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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?>
2<?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.21 2003/12/07 18:21:26 pylon Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
3<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
4<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title>
5<author title="Author" > 7<author title="Author" >
6<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 8<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
7</author> 9</author>
8<author title="Author" > 10<author title="Author" >
9<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 11<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
10</author> 12</author>
11<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 13<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
12<version>1.0</version> 14<version>1.0.6</version>
13<date>30 April 2003</date> 15<date>December 7, 2003</date>
14<!-- 16<!--
15 17
16Contents 18Contents
17 19
18I. Introduction 20I. Introduction
38<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p> 40<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
39<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p> 41<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
40<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p> 42<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
41<p>The following packages are used in this setup: 43<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
42 44
43 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, mod_ssl, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p> 45 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
44<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p> 46<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
45<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo> 47<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
46<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo> 48<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
47<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo> 49<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
48<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo> 50<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
55<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 57<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
56</pre> 58</pre>
57<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 59<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
58<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p> 60<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
59<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 61<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
60 myhostname = $host.domain.name 62myhostname = $host.domain.name
61 mydomain = $domain.name 63mydomain = $domain.name
62 inet_interfaces = all 64inet_interfaces = all
63 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 65mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
64 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 66mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
65 home_mailbox = .maildir/ 67home_mailbox = .maildir/
66 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 68local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
67 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 69default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
68<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 70<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
69<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 71<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
70 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 72# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
71 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 73# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
72 # 74#
73 ========================================================================== 75==========================================================================
74 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 76smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
75 77
76 <codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 78<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
77</pre> 79</pre>
78<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 80<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
79<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 81<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
80 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 82# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
81<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 83<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
82<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 84<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
83 85
84 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 86# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
85</pre> 87</pre>
86<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 88<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
87<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 89<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
88</body> 90</body>
89</chapter> 91</chapter>
91<title>Courier-imap</title> 93<title>Courier-imap</title>
92<body> 94<body>
93<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 95<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
94</pre> 96</pre>
95<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 97<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
96 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 98# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
97<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 99<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
98<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 100<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
99<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 101<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
100 102
101 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 103# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
102 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 104# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
103<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 105<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
104 106
105 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 107# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
106 # <i>mkimapdcert</i> 108# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
107</pre> 109</pre>
108<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 110<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
109 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
110 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
111 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 113# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
112 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 114# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
113</pre> 115</pre>
114<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 116<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
115</body> 117</body>
116</chapter> 118</chapter>
117<chapter> 119<chapter>
118<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 120<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
119<body> 121<body>
120<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 122<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
121<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 123<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
122<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 124<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
123 # <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 125# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
124<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote> 126<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
125<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote> 127<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
126</pre> 128</pre>
127<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 129<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p>
128<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 130<pre caption="Starting sasl" >
129 # <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 131# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i>
130 pwcheck_method: saslauthd 132pwcheck_method: saslauthd
131 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 133mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
132<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 134<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote>
133<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 135<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
134 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 136# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
135</pre> 137</pre>
136</body> 138</body>
137</chapter> 139</chapter>
138<chapter> 140<chapter>
139<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 141<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
140<body> 142<body>
141<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 143<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
142<pre> 144<pre>
143 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 145# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
144 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 146# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
147
145<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 148<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
146
147 countryName_default 149countryName_default
148 stateOrProvinceName_default 150stateOrProvinceName_default
149 localityName_default 151localityName_default
150 0.organizationName_default 1520.organizationName_default
151 commonName_default 153commonName_default
152 emailAddress_default. 154emailAddress_default.
153 155
154 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 156<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
155 157
156 158
157 # <i>cd misc</i> 159# <i>cd misc</i>
158 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 160# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
159<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote> 161<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
160<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote> 162<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
161<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote> 163<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
162<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote> 164<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
165
166# create a certificate
167system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169# create a certificate request
170system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
163 171
164 # create a certificate
165 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
166
167 # create a certificate request
168 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
169
170 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 172# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
171 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 173# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
172 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 174# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
173 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 175# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
174 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 176# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
175 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 177# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 178<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
177 179
178
179 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 180# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
180 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 181# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
181 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 182# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
182<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 183<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
183<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 184<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
184</pre> 185</pre>
185</body> 186</body>
186</chapter> 187</chapter>
187<chapter> 188<chapter>
188<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 189<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
189<body> 190<body>
190<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 191<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
191<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 192<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
192 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 193# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
193 194
194 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 195smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
195 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 196smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
196 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 197smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
197 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 198broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
198 smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 199smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
199 200
200 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 201<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
201<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 202<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
202<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 203<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
203<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 204<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
204<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 205<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
205<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 206<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
206 207
207 smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 208smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
208 permit_sasl_authenticated, 209 permit_sasl_authenticated,
209 permit_mynetworks, 210 permit_mynetworks,
210 reject_unauth_destination 211 reject_unauth_destination
211 212
212 213
213 smtpd_use_tls = yes 214smtpd_use_tls = yes
214 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 215#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
215 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 216smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
216 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 217smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
217 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 218smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
218 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 219smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
219 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 220smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
220 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 221smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
221 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 222tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
222 223
223 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 224<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
224<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 225<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
225 226
226 # <i>postfix reload</i> 227# <i>postfix reload</i>
227</pre> 228</pre>
228<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 229<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
229<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 230<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
230 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 231# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
231 232
232 Trying 127.0.0.1... 233Trying 127.0.0.1...
233 Connected to localhost. 234Connected to localhost.
234 Escape character is '^]'. 235Escape character is '^]'.
235 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix 236220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
236 <i>EHLO domain.com</i> 237<i>EHLO domain.com</i>
237 250-mail.domain.com 238250-mail.domain.com
238 250-PIPELINING 239250-PIPELINING
239 250-SIZE 10240000 240250-SIZE 10240000
240 250-VRFY 241250-VRFY
241 250-ETRN 242250-ETRN
242 250-STARTTLS 243250-STARTTLS
243 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 244250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
244 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 245250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN
245 250-XVERP 246250-XVERP
246 250 8BITMIME 247250 8BITMIME
247 <i>^]</i> 248<i>^]</i>
248 telnet> <i>quit</i> 249telnet> <i>quit</i>
249</pre> 250</pre>
250<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 251<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
251 </p> 252 </p>
252</body> 253</body>
253</chapter> 254</chapter>
254<chapter> 255<chapter>
255<title>MySQL</title> 256<title>MySQL</title>
256<body> 257<body>
257<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 258<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
258<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 259<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
259 # <i>emerge mysql</i> 260# <i>emerge mysql</i>
260 261
261 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 262# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
262<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 263<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
263<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 264<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
264<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 265<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
265 266
266 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 267# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
267 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 268# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
268 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 269# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
269 270
270 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 271# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
271 mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 272mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
272 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 273 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
273 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 274 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
274 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 275 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
275 276
276 -> <i>quit</i> 277 -> <i>quit</i>
277<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 278<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
278 279
279 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 280# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
280</pre> 281</pre>
281<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 282<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
282 <ul> 283 <ul>
283<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 284<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
284<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 285<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
286<li>users - all user account information</li> 287<li>users - all user account information</li>
287<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 288<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
288</ul> 289</ul>
289</p> 290</p>
290<pre caption="alias table sample" > 291<pre caption="alias table sample" >
291 id alias destination 292id alias destination
292 1 root foo@bar.com 2931 root foo@bar.com
293 2 postmaster foo@bar.com 2942 postmaster foo@bar.com
294 </pre> 295</pre>
295<pre caption="user table sample" > 296<pre caption="user table sample" >
296 id email clear name uid gid homedir maildir quota postfix 297<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
297 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 298id email clear name uid gid homedir \
298 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo /home/foo/.maildir/ y 299 maildir quota postfix
30010 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
301 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
30213 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
303 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
299 </pre> 304</pre>
300<pre caption="transport table sample" > 305<pre caption="transport table sample" >
301 id domain destination 306id domain destination
302 1 bar.com local: 3071 bar.com local:
303 2 virt-bar.org virtual: 3082 virt-bar.org virtual:
304 </pre> 309</pre>
305<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 310<pre caption="virtual table sample" >
306 id email destination 311id email destination
307 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 3123 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
308 </pre> 313</pre>
309</body> 314</body>
310</chapter> 315</chapter>
311<chapter> 316<chapter>
312<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 317<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
313<body> 318<body>
314<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 319<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
315<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 320<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
316 # <i>emerge apache mod_php mod_ssl phpmyadmin</i> 321# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
317</pre> 322</pre>
318<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 323<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p>
319<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 324<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
320 <ul> 325 <ul>
321<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 326<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
322<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 327<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
323</ul> 328</ul>
324</p> 329</p>
325<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 330<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
326 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 331# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
327 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 332# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
328 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 333# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
329<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 334<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
330 335
331 ServerName host.domain.name 336ServerName host.domain.name
332 ServerAdmin your@email.address 337ServerAdmin your@email.address
333 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 338SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
334 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 339SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
335 340
336 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 341# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
337</pre> 342</pre>
338<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 343<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
339<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 344<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
340<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 345<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
341 # <i>nano -w /home/httpd/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 346# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
342<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 347<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
343 348
344 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
345 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 350$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
346 // (this user must have read-only 351 // (this user must have read-only
347 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 352$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
348 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 353 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
349 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 354$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
350 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 355$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
351 </pre> 356</pre>
352<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 357<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
353</body> 358</body>
354</chapter> 359</chapter>
355<chapter> 360<chapter>
356<title>The vmail user</title> 361<title>The vmail user</title>
357<body> 362<body>
358<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 363<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
359<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 364<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
360 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 365# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
361 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 366# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
362 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 367# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
363 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 368# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
364 # <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 369# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
365</pre> 370</pre>
366<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 371<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
367</body> 372</body>
368</chapter> 373</chapter>
369<chapter> 374<chapter>
370<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 375<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
371<body> 376<body>
372<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 377<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
373<pre> 378<pre>
374 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/sys-libs/pam_mysql/pam_mysql-$currentversion.ebuild</i> 379# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
375<codenote>This package is currently masked so you'll have to give it an explicit path </codenote>
376<codenote>or unmask the package. This is subject to change when the package is unmasked</codenote>
377<codenote>in the portage tree.</codenote>
378
379 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 380# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
380<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 381<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
381 382
382 #auth required pam_nologin.so 383#auth required pam_nologin.so
383 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 384#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
384 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 385#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 386#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386 387
387 auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 388auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
388 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
389 account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 390account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
390 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 391 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
391 392
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 393# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
393 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 394# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
394<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 395<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
395</pre> 396</pre>
396<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 397<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
397<pre> 398<pre>
398 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 399# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
399 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 400authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
400 401
401 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 402# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
402 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 403AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
403 404
404 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 405# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
405 MYSQL_SERVER localhost 406MYSQL_SERVER localhost
406 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 407MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
407 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 408MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
408 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 409MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
409 MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 410MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
410 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 411#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
411 MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 412MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
412 MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 413MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
413 MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 414MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
414 MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 415MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
415 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 416MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
416 MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 417MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
417 MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 418MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
418 419
419 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 420# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
420 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 421# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
421</pre> 422</pre>
422<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 423<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
423<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 424<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
424 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 425# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
425 # mysql-aliases.cf 426# mysql-aliases.cf
426 427
427 user = mailsql 428user = mailsql
428 password = $password 429password = $password
429 dbname = mailsql 430dbname = mailsql
430 table = alias 431table = alias
431 select_field = destination 432select_field = destination
432 where_field = alias 433where_field = alias
433 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 434hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
434 </pre> 435</pre>
435<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 436<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
436 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 437# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
437 # mysql-relocated.cf 438# mysql-relocated.cf
438 439
439 user = mailsql 440user = mailsql
440 password = $password 441password = $password
441 dbname = mailsql 442dbname = mailsql
442 table = relocated 443table = relocated
443 select_field = destination 444select_field = destination
444 where_field = email 445where_field = email
445 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 446hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
446 </pre> 447</pre>
447<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 448<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
448 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 449# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
449 # mysql-transport.cf 450# mysql-transport.cf
450 451
451 user = mailsql 452user = mailsql
452 password = $password 453password = $password
453 dbname = mailsql 454dbname = mailsql
454 table = transport 455table = transport
455 select_field = destination 456select_field = destination
456 where_field = domain 457where_field = domain
457 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 458hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
458 </pre> 459</pre>
459<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 460<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
460 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 461# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
461 #myql-virtual-gid.cf 462#myql-virtual-gid.cf
462 463
463 user = mailsql 464user = mailsql
464 password = $password 465password = $password
465 dbname = mailsql 466dbname = mailsql
466 table = users 467table = users
467 select_field = gid 468select_field = gid
468 where_field = email 469where_field = email
469 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 470additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
470 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 471hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
471 </pre> 472</pre>
472<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 473<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
473 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 474# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
474 #myql-virtual-maps.cf 475#myql-virtual-maps.cf
475 476
476 user = mailsql 477user = mailsql
477 password = $password 478password = $password
478 dbname = mailsql 479dbname = mailsql
479 table = users 480table = users
480 select_field = maildir 481select_field = maildir
481 where_field = email 482where_field = email
482 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 483additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
483 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 484hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
484 </pre> 485</pre>
485<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 486<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
486 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 487# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
487 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf 488# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
488 489
489 user = mailsql 490user = mailsql
490 password = $password 491password = $password
491 dbname = mailsql 492dbname = mailsql
492 table = users 493table = users
493 select_field = uid 494select_field = uid
494 where_field = email 495where_field = email
495 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 496additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
496 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 497hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
497 </pre> 498</pre>
498<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 499<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
499 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 500# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
500 # mysql-virtual.cf 501# mysql-virtual.cf
501 502
502 user = mailsql 503user = mailsql
503 password = $password 504password = $password
504 dbname = mailsql 505dbname = mailsql
505 table = virtual 506table = virtual
506 select_field = destination 507select_field = destination
507 where_field = email 508where_field = email
508 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 509hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
509 </pre> 510</pre>
510<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 511<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
511<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 512<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
512 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 513# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
513 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 514alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
514 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 515relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
515 516
516 local_transport = local 517local_transport = local
517 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 518local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
518 519
519 virtual_transport = virtual 520virtual_transport = virtual
520 virtual_mailbox_domains = 521virtual_mailbox_domains =
521 virt-bar.com, 522 virt-bar.com,
522 $other-virtual-domain.com 523 $other-virtual-domain.com
523 524
524 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 525virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
525 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 526virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
526 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 527virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
527 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 528virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
528 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 529virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
529 virtual_mailbox_base = / 530virtual_mailbox_base = /
530 #virtual_mailbox_limit = 531#virtual_mailbox_limit =
531 </pre> 532</pre>
532<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 533<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
533<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 534<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
534<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 535<pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
535</pre> 536</pre>
536<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 537<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
538</chapter> 539</chapter>
539<chapter> 540<chapter>
540<title>Squirrelmail</title> 541<title>Squirrelmail</title>
541<body> 542<body>
542<pre> 543<pre>
543 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 544# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
544<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 545<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
545 546
546 # <i>ln -s /home/httpd/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /home/httpd/htdocs/mail</i> 547# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
547 # <i>cd /home/httpd/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 548# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/conf</i>
548 # <i>./conf.pl</i> 549# <i>./conf.pl</i>
549<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 550<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
550<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 551<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
551<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 552<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
552</pre> 553</pre>
553</body> 554</body>
556<title>Mailman</title> 557<title>Mailman</title>
557<body> 558<body>
558<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 559<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
559<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 560<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
560<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 561<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
561 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 562# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
562 MAILGID="280" 563MAILGID="280"
563 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 564<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
564 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 565<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
565</pre>
566<pre> 566</pre>
567<pre>
567 # <i>emerge mailman</i> 568# <i>emerge mailman</i>
568 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 569<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
569 <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 570<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
570 <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote> 571<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
571 <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote> 572<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
572 573
573 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 574# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
574</pre> 575</pre>
575<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 576<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
576 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 577# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
577 <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 578<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
578 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 579DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
579 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 580DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
580</pre> 581</pre>
581<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 582<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
582 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 583# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
583 MTA = "Postfix" 584MTA = "Postfix"
584 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 585POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
585 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 586add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
586 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 587add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
587<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 588<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
588</pre> 589</pre>
589<pre> 590<pre>
590 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 591<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
591 592
592 # <i>su mailman</i> 593# <i>su mailman</i>
593 # <i>cd ~</i> 594# <i>cd ~</i>
594 # <i>bin/newlist test</i> 595# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
595 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 596Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
596 Initial test password: 597Initial test password:
597 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 598Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
598 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 599<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
599 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 600<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
600 # <i>bin/genaliases</i> 601# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
601 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 602<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
602 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 603<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
603 604
604 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 605# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
605 # STANZA START: test 606# STANZA START: test
606 # CREATED: 607# CREATED:
607 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 608test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
608 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 609test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
609 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 610test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
610 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 611test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
611 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 612test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
612 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 613test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
613 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 614test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
614 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 615test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
615 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 616test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
616 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 617test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
617 # STANZA END: test 618# STANZA END: test
618 619
619 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 620# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
620 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 621# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
621 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 622<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
622</pre> 623</pre>
623 624
624<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 625<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
625 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 626# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
626 owner_request_special = no 627owner_request_special = no
627 recipient_delimiter = + 628recipient_delimiter = +
628 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 629<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
629 630
630 alias_maps = 631alias_maps =
631 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 632 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
632 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 633 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
633 634
634 virtual_alias_maps = 635virtual_alias_maps =
635 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 636 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
636 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 637 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
637 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 638<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
638 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 639<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
639 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 640<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
640 <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 641<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
641 <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 642<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
642</pre> 643</pre>
643<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 644<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
644</body> 645</body>
645</chapter> 646</chapter>
646<chapter> 647<chapter>
650<chapter> 651<chapter>
651<title>Wrap Up</title> 652<title>Wrap Up</title>
652<body> 653<body>
653<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 654<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
654<pre caption="Wrap up" > 655<pre caption="Wrap up" >
655 # <i>postfix reload</i> 656# <i>postfix reload</i>
656 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 657# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
657</pre> 658</pre>
658<p> 659<p>
659<e>Have fun!</e> 660<e>Have fun!</e>
660</p> 661</p>
661</body> 662</body>
671<section> 672<section>
672<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 673<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
673<body> 674<body>
674<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 675<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
675<pre> 676<pre>
676 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 677# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
677</pre> 678</pre>
678</body> 679</body>
679</section> 680</section>
680<section> 681<section>
681<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 682<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
682<body> 683<body>
683<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 684<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
684<pre> 685<pre>
685 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 686# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
686 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 687# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
687</pre> 688</pre>
688</body> 689</body>
689</section> 690</section>
690<section> 691<section>
691<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 692<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
692<body> 693<body>
693<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 694<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
694<pre> 695<pre>
695 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 696# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
696 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 697# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
697 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 698# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
698 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 699# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
699</pre> 700</pre>
700</body> 701</body>
701</section> 702</section>
702<section> 703<section>
703<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 704<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
704<body> 705<body>
705<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 706<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
706<pre> 707<pre>
707 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 708# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
708 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 709# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
709 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 710# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
710 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 711# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
711</pre> 712</pre>
712<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 713<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
713<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 714<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
714 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 715# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
715 debug_peer_level = 5 716debug_peer_level = 5
716 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 717debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
717 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 718<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
718 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 719<codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
719</pre> 720</pre>
720</body> 721</body>
721</section> 722</section>
722<section> 723<section>
723<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 724<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
724<body> 725<body>
725<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 726<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
726<pre> 727<pre>
727 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 728# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
728<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 729<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
729<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 730<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
730 731
731 Trying 127.0.0.1... 732Trying 127.0.0.1...
732 Connected to localhost. 733Connected to localhost.
733 Escape character is '^]'. 734Escape character is '^]'.
734 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. See COPYING for distribution information. 735* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
735 </pre> 736</pre>
736</body> 737</body>
737</section> 738</section>
738<section> 739<section>
739<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 740<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
740<body> 741<body>
741<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 742<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
742<pre> 743<pre>
743 # <i>emerge strace</i> 744# <i>emerge strace</i>
744 # <i>strace $command</i> 745# <i>strace $command</i>
745 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 746# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
746</pre> 747</pre>
747</body> 748</body>
748</section> 749</section>
749<section> 750<section>
750<title>Step 7: Research</title> 751<title>Step 7: Research</title>

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