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Revision 1.49 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
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Fixed outgoing tls code for bug 125921. Thanks to jakub for assistance.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.48 2006/01/08 01:10:07 vanquirius Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19 </author>
20
21 <abstract>
22 This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23 postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24 </abstract>
25
26 <version>1.0.26</version>
27 <date>2006-03-13</date>
28
29 <!--
30 Contents
31
32 I. Introduction
33 II. Postfix Basics
34 III. Courier-imap
35 IV. Cyrus-sasl
36 V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37 VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38 VII. MySQL
39 VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40 IX. The vmail user
41 X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42 XI. Squirrelmail
43 XII. Mailman
44 XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45 XIV. Wrap Up
46 XV. Troubleshooting
47 -->
48
49 <chapter>
50 <title>Introduction</title>
51 <section>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56 you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57 Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58 need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59 system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64 with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65 that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66 domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67 smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68 system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69 the system? How do you manage it all?
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74 mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75 users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76 authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77 utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78 mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79 central and easy mysql database.
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84 system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85 needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86 <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87 </p>
88
89 <p>
90 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92 mailman.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99 get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100 turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101 </p>
102
103 <impo>
104 This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105 of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106 upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107 well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108 run into issues with this.
109 </impo>
110
111 <impo>
112 This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113 However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114 support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115 1.3.x version.
116 </impo>
117
118 <impo>
119 You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120 for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121 advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122 </impo>
123
124 <impo>
125 Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
126 server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
127 verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
128 </impo>
129
130 <note>
131 It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
132 with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
133 any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
134 Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
135 flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
136 the squirrelmail section.
137 </note>
138
139 </body>
140 </section>
141 </chapter>
142
143 <chapter>
144 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
145 <section>
146 <body>
147
148 <pre caption="Install postfix">
149 # <i>emerge postfix</i>
150 </pre>
151
152 <warn>
153 Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
154 qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
155 </warn>
156
157 <p>
158 After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
159 options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
163 myhostname = $host.domain.name
164 mydomain = $domain.name
165 inet_interfaces = all
166 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
167 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
168 home_mailbox = .maildir/
169 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
170 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
175 turn on verbose output for debugging:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
179 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
180 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
181 #
182 ==========================================================================
183 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
184 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
189 should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
193 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
194 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
195 when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
196
197 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
202 yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
203 postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
204 next step.
205 </p>
206
207 <note>
208 I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
209 before you progress to the next step of the howto.
210 </note>
211
212 </body>
213 </section>
214 </chapter>
215
216 <chapter>
217 <title>Courier-imap</title>
218 <section>
219 <body>
220
221 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
222 # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
223 </pre>
224
225 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
226 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
227 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
228 you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
229 This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
230
231 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
232 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
233 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
234
235 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
236 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
237 </pre>
238
239 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
240 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
241 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
242 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
243 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
248 started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
249 going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
250 running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
251 progressing.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 </chapter>
257
258 <chapter>
259 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
260 <section>
261 <body>
262
263 <p>
264 Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
265 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
266 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
267 not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
268 a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
269 end anyway.
270 </p>
271
272 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
273 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
281 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
282 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
283 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
284 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
285 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
286 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
287 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
288 </pre>
289
290 </body>
291 </section>
292 </chapter>
293
294 <chapter>
295 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
296 <section>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
304 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
305 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
306
307 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
308 countryName_default
309 stateOrProvinceName_default
310 localityName_default
311 0.organizationName_default
312 commonName_default
313 emailAddress_default.
314
315 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
316
317 # <i>cd misc</i>
318 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
319 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
320 #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
321 certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
322 reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
323
324 # create a certificate
325 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
326
327 # create a certificate request
328 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329
330 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
331 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
332 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
333 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
334 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
335 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
336 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
337
338 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
339 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
340 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
341 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
342 We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
343 </pre>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347
348 </chapter>
349 <chapter>
350 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
351 <section>
352 <body>
353
354 <p>
355 Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
356 capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
357 will be easy to find.
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
361 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
362
363 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
364 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
365 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
366 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
367 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
368
369 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
370 are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
371 Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
372 smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
373 smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
374 mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
375
376 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
377 permit_sasl_authenticated,
378 permit_mynetworks,
379 reject_unauth_destination
380
381
382 <comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
383 smtp_use_tls = yes
384 smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
385 smtpd_use_tls = yes
386 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
387 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
388 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
389 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
390 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
391 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
392 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
393 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
394
395 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
396 You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
397
398 # <i>postfix reload</i>
399 </pre>
400
401 <p>
402 Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
406 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
407
408 Trying 127.0.0.1...
409 Connected to localhost.
410 Escape character is '^]'.
411 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
412 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
413 250-mail.domain.com
414 250-PIPELINING
415 250-SIZE 10240000
416 250-VRFY
417 250-ETRN
418 250-STARTTLS
419 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
420 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
421 250-XVERP
422 250 8BITMIME
423 <i>^]</i>
424 telnet> <i>quit</i>
425 </pre>
426
427 <p>
428 Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
429 install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
430 sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
431 unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
432 and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
433 </p>
434
435 </body>
436 </section>
437 </chapter>
438
439 <chapter>
440 <title>MySQL</title>
441 <section>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
446 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
447 dumpfile for this step.
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
451 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
452
453 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
454 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
455 for adding a root password with mysql,
456 not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
457
458 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
459 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
460 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
461
462 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
463 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
464 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
465 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
466 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
467 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
468
469 mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
470 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
471
472 mysql> <i>quit</i>
473 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
474
475 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
476 </pre>
477
478 <p>
479 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
480 following tables are included:
481 </p>
482
483 <ul>
484 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
485 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
486 <li>
487 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
488 hosting
489 </li>
490 <li>users - all user account information</li>
491 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
492 </ul>
493
494 <pre caption="alias table sample">
495 id alias destination
496 1 root foo@bar.com
497 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
498 </pre>
499
500 <pre caption="user table sample">
501 <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
502 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
503 maildir quota postfix
504 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
505 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
506 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
507 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
508 </pre>
509
510 <p>
511 The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
512 user and group.
513 </p>
514
515 <pre caption="transport table sample">
516 id domain destination
517 1 bar.com local:
518 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
519 </pre>
520
521 <pre caption="virtual table sample">
522 id email destination
523 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
524 </pre>
525
526 </body>
527 </section>
528 </chapter>
529
530 <chapter>
531 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
532 <section>
533 <body>
534
535 <p>
536 Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
537 more easily.
538 </p>
539
540 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
541 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
542 </pre>
543
544 <p>
545 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
546 this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
547 numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
548 problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
549 not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
550 with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
551 phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
552 index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
553 phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
554 however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
555 including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
556 </p>
557
558 <p>
559 Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
560 Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
561 </p>
562
563 <ul>
564 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
565 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
566 </ul>
567
568 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
569 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
570 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
571 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
572
573 <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
574
575 ServerName host.domain.name
576 ServerAdmin your@email.address
577 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
578 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
579
580 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
581 </pre>
582
583 <note>
584 If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
585 server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
586 apache restarted successfully.
587 </note>
588
589 <p>
590 Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
591 </p>
592
593 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
594 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
595 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
596
597 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
598 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
599 // (this user must have read-only
600 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
601 // and "mysql/db" tables)
602 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
603 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>
607 Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
608 local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
609 transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
610 supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
611 go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
612 accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
613 correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
614 automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
615 general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
616 after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
617 </p>
618
619 </body>
620 </section>
621 </chapter>
622
623 <chapter>
624 <title>The vmail user</title>
625 <section>
626 <body>
627
628 <p>
629 At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
630 mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
631 </p>
632
633 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
634 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
635 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
636 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
637 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
638 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
639 </pre>
640
641 <p>
642 So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
643 homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
644 homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
645 haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
646 </p>
647
648 </body>
649 </section>
650 </chapter>
651
652 <chapter>
653 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
654 <section>
655 <body>
656
657 <p>
658 Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
659 courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
660 <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
661 </p>
662
663 <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
664 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
665 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
666
667 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
668 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
669 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
670 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
671 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
672 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
673 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
674 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
675 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
676 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
677 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
678 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
679 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
680 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
681 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
682
683 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
684 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
685 </pre>
686
687 <p>
688 We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
689 for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
690 </p>
691
692 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
693 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
694 # mysql-aliases.cf
695
696 user = mailsql
697 password = $password
698 dbname = mailsql
699 table = alias
700 select_field = destination
701 where_field = alias
702 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
703 </pre>
704
705 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
706 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
707 # mysql-relocated.cf
708
709 user = mailsql
710 password = $password
711 dbname = mailsql
712 table = relocated
713 select_field = destination
714 where_field = email
715 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
716 </pre>
717
718 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
719 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
720 # mysql-transport.cf
721
722 user = mailsql
723 password = $password
724 dbname = mailsql
725 table = transport
726 select_field = destination
727 where_field = domain
728 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
729 </pre>
730
731 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
732 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
733 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
734
735 user = mailsql
736 password = $password
737 dbname = mailsql
738 table = users
739 select_field = gid
740 where_field = email
741 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
742 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
743 </pre>
744
745 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
746 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
747 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
748
749 user = mailsql
750 password = $password
751 dbname = mailsql
752 table = users
753 select_field = maildir
754 where_field = email
755 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
756 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
757 </pre>
758
759 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
760 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
761 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
762
763 user = mailsql
764 password = $password
765 dbname = mailsql
766 table = users
767 select_field = uid
768 where_field = email
769 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
770 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
771 </pre>
772
773 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
774 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
775 # mysql-virtual.cf
776
777 user = mailsql
778 password = $password
779 dbname = mailsql
780 table = virtual
781 select_field = destination
782 where_field = email
783 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
784 </pre>
785
786 <p>
787 Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
788 </p>
789
790 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
791 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
792 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
793 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
794
795 local_transport = local
796 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
797
798 virtual_transport = virtual
799 virtual_mailbox_domains =
800 virt-bar.com,
801 $other-virtual-domain.com
802
803 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
804 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
805 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
806 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
807 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
808 virtual_mailbox_base = /
809 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
810 </pre>
811
812 <p>
813 For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
814 <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
815 </p>
816
817 <pre caption="Changing file permission">
818 # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
819 # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
820 </pre>
821
822 <p>
823 As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
824 release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
825 longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
826 </p>
827
828 <note>
829 It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
830 for more information.
831 </note>
832
833 <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
834 # <i>postfix reload</i>
835 </pre>
836
837 <p>
838 Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
839 able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
840 for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
841 everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
842 things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
843 troubleshooting section of this howto.
844 </p>
845
846 </body>
847 </section>
848 </chapter>
849
850 <chapter>
851 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
852 <section>
853 <body>
854
855 <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
856 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
857 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
858 (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
859
860 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
861 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
862 # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
863 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
864 Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
865 and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
866 </pre>
867
868 </body>
869 </section>
870 </chapter>
871
872 <chapter>
873 <title>Mailman</title>
874 <section>
875 <body>
876
877 <p>
878 Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
879 support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
880 get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
881 to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
882 documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
883 here.
884 </p>
885
886 <p>
887 One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
888 you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
889 overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
890 </p>
891
892 <pre caption="Install mailman">
893 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
894 <comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
895 emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
896 in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
897 We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
898
899 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
900 </pre>
901
902 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
903 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
904 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
905 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
906 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
907 </pre>
908
909 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
910 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
911 MTA = "Postfix"
912 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
913 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
914 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
915 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
916 </pre>
917
918 <pre caption="And last but not least">
919 <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
920
921 # <i>su mailman</i>
922 # <i>cd ~</i>
923 # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
924 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
925 Initial test password:
926 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
927 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
928 list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
929 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
930 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
931 verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
932
933 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
934 # STANZA START: test
935 # CREATED:
936 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
937 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
938 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
939 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
940 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
941 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
942 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
943 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
944 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
945 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
946 # STANZA END: test
947
948 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
949 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
950 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
951 </pre>
952
953 <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
954 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
955 owner_request_special = no
956 recipient_delimiter = +
957 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
958
959 alias_maps =
960 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
961 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
962
963 virtual_alias_maps =
964 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
965 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
966 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
967 You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
968 but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
969 using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
970 to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
971 </pre>
972
973 <p>
974 You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
975 note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
976 mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
977 Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
978 lists.
979 </p>
980
981 </body>
982 </section>
983 </chapter>
984
985 <chapter>
986 <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
987 <section>
988 <body>
989
990 <p>
991 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
992 link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
993 </p>
994
995 </body>
996 </section>
997 </chapter>
998
999 <chapter>
1000 <title>Wrap Up</title>
1001 <section>
1002 <body>
1003
1004 <p>
1005 Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1006 verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1007 to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1008 sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1009 courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1010 up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1011 the services enabled.
1012 </p>
1013
1014 <pre caption="Wrap up">
1015 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1016 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1017 </pre>
1018
1019 <p>
1020 <e>Have fun!</e>
1021 </p>
1022
1023 </body>
1024 </section>
1025 </chapter>
1026
1027 <chapter>
1028 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1029 <section>
1030 <title>Introduction</title>
1031 <body>
1032
1033 <p>
1034 Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1035 detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1036 you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1037 it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1038 that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1039 from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1040 work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1041 </p>
1042
1043 </body>
1044 </section>
1045 <section>
1046 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1047 <body>
1048
1049 <p>
1050 Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1051 your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1052 if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1053 it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1054 make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1055 </p>
1056
1057 <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1058 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1059 </pre>
1060
1061 </body>
1062 </section>
1063 <section>
1064 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1065 <body>
1066
1067 <p>
1068 If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1069 running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1070 Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1071 component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1072 process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1073 awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1074 out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1075 </p>
1076
1077 <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1078 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1079 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1080 </pre>
1081
1082 </body>
1083 </section>
1084 <section>
1085 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1086 <body>
1087
1088 <p>
1089 If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1090 sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1091 current config's to you, like postfix.
1092 </p>
1093
1094 <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1095 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1096 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1097 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1098 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1099 </pre>
1100
1101 </body>
1102 </section>
1103 <section>
1104 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1105 <body>
1106
1107 <p>
1108 Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1109 logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1110 logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1111 logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1112 in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1113 figure out which component is having the problem.
1114 </p>
1115
1116 <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1117 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1118 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1119 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1120 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1121 </pre>
1122
1123 <p>
1124 You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1125 will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1126 </p>
1127
1128 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1129 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1130 debug_peer_level = 5
1131 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1132 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1133 commands as well.)</comment>
1134 </pre>
1135
1136 </body>
1137 </section>
1138 <section>
1139 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1140 <body>
1141
1142 <p>
1143 SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1144 we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1145 to the service itself and see what's happening.
1146 </p>
1147
1148 <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1149 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1150 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1151 letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1152
1153 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1154 Connected to localhost.
1155 Escape character is '^]'.
1156 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1157 </pre>
1158
1159 </body>
1160 </section>
1161 <section>
1162 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1163 <body>
1164
1165 <p>
1166 You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1167 software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1168 all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1169 information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1170 transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1171 </p>
1172
1173 <pre caption="Using strace">
1174 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1175 # <i>strace $command</i>
1176 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1177 </pre>
1178
1179 </body>
1180 </section>
1181 <section>
1182 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1183 <body>
1184
1185 <p>
1186 Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1187 If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1188 help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1189 already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1190 which contains some great debugging ideas.
1191 </p>
1192
1193 <ul>
1194 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1195 <li>
1196 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1197 to look for specific errors
1198 </li>
1199 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1200 <li>
1201 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1202 lists - searchable
1203 </li>
1204 <li>
1205 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1206 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1207 </li>
1208 <li>
1209 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1210 google, which has never failed me
1211 </li>
1212 <li>
1213 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1214 place to go for help.
1215 </li>
1216 </ul>
1217
1218 </body>
1219 </section>
1220 </chapter>
1221 </guide>

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