 user = mailsql
735 password = $password
736 dbname = mailsql
737 table = users
738 select_field = gid
739 where_field = email
740 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
741 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
742 </pre>
743
744 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
745 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
746 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
747
748 user = mailsql
749 password = $password
750 dbname = mailsql
751 table = users
752 select_field = maildir
753 where_field = email
754 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
755 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
756 </pre>
757
758 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
759 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
760 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
761
762 user = mailsql
763 password = $password
764 dbname = mailsql
765 table = users
766 select_field = uid
767 where_field = email
768 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
769 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
770 </pre>
771
772 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
773 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
774 # mysql-virtual.cf
775
776 user = mailsql
777 password = $password
778 dbname = mailsql
779 table = virtual
780 select_field = destination
781 where_field = email
782 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
783 </pre>
784
785 <p>
786 Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
787 </p>
788
789 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
790 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
791 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
792 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
793
794 local_transport = local
795 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
796
797 virtual_transport = virtual
798 virtual_mailbox_domains =
799 virt-bar.com,
800 $other-virtual-domain.com
801
802 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
803 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
804 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
805 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
806 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
807 virtual_mailbox_base = /
808 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
809 </pre>
810
811 <p>
812 For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
813 <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
814 </p>
815
816 <pre caption="Changing file permission">
817 # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
818 # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819 </pre>
820
821 <p>
822 As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
823 release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
824 longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
825 </p>
826
827 <note>
828 It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
829 for more information.
830 </note>
831
832 <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
833 # <i>postfix reload</i>
834 </pre>
835
836 <p>
837 Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
838 able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
839 for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
840 everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
841 things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
842 troubleshooting section of this howto.
843 </p>
844
845 </body>
846 </section>
847 </chapter>
848
849 <chapter>
850 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
851 <section>
852 <body>
853
854 <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
855 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
856 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
857 (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
858
859 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
860 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
861 # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
862 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
863 Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
864 and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
865 </pre>
866
867 </body>
868 </section>
869 </chapter>
870
871 <chapter>
872 <title>Mailman</title>
873 <section>
874 <body>
875
876 <p>
877 Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
878 support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
879 get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
880 to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
881 documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
882 here.
883 </p>
884
885 <p>
886 One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
887 you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
888 overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
889 </p>
890
891 <pre caption="Install mailman">
892 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
893 <comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
894 emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
895 in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
896 We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
897
898 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
899 </pre>
900
901 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
902 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
903 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
904 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
905 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
906 </pre>
907
908 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
909 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
910 MTA = "Postfix"
911 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
912 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
913 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
914 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
915 </pre>
916
917 <pre caption="And last but not least">
918 <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
919
920 # <i>su mailman</i>
921 # <i>cd ~</i>
922 # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
923 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
924 Initial test password:
925 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
926 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
927 list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
928 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
929 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
930 verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
931
932 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
933 # STANZA START: test
934 # CREATED:
935 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
936 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
937 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
938 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
939 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
940 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
941 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
942 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
943 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
944 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
945 # STANZA END: test
946
947 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
948 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
949 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
950 </pre>
951
952 <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
953 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
954 owner_request_special = no
955 recipient_delimiter = +
956 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
957
958 alias_maps =
959 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
960 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
961
962 virtual_alias_maps =
963 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
964 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
965 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
966 You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
967 but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
968 using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
969 to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
970 </pre>
971
972 <p>
973 You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
974 note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
975 mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
976 Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
977 lists.
978 </p>
979
980 </body>
981 </section>
982 </chapter>
983
984 <chapter>
985 <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
986 <section>
987 <body>
988
989 <p>
990 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
991 link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
992 </p>
993
994 </body>
995 </section>
996 </chapter>
997
998 <chapter>
999 <title>Wrap Up</title>
1000 <section>
1001 <body>
1002
1003 <p>
1004 Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1005 verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1006 to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1007 sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1008 courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1009 up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1010 the services enabled.
1011 </p>
1012
1013 <pre caption="Wrap up">
1014 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1015 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1016 </pre>
1017
1018 <p>
1019 <e>Have fun!</e>
1020 </p>
1021
1022 </body>
1023 </section>
1024 </chapter>
1025
1026 <chapter>
1027 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1028 <section>
1029 <title>Introduction</title>
1030 <body>
1031
1032 <p>
1033 Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1034 detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1035 you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1036 it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1037 that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1038 from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1039 work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1040 </p>
1041
1042 </body>
1043 </section>
1044 <section>
1045 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1046 <body>
1047
1048 <p>
1049 Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1050 your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1051 if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1052 it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1053 make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1054 </p>
1055
1056 <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1057 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1058 </pre>
1059
1060 </body>
1061 </section>
1062 <section>
1063 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1064 <body>
1065
1066 <p>
1067 If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1068 running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1069 Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1070 component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1071 process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1072 awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1073 out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1074 </p>
1075
1076 <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1077 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1078 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1079 </pre>
1080
1081 </body>
1082 </section>
1083 <section>
1084 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1085 <body>
1086
1087 <p>
1088 If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1089 sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1090 current config's to you, like postfix.
1091 </p>
1092
1093 <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1094 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1095 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1096 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1097 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1098 </pre>
1099
1100 </body>
1101 </section>
1102 <section>
1103 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1104 <body>
1105
1106 <p>
1107 Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1108 logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1109 logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1110 logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1111 in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1112 figure out which component is having the problem.
1113 </p>
1114
1115 <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1116 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1117 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1118 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1119 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1120 </pre>
1121
1122 <p>
1123 You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1124 will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1125 </p>
1126
1127 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1128 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1129 debug_peer_level = 5
1130 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1131 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1132 commands as well.)</comment>
1133 </pre>
1134
1135 </body>
1136 </section>
1137 <section>
1138 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1139 <body>
1140
1141 <p>
1142 SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1143 we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1144 to the service itself and see what's happening.
1145 </p>
1146
1147 <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1148 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1149 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1150 letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1151
1152 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1153 Connected to localhost.
1154 Escape character is '^]'.
1155 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1156 </pre>
1157
1158 </body>
1159 </section>
1160 <section>
1161 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1162 <body>
1163
1164 <p>
1165 You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1166 software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1167 all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1168 information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1169 transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1170 </p>
1171
1172 <pre caption="Using strace">
1173 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1174 # <i>strace $command</i>
1175 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1176 </pre>
1177
1178 </body>
1179 </section>
1180 <section>
1181 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1182 <body>
1183
1184 <p>
1185 Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1186 If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1187 help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1188 already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1189 which contains some great debugging ideas.
1190 </p>
1191
1192 <ul>
1193 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1194 <li>
1195 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1196 to look for specific errors
1197 </li>
1198 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1199 <li>
1200 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1201 lists - searchable
1202 </li>
1203 <li>
1204 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1205 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1206 </li>
1207 <li>
1208 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1209 google, which has never failed me
1210 </li>
1211 <li>
1212 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1213 place to go for help.
1214 </li>
1215 </ul>
1216
1217 </body>
1218 </section>
1219 </chapter>
1220 </guide>

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