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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.53 2006/09/04 08:49:44 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19 </author>
20
21 <abstract>
22 This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
23 postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
24 </abstract>
25
26 <version>1.2</version>
27 <date>2006-09-04</date>
28
29 <!--
30 Contents
31
32 I. Introduction
33 II. Postfix Basics
34 III. Courier-imap
35 IV. Cyrus-sasl
36 V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
37 VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
38 VII. MySQL
39 VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
40 IX. The vmail user
41 X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
42 XI. Squirrelmail
43 XII. Mailman
44 XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
45 XIV. Wrap Up
46 XV. Troubleshooting
47 -->
48
49 <chapter>
50 <title>Introduction</title>
51 <section>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
56 you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
57 Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
58 need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
59 system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
60 </p>
61
62 <p>
63 A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
64 with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
65 that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
66 domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
67 smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
68 system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
69 the system? How do you manage it all?
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
74 mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
75 users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
76 authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
77 utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
78 mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
79 central and easy mysql database.
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
84 system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
85 needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
86 <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
87 </p>
88
89 <p>
90 The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, courier-authlib
91 postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
92 mailman.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
97 before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
98 sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
99 get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
100 turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
101 </p>
102
103 <impo>
104 This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
105 of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
106 upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
107 well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
108 run into issues with this.
109 </impo>
110
111 <impo>
112 This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
113 However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
114 support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
115 1.3.x version.
116 </impo>
117
118 <impo>
119 You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
120 for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
121 advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
122 </impo>
123
124 <impo>
125 Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
126 your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
127 <c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
128 <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
129 <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
130 </impo>
131
132 <note>
133 It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
134 with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
135 any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
136 Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
137 flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
138 the squirrelmail section.
139 </note>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 </chapter>
144
145 <chapter>
146 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
147 <section>
148 <body>
149
150 <pre caption="Install postfix">
151 # <i>emerge postfix</i>
152 </pre>
153
154 <warn>
155 Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
156 netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
157 </warn>
158
159 <p>
160 After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
161 options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
162 <c>$variables</c> with your own names.
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
166 myhostname = $host.domain.name
167 mydomain = $domain.name
168 inet_interfaces = all
169 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
170 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
171 home_mailbox = .maildir/
172 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
173 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
174 </pre>
175
176 <p>
177 Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
178 turn on verbose output for debugging:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
182 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
183 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
184 #
185 ==========================================================================
186 <comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
187 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
192 should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
196 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
197 <comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
198 when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
199
200 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
205 yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
206 postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
207 next step.
208 </p>
209
210 <note>
211 I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
212 before you progress to the next step of the howto.
213 </note>
214
215 </body>
216 </section>
217 </chapter>
218
219 <chapter>
220 <title>Courier-imap</title>
221 <section>
222 <body>
223
224 <pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
225 # <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
226 </pre>
227
228 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
229 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
230 <comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
231 you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
232 This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
233
234 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
235 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
236 <comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
237
238 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
239 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
240 </pre>
241
242 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
243 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
244 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
245 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
246 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
247 </pre>
248
249 <p>
250 Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
251 started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
252 going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
253 running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
254 progressing.
255 </p>
256
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 </chapter>
260
261 <chapter>
262 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
263 <section>
264 <body>
265
266 <p>
267 Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
268 actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass that
269 information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
270 not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
271 a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
272 end anyway.
273 </p>
274
275 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
276 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
277 </pre>
278
279 <p>
280 Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
281 </p>
282
283 <pre caption="Starting sasl">
284 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
285 mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
286 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
287 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
288 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
289 SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
290 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
291 </pre>
292
293 </body>
294 </section>
295 </chapter>
296
297 <chapter>
298 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
299 <section>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
307 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
308 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
309
310 <comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
311 countryName_default
312 stateOrProvinceName_default
313 localityName_default
314 0.organizationName_default
315 commonName_default
316 emailAddress_default.
317
318 <comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
319
320 # <i>cd misc</i>
321 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
322 <comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
323 #create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
324 certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
325 reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
326
327 # create a certificate
328 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
329
330 # create a certificate request
331 system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
332
333 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
334 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
335 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
336 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
337 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
338 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
339 <comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
340
341 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
342 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
343 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
344 <comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
345 We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
346 </pre>
347
348 </body>
349 </section>
350
351 </chapter>
352 <chapter>
353 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
354 <section>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
359 capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
360 will be easy to find.
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
364 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
365
366 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
367 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
368 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
369 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
370 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
371
372 <comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
373 are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
374 Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
375 smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
376 smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
377 mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
378
379 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
380 permit_sasl_authenticated,
381 permit_mynetworks,
382 reject_unauth_destination
383
384
385 <comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
386 smtp_use_tls = yes
387 smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
388 smtpd_use_tls = yes
389 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
390 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
391 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
392 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
393 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
394 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
395 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
396 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
397
398 <comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
399 You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
400
401 # <i>postfix reload</i>
402 </pre>
403
404 <p>
405 Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
409 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
410
411 Trying 127.0.0.1...
412 Connected to localhost.
413 Escape character is '^]'.
414 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
415 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
416 250-mail.domain.com
417 250-PIPELINING
418 250-SIZE 10240000
419 250-VRFY
420 250-ETRN
421 250-STARTTLS
422 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
423 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
424 250-XVERP
425 250 8BITMIME
426 <i>^]</i>
427 telnet> <i>quit</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
432 install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
433 sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
434 unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
435 and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
436 </p>
437
438 </body>
439 </section>
440 </chapter>
441
442 <chapter>
443 <title>MySQL</title>
444 <section>
445 <body>
446
447 <p>
448 Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
449 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
450 dumpfile for this step.
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
454 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
455
456 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
457 <comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
458 for adding a root password with mysql,
459 not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
460
461 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
462 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
463 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
464
465 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
466 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
467 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
468 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
469 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
470 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
471
472 mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
473 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
474
475 mysql> <i>quit</i>
476 <comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
477
478 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
479 </pre>
480
481 <p>
482 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
483 following tables are included:
484 </p>
485
486 <ul>
487 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
488 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
489 <li>
490 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
491 hosting
492 </li>
493 <li>users - all user account information</li>
494 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
495 </ul>
496
497 <pre caption="alias table sample">
498 id alias destination
499 1 root foo@bar.com
500 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
501 </pre>
502
503 <pre caption="user table sample">
504 <comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
505 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
506 maildir quota postfix
507 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
508 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
509 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
510 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
511 </pre>
512
513 <p>
514 The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
515 user and group.
516 </p>
517
518 <pre caption="transport table sample">
519 id domain destination
520 1 bar.com local:
521 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
522 </pre>
523
524 <pre caption="virtual table sample">
525 id email destination
526 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
527 </pre>
528
529 </body>
530 </section>
531 </chapter>
532
533 <chapter>
534 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
535 <section>
536 <body>
537
538 <p>
539 Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
540 more easily.
541 </p>
542
543 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
544 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
545 </pre>
546
547 <p>
548 There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
549 this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.com/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
550 numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
551 problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
552 not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
553 with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
554 phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
555 index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
556 phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
557 however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
558 including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
559 </p>
560
561 <p>
562 Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
563 Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
564 </p>
565
566 <ul>
567 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
568 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
569 </ul>
570
571 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
572 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
573 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
574 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
575
576 <comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
577
578 ServerName host.domain.name
579 ServerAdmin your@email.address
580 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
581 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
582
583 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
584 </pre>
585
586 <note>
587 If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
588 server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
589 apache restarted successfully.
590 </note>
591
592 <p>
593 Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
594 </p>
595
596 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
597 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
598 <comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
599
600 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
601 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
602 // (this user must have read-only
603 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
604 // and "mysql/db" tables)
605 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
606 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
607 </pre>
608
609 <p>
610 Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
611 local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
612 transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
613 supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
614 go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
615 accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
616 correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
617 automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
618 general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
619 setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
620 </p>
621
622 </body>
623 </section>
624 </chapter>
625
626 <chapter>
627 <title>The vmail user</title>
628 <section>
629 <body>
630
631 <p>
632 At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
633 mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
634 </p>
635
636 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
637 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
638 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
639 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
640 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
641 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
642 </pre>
643
644 <p>
645 So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
646 homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that user's uid, gid, and
647 homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
648 haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
649 </p>
650
651 </body>
652 </section>
653 </chapter>
654
655 <chapter>
656 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
657 <section>
658 <body>
659
660 <p>
661 Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
662 courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
663 <c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
664 </p>
665
666 <pre caption="Configuring authentication">
667 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
668 authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
669
670 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
671 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
672 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
673 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
674 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
675 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
676 <comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
677 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
678 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
679 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
680 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
681 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
682 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
683 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
684 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
685
686 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
687 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
688 </pre>
689
690 <p>
691 We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
692 for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
693 Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
694 password, alias, email address, and so on.
695 </p>
696
697 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
698 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
699 # mysql-aliases.cf
700
701 user = mailsql
702 password = $password
703 dbname = mailsql
704 table = alias
705 select_field = destination
706 where_field = alias
707 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
708 </pre>
709
710 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
711 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
712 # mysql-relocated.cf
713
714 user = mailsql
715 password = $password
716 dbname = mailsql
717 table = relocated
718 select_field = destination
719 where_field = email
720 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
721 </pre>
722
723 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
724 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
725 # mysql-transport.cf
726
727 user = mailsql
728 password = $password
729 dbname = mailsql
730 table = transport
731 select_field = destination
732 where_field = domain
733 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
734 </pre>
735
736 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
737 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
738 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
739
740 user = mailsql
741 password = $password
742 dbname = mailsql
743 table = users
744 select_field = gid
745 where_field = email
746 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
747 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
748 </pre>
749
750 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
751 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
752 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
753
754 user = mailsql
755 password = $password
756 dbname = mailsql
757 table = users
758 select_field = maildir
759 where_field = email
760 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
761 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
762 </pre>
763
764 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
765 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
766 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
767
768 user = mailsql
769 password = $password
770 dbname = mailsql
771 table = users
772 select_field = uid
773 where_field = email
774 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
775 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
776 </pre>
777
778 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
779 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
780 # mysql-virtual.cf
781
782 user = mailsql
783 password = $password
784 dbname = mailsql
785 table = virtual
786 select_field = destination
787 where_field = email
788 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
789 </pre>
790
791 <p>
792 Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
793 </p>
794
795 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
796 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
797 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
798 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
799
800 local_transport = local
801 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
802
803 virtual_transport = virtual
804 virtual_mailbox_domains =
805 virt-bar.com,
806 $other-virtual-domain.com
807
808 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
809 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
810 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
811 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
812 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
813 virtual_mailbox_base = /
814 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
815 </pre>
816
817 <p>
818 For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
819 <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
820 </p>
821
822 <pre caption="Changing file permission">
823 # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
824 # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
825 </pre>
826
827 <p>
828 As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
829 release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
830 longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
831 </p>
832
833 <note>
834 It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
835 for more information.
836 </note>
837
838 <pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
839 # <i>postfix reload</i>
840 </pre>
841
842 <p>
843 Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
844 able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
845 for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
846 everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
847 things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
848 troubleshooting section of this howto.
849 </p>
850
851 </body>
852 </section>
853 </chapter>
854
855 <chapter>
856 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
857 <section>
858 <body>
859
860 <pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
861 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
862 <comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
863 (Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
864
865 # <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
866 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
867 # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
868 <comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
869 Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
870 and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
871 </pre>
872
873 </body>
874 </section>
875 </chapter>
876
877 <chapter>
878 <title>Mailman</title>
879 <section>
880 <body>
881
882 <p>
883 Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
884 support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
885 get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
886 to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
887 documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
888 here.
889 </p>
890
891 <p>
892 One further note, current versions of mailman install to
893 <path>/usr/local/mailman</path>. If you're like me and wish to change the
894 default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild file by changing
895 the INSTALLDIR variable.
896 </p>
897
898 <pre caption="Install mailman">
899 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
900 </pre>
901
902 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
903 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
904 <comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
905 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
906 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
907 </pre>
908
909 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
910 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
911 MTA = "Postfix"
912 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
913 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
914 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
915 <comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
916 </pre>
917
918 <pre caption="And last but not least">
919 <comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
920
921 # <i>su mailman</i>
922 # <i>cd ~</i>
923 # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
924 Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
925 Initial test password:
926 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
927 <comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
928 list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
929 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
930 <comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
931 verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
932
933 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
934 # STANZA START: test
935 # CREATED:
936 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
937 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
938 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
939 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
940 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
941 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
942 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
943 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
944 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
945 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
946 # STANZA END: test
947
948 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
949 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
950 <comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
951 </pre>
952
953 <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
954 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
955 owner_request_special = no
956 recipient_delimiter = +
957 <comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
958
959 alias_maps =
960 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
961 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
962
963 virtual_alias_maps =
964 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
965 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
966 <comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
967 You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
968 but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
969 using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
970 to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
971 </pre>
972
973 <p>
974 You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
975 note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
976 mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
977 Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
978 lists.
979 </p>
980
981 </body>
982 </section>
983 </chapter>
984
985 <chapter>
986 <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
987 <section>
988 <body>
989
990 <p>
991 For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
992 link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
993 </p>
994
995 </body>
996 </section>
997 </chapter>
998
999 <chapter>
1000 <title>Wrap Up</title>
1001 <section>
1002 <body>
1003
1004 <p>
1005 Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1006 verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1007 to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1008 sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1009 courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1010 up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1011 the services enabled.
1012 </p>
1013
1014 <pre caption="Wrap up">
1015 # <i>postfix reload</i>
1016 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
1017 </pre>
1018
1019 <p>
1020 <e>Have fun!</e>
1021 </p>
1022
1023 </body>
1024 </section>
1025 </chapter>
1026
1027 <chapter>
1028 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1029 <section>
1030 <title>Introduction</title>
1031 <body>
1032
1033 <p>
1034 Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1035 detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1036 you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1037 it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1038 that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1039 from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1040 work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1041 </p>
1042
1043 </body>
1044 </section>
1045 <section>
1046 <title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
1047 <body>
1048
1049 <p>
1050 Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1051 your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1052 if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1053 it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1054 make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1055 </p>
1056
1057 <pre caption="How to restart a service">
1058 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
1059 </pre>
1060
1061 </body>
1062 </section>
1063 <section>
1064 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
1065 <body>
1066
1067 <p>
1068 If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1069 running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1070 Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1071 component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1072 process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1073 awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1074 out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1075 </p>
1076
1077 <pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
1078 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
1079 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
1080 </pre>
1081
1082 </body>
1083 </section>
1084 <section>
1085 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
1086 <body>
1087
1088 <p>
1089 If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1090 sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1091 current config's to you, like postfix.
1092 </p>
1093
1094 <pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
1095 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
1096 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
1097 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
1098 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
1099 </pre>
1100
1101 </body>
1102 </section>
1103 <section>
1104 <title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
1105 <body>
1106
1107 <p>
1108 Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1109 logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1110 logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1111 logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1112 in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1113 figure out which component is having the problem.
1114 </p>
1115
1116 <pre caption="Checking the logs">
1117 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
1118 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
1119 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
1120 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
1121 </pre>
1122
1123 <p>
1124 You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1125 will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1126 </p>
1127
1128 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
1129 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
1130 debug_peer_level = 5
1131 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
1132 <comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
1133 commands as well.)</comment>
1134 </pre>
1135
1136 </body>
1137 </section>
1138 <section>
1139 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
1140 <body>
1141
1142 <p>
1143 SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1144 we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1145 to the service itself and see what's happening.
1146 </p>
1147
1148 <pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
1149 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
1150 <comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
1151 letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
1152
1153 Trying 127.0.0.1...
1154 Connected to localhost.
1155 Escape character is '^]'.
1156 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
1157 </pre>
1158
1159 </body>
1160 </section>
1161 <section>
1162 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
1163 <body>
1164
1165 <p>
1166 You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1167 software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1168 all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1169 information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1170 transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1171 </p>
1172
1173 <pre caption="Using strace">
1174 # <i>emerge strace</i>
1175 # <i>strace $command</i>
1176 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
1177 </pre>
1178
1179 </body>
1180 </section>
1181 <section>
1182 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
1183 <body>
1184
1185 <p>
1186 Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1187 If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1188 help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1189 already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1190 which contains some great debugging ideas.
1191 </p>
1192
1193 <ul>
1194 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
1195 <li>
1196 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
1197 to look for specific errors
1198 </li>
1199 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
1200 <li>
1201 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1202 lists - searchable
1203 </li>
1204 <li>
1205 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1206 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1207 </li>
1208 <li>
1209 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1210 google, which has never failed me
1211 </li>
1212 <li>
1213 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1214 place to go for help.
1215 </li>
1216 </ul>
1217
1218 </body>
1219 </section>
1220 </chapter>
1221 </guide>

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