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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.21 2003/12/07 18:21:26 pylon Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.39 2004/12/10 17:32:41 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide link="/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml">
6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
8<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
11<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
12</author> 13</author>
13<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17
18<abstract>
19This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
20postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
21</abstract>
22
14<version>1.0.6</version> 23<version>1.0.16</version>
15<date>December 7, 2003</date> 24<date>2004-12-06</date>
25
16<!-- 26<!--
17
18Contents 27Contents
19 28
20I. Introduction 29I. Introduction
21II. Postfix Basics 30II. Postfix Basics
22III. Courier-imap 31III. Courier-imap
30XI. Squirrelmail 39XI. Squirrelmail
31XII. Mailman 40XII. Mailman
32XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus 41XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
33XIV. Wrap Up 42XIV. Wrap Up
34XV. Troubleshooting 43XV. Troubleshooting
44-->
35 45
36--><chapter> 46<chapter>
37<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>Introduction</title>
38<body> 48<section>
39<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
40<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
41<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
42<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
43<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
44
45 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
46<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
47<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
48<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
49<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
50<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
51<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
52</body> 49<body>
50
51<p>
52For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
53you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
54Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
55need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
56system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
57</p>
58
59<p>
60A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
61with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
62that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
63domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
64smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
65system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
66the system? How do you manage it all?
67</p>
68
69<p>
70This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
71mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
72users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
73authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
74utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
75mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
76central and easy mysql database.
77</p>
78
79<p>
80There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
81system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
82needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
83<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
84</p>
85
86<p>
87The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql,
88postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and
89mailman.
90</p>
91
92<p>
93Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
94before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir
95sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
96get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
97turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
98</p>
99
100<impo>
101This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some
102of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you
103upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as
104well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you
105run into issues with this.
106</impo>
107
108<impo>
109This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage.
110However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php
111support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the
1121.3.x version.
113</impo>
114
115<impo>
116You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
117for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
118advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
119</impo>
120
121<impo>
122Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail
123server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also
124verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.
125</impo>
126
127<note>
128It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
129with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
130any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
131Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
132flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
133the squirrelmail section.
134</note>
135
136</body>
137</section>
53</chapter> 138</chapter>
139
54<chapter> 140<chapter>
55<title>Postfix Basics</title> 141<title>Postfix Basics</title>
142<section>
56<body> 143<body>
57<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 144
145<pre caption="Install postfix">
146# <i>emerge postfix</i>
147</pre>
148
149<warn>
150Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
151qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
152</warn>
153
154<p>
155After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
156options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:
58</pre> 157</p>
59<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 158
60<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
61<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 159<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
62myhostname = $host.domain.name 160myhostname = $host.domain.name
63mydomain = $domain.name 161mydomain = $domain.name
64inet_interfaces = all 162inet_interfaces = all
65mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 163mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
66mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 164mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
67home_mailbox = .maildir/ 165home_mailbox = .maildir/
68local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 166local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
69default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 167default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
168</pre>
169
170<p>
70<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 171Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
172turn on verbose output for debugging:
173</p>
174
71<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 175<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
72# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 176# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
73# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 177# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
74# 178#
75========================================================================== 179==========================================================================
180<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
76smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 181smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
182</pre>
77 183
78<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 184<p>
185Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
186should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
79</pre> 187</p>
80<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 188
81<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 189<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
82# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 190# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
83<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 191<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
84<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 192when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
85 193
86# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 194# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
87</pre> 195</pre>
88<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 196
89<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 197<p>
198Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
199yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
200postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
201next step.
202</p>
203
204<note>
205I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
206before you progress to the next step of the howto.
207</note>
208
90</body> 209</body>
210</section>
91</chapter> 211</chapter>
212
92<chapter> 213<chapter>
93<title>Courier-imap</title> 214<title>Courier-imap</title>
215<section>
94<body> 216<body>
95<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 217
218<pre caption="Install courier-imap">
219# <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
96</pre> 220</pre>
221
97<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 222<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
98# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 223# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
99<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 224<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
100<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 225you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
101<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 226This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
102 227
103# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 228# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
104# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 229# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
105<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 230<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
106 231
107# <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 232# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
108# <i>mkimapdcert</i> 233# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
109</pre> 234</pre>
235
110<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 236<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 237# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 238# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
113# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 239# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
114# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 240# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
115</pre> 241</pre>
116<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 242
243<p>
244Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
245started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're
246going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system
247running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before
248progressing.
249</p>
250
117</body> 251</body>
252</section>
118</chapter> 253</chapter>
254
119<chapter> 255<chapter>
120<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 256<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
257<section>
121<body> 258<body>
122<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 259
123<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 260<p>
261Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
262actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that
263information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll
264not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains
265a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the
266end anyway.
267</p>
268
269<note>
270Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow
271file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone
272knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo
273incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com">email me</mail> as I'd
274love to hear a solution to this.
275</note>
276
124<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 277<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
125# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
126<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote> 278<comment>(We don't have ldap and we're using sasl's mysql capabilities
127<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote> 279 so we need to set the appropriate USE flags, but only if your USE flags
280 doesn't already contain the mysql USE flag and not the ldap one)</comment>
281# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
282# <i>echo "dev-libs/cyrus-sasl -ldap mysql" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
283# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
128</pre> 284</pre>
285
286<p>
129<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 287Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
288</p>
289
130<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 290<pre caption="Starting sasl">
131# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 291# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
292pwcheck_method: auxprop
293auxprop_plugin: sql
294sql_engine: mysql
295sql_hostnames: localhost
296sql_user: mailsql
297sql_passwd: <comment>&lt;password&gt;</comment>
298sql_database: mailsql
299sql_select: select clear from users where email = '%u@%r'
300mech_list: plain login
132pwcheck_method: saslauthd 301pwcheck_method: saslauthd
133mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 302mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
134<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 303<comment>(It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.
135<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 304They cause problems for some mail clients.)</comment>
136# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 305# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
137</pre> 306</pre>
307
138</body> 308</body>
309</section>
139</chapter> 310</chapter>
311
140<chapter> 312<chapter>
141<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 313<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
314<section>
142<body> 315<body>
316
317<p>
143<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 318Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
144<pre> 319</p>
320
321<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
145# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 322# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
146# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 323# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
147 324
148<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 325<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
149countryName_default 326countryName_default
150stateOrProvinceName_default 327stateOrProvinceName_default
151localityName_default 328localityName_default
1520.organizationName_default 3290.organizationName_default
153commonName_default 330commonName_default
154emailAddress_default. 331emailAddress_default.
155 332
156<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 333<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
157
158 334
159# <i>cd misc</i> 335# <i>cd misc</i>
160# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 336# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
161<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote> 337<comment>(We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and
162<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote> 338#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl
163<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote> 339certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you
164<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote> 340reboot your ssl certs will not be available.)</comment>
165 341
166# create a certificate 342# create a certificate
167system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;); 343system ("$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
168 344
169# create a certificate request 345# create a certificate request
170system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;); 346system ("$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS");
171 347
172# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 348# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
173# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i> 349# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
174# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 350# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
175# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 351# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 352# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
177# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 353# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
178<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 354<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
179 355
180# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 356# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
181# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 357# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
182# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 358# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
183<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 359<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
184<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 360We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
185</pre> 361</pre>
362
186</body> 363</body>
364</section>
365
187</chapter> 366</chapter>
188<chapter> 367<chapter>
189<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 368<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
369<section>
190<body> 370<body>
191<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 371
372<p>
373Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
374capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
375will be easy to find.
376</p>
377
192<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 378<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
193# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 379# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
194 380
195smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 381smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
196smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 382smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
197smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 383smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
198broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 384broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
199smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 385smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
200 386
201<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 387<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
202<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 388are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
203<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 389Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
204<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 390smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
205<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 391smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
206<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 392mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
207 393
208smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 394smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
209 permit_sasl_authenticated, 395 permit_sasl_authenticated,
210 permit_mynetworks, 396 permit_mynetworks,
211 reject_unauth_destination 397 reject_unauth_destination
219smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 405smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
220smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 406smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
221smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 407smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
222tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 408tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
223 409
224<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 410<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
225<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 411You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
226 412
227# <i>postfix reload</i> 413# <i>postfix reload</i>
228</pre> 414</pre>
415
416<p>
229<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 417Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
418</p>
419
230<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 420<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
231# <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 421# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
232 422
233Trying 127.0.0.1... 423Trying 127.0.0.1...
234Connected to localhost. 424Connected to localhost.
235Escape character is '^]'. 425Escape character is '^]'.
246250-XVERP 436250-XVERP
247250 8BITMIME 437250 8BITMIME
248<i>^]</i> 438<i>^]</i>
249telnet> <i>quit</i> 439telnet> <i>quit</i>
250</pre> 440</pre>
251<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 441
442<p>
443Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
444install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
445sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
446unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
447and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
252 </p> 448</p>
449
253</body> 450</body>
451</section>
254</chapter> 452</chapter>
453
255<chapter> 454<chapter>
256<title>MySQL</title> 455<title>MySQL</title>
456<section>
257<body> 457<body>
258<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 458
459<p>
460Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
461link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
462dumpfile for this step.
463</p>
464
259<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 465<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
260# <i>emerge mysql</i> 466# <i>emerge mysql</i>
261 467
262# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 468# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
263<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 469<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
264<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 470for adding a root password with mysql,
265<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 471not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.)</comment>
266 472
267# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 473# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
268# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 474# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
269# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 475# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
270 476
273 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 479 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
274 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 480 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
275 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 481 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
276 482
277 -> <i>quit</i> 483 -> <i>quit</i>
278<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 484<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
279 485
280# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 486# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
281</pre> 487</pre>
488
489<p>
282<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 490Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
491following tables are included:
492</p>
493
283 <ul> 494<ul>
284<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 495 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
285<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 496 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
497 <li>
286<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 498 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
499 hosting
500 </li>
287<li>users - all user account information</li> 501 <li>users - all user account information</li>
288<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 502 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
289</ul> 503</ul>
290</p> 504
291<pre caption="alias table sample" > 505<pre caption="alias table sample">
292id alias destination 506id alias destination
2931 root foo@bar.com 5071 root foo@bar.com
2942 postmaster foo@bar.com 5082 postmaster foo@bar.com
295</pre> 509</pre>
510
296<pre caption="user table sample" > 511<pre caption="user table sample">
297<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote> 512<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
298id email clear name uid gid homedir \ 513id email clear name uid gid homedir \
299 maildir quota postfix 514 maildir quota postfix
30010 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \ 51510 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
301 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 516 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
30213 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \ 51713 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
303 /home/foo/.maildir/ y 518 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
304</pre> 519</pre>
520
521<p>
522The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
523user and group.
524</p>
525
305<pre caption="transport table sample" > 526<pre caption="transport table sample">
306id domain destination 527id domain destination
3071 bar.com local: 5281 bar.com local:
3082 virt-bar.org virtual: 5292 virt-bar.org virtual:
309</pre> 530</pre>
531
310<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 532<pre caption="virtual table sample">
311id email destination 533id email destination
3123 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5343 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
313</pre> 535</pre>
536
314</body> 537</body>
538</section>
315</chapter> 539</chapter>
540
316<chapter> 541<chapter>
317<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 542<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
543<section>
318<body> 544<body>
545
546<p>
319<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 547Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
548more easily.
549</p>
550
320<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 551<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
321# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i> 552# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
322</pre> 553</pre>
323<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 554
324<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 555<p>
556There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like
557this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also
558numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve
559problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm
560not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue
561with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put
562phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and
563index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your
564phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database
565however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this
566including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
567</p>
568
569<p>
570Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
571Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
572</p>
573
325 <ul> 574<ul>
326<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 575 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
327<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 576 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
328</ul> 577</ul>
329</p> 578
330<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 579<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
331# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 580# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
332# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 581# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
333# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 582# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
583
334<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 584<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
335 585
336ServerName host.domain.name 586ServerName host.domain.name
337ServerAdmin your@email.address 587ServerAdmin your@email.address
338SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 588SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
339SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 589SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
340 590
341# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 591# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
342</pre> 592</pre>
343<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 593
594<note>
595If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full
596server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify
597apache restarted successfully.
598</note>
599
600<p>
344<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 601Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
602</p>
603
345<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 604<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
346# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 605# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
347<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 606<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
348 607
349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 608$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
350$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 609$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
351 // (this user must have read-only 610 // (this user must have read-only
352$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 611$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
353 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 612 // and "mysql/db" tables)
354$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 613$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
355$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 614$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
356</pre> 615</pre>
357<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 616
617<p>
618Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
619local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
620transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
621supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
622go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
623accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the
624correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
625automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
626general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user
627after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
628</p>
629
358</body> 630</body>
631</section>
359</chapter> 632</chapter>
633
360<chapter> 634<chapter>
361<title>The vmail user</title> 635<title>The vmail user</title>
636<section>
362<body> 637<body>
363<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p> 638
639<p>
640At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual
641mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.
642</p>
643
364<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" > 644<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
365# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i> 645# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
366# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i> 646# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
367# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i> 647# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
368# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i> 648# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
369# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i> 649# <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
650</pre>
651
652<p>
653So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and
654homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and
655homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but
656haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.
370</pre> 657</p>
371<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p> 658
372</body> 659</body>
660</section>
373</chapter> 661</chapter>
662
374<chapter> 663<chapter>
375<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 664<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
665<section>
376<body> 666<body>
377<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 667
378<pre> 668<p>
669Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
670courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
671<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
672</p>
673
674<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
379# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i> 675# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
380# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 676# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
381<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 677<comment>(Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.)</comment>
382 678
383#auth required pam_nologin.so 679#auth required pam_nologin.so
384#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 680#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 681#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth 682#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
390account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \ 686account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
391 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0 687 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
392 688
393# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i> 689# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
394# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i> 690# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
395<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote> 691<comment>(Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files.)</comment>
396</pre> 692</pre>
693
694<p>
397<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 695Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.
398<pre> 696</p>
697
698<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
399# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 699# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
400authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 700authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
401 701
402# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i> 702# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
403AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot; 703AUTHDAEMOND="authdaemond.mysql"
404 704
405# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 705# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
406MYSQL_SERVER localhost 706MYSQL_SERVER localhost
407MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 707MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
408MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 708MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
409MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 709MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
410MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 710MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
411#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 711<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
712#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
412MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 713MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
413MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 714MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
414MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 715MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
415MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 716MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
416MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 717MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
418MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 719MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
419 720
420# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 721# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
421# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 722# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
422</pre> 723</pre>
423<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 724
725<p>
726We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's
727for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.
728</p>
729
424<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 730<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
425# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 731# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
426# mysql-aliases.cf 732# mysql-aliases.cf
427 733
428user = mailsql 734user = mailsql
429password = $password 735password = $password
431table = alias 737table = alias
432select_field = destination 738select_field = destination
433where_field = alias 739where_field = alias
434hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 740hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
435</pre> 741</pre>
742
436<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 743<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 744# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
438# mysql-relocated.cf 745# mysql-relocated.cf
439 746
440user = mailsql 747user = mailsql
441password = $password 748password = $password
443table = relocated 750table = relocated
444select_field = destination 751select_field = destination
445where_field = email 752where_field = email
446hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 753hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
447</pre> 754</pre>
755
448<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 756<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
449# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 757# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
450# mysql-transport.cf 758# mysql-transport.cf
451 759
452user = mailsql 760user = mailsql
453password = $password 761password = $password
455table = transport 763table = transport
456select_field = destination 764select_field = destination
457where_field = domain 765where_field = domain
458hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 766hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
459</pre> 767</pre>
768
460<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 769<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
461# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 770# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
462#myql-virtual-gid.cf 771#myql-virtual-gid.cf
463 772
464user = mailsql 773user = mailsql
465password = $password 774password = $password
468select_field = gid 777select_field = gid
469where_field = email 778where_field = email
470additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 779additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
471hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 780hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
472</pre> 781</pre>
782
473<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 783<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
474# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 784# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
475#myql-virtual-maps.cf 785#myql-virtual-maps.cf
476 786
477user = mailsql 787user = mailsql
478password = $password 788password = $password
481select_field = maildir 791select_field = maildir
482where_field = email 792where_field = email
483additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 793additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
484hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 794hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
485</pre> 795</pre>
796
486<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 797<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 798# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
488# mysql-virtual-uid.cf 799# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
489 800
490user = mailsql 801user = mailsql
491password = $password 802password = $password
494select_field = uid 805select_field = uid
495where_field = email 806where_field = email
496additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 807additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
497hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 808hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
498</pre> 809</pre>
810
499<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 811<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
500# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 812# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
501# mysql-virtual.cf 813# mysql-virtual.cf
502 814
503user = mailsql 815user = mailsql
504password = $password 816password = $password
506table = virtual 818table = virtual
507select_field = destination 819select_field = destination
508where_field = email 820where_field = email
509hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 821hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
510</pre> 822</pre>
823
824<p>
511<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 825Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
826</p>
827
512<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 828<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 829# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
514alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 830alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
515relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 831relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
516 832
517local_transport = local 833local_transport = local
528virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 844virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
529virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 845virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
530virtual_mailbox_base = / 846virtual_mailbox_base = /
531#virtual_mailbox_limit = 847#virtual_mailbox_limit =
532</pre> 848</pre>
533<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 849
850<p>
851For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
852<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
853</p>
854
855<pre caption="Changing file permission">
856# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
857# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
858</pre>
859
860<p>
861As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
862release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
863longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
864</p>
865
866<note>
534<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 867It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
868for more information.
869</note>
870
871<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
535<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 872# <i>postfix reload</i>
873</pre>
874
875<p>
876Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
877able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
878for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
879everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
880things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
881troubleshooting section of this howto.
536</pre> 882</p>
537<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 883
538</body> 884</body>
885</section>
539</chapter> 886</chapter>
887
540<chapter> 888<chapter>
541<title>Squirrelmail</title> 889<title>Squirrelmail</title>
890<section>
542<body> 891<body>
543<pre> 892
893<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
544# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 894# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
545<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 895<comment>(I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.)</comment>
546 896
547# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i> 897# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
548# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 898# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
549# <i>./conf.pl</i> 899# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
550<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 900<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
551<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 901Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
552<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 902and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
553</pre> 903</pre>
904
554</body> 905</body>
906</section>
555</chapter> 907</chapter>
908
556<chapter> 909<chapter>
557<title>Mailman</title> 910<title>Mailman</title>
911<section>
558<body> 912<body>
559<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 913
560<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 914<p>
915Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
916support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
917get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
918to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
919documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
920here.
921</p>
922
923<p>
924One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If
925you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be
926overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.
927</p>
928
561<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 929<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
562# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 930# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
563MAILGID="280" 931MAILGID="280"
564<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 932<comment>(Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody
565<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 933This is needed for postfix integration.)</comment>
566</pre>
567<pre> 934</pre>
935
936<pre caption="Install mailman">
568# <i>emerge mailman</i> 937# <i>emerge mailman</i>
569<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote> 938<comment>(This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give
570<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote> 939emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions
571<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote> 940in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.
572<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote> 941We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.)</comment>
573 942
574# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i> 943# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
575</pre> 944</pre>
945
576<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 946<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
577# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 947# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
578<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 948<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
579DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 949DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
580DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 950DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
581</pre> 951</pre>
952
582<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 953<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
583# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 954# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
584MTA = "Postfix" 955MTA = "Postfix"
585POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 956POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
586add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 957add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
587add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 958add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
588<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 959<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
589</pre>
590<pre> 960</pre>
961
962<pre caption="And last but not least">
591<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 963<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
592 964
593# <i>su mailman</i> 965# <i>su mailman</i>
594# <i>cd ~</i> 966# <i>cd ~</i>
595# <i>bin/newlist test</i> 967# <i>bin/newlist test</i>
596Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 968Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
597Initial test password: 969Initial test password:
598Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 970Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
599<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 971<comment>(Virtual domain lists may be specified with
600<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 972list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
601# <i>bin/genaliases</i> 973# <i>bin/genaliases</i>
602<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 974<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
603<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 975verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
604 976
605# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 977# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
606# STANZA START: test 978# STANZA START: test
607# CREATED: 979# CREATED:
608test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 980test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
617test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 989test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
618# STANZA END: test 990# STANZA END: test
619 991
620# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 992# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
621# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 993# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
622<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 994<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
623</pre> 995</pre>
624 996
625<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 997<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
626# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 998# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
627owner_request_special = no 999owner_request_special = no
628recipient_delimiter = + 1000recipient_delimiter = +
629<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 1001<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
630 1002
631alias_maps = 1003alias_maps =
632 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 1004 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
633 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 1005 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
634 1006
635virtual_alias_maps = 1007virtual_alias_maps =
636 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 1008 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
637 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 1009 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
638<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 1010<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
639<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 1011You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
640<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 1012but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
641<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 1013using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
642<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 1014to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
1015</pre>
1016
1017<p>
1018You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
1019note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
1020mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
1021Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
1022lists.
643</pre> 1023</p>
644<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 1024
645</body> 1025</body>
1026</section>
646</chapter> 1027</chapter>
1028
647<chapter> 1029<chapter>
648<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 1030<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
649<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 1031<section>
1032<body>
1033
1034<p>
1035Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to
1036make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.
1037</p>
1038
1039</body>
1040</section>
650</chapter> 1041</chapter>
1042
651<chapter> 1043<chapter>
652<title>Wrap Up</title> 1044<title>Wrap Up</title>
1045<section>
653<body> 1046<body>
654<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 1047
1048<p>
1049Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
1050verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
1051to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
1052sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1053courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1054up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1055the services enabled.
1056</p>
1057
655<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1058<pre caption="Wrap up">
656# <i>postfix reload</i> 1059# <i>postfix reload</i>
657# <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1060# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
658</pre> 1061</pre>
1062
659<p> 1063<p>
660<e>Have fun!</e> 1064<e>Have fun!</e>
661</p> 1065</p>
1066
662</body> 1067</body>
1068</section>
663</chapter> 1069</chapter>
1070
664<chapter> 1071<chapter>
665<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1072<title>Troubleshooting</title>
666<section> 1073<section>
667<title>Introduction</title> 1074<title>Introduction</title>
668<body> 1075<body>
669<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1076
1077<p>
1078Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1079detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1080you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1081it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1082that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1083from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1084work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1085</p>
1086
670</body> 1087</body>
671</section>
672<section> 1088</section>
1089<section>
673<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1090<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
674<body> 1091<body>
675<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1092
676<pre> 1093<p>
1094Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1095your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1096if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1097it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1098make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1099</p>
1100
1101<pre caption="How to restart a service">
677# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1102# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
678</pre> 1103</pre>
1104
679</body> 1105</body>
680</section> 1106</section>
681<section> 1107<section>
682<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1108<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
683<body> 1109<body>
684<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1110
685<pre> 1111<p>
1112If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1113running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1114Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1115component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1116process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1117awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1118out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1119</p>
1120
1121<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
686# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1122# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
687# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1123# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
688</pre> 1124</pre>
1125
689</body> 1126</body>
690</section> 1127</section>
691<section> 1128<section>
692<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1129<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
693<body> 1130<body>
694<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1131
695<pre> 1132<p>
1133If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1134sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1135current config's to you, like postfix.
1136</p>
1137
1138<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
696# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1139# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
697# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1140# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
698# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1141# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
699# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1142# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
700</pre> 1143</pre>
1144
701</body> 1145</body>
702</section>
703<section> 1146</section>
1147<section>
704<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1148<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
705<body> 1149<body>
706<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1150
707<pre> 1151<p>
1152Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1153logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1154logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1155logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1156in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1157figure out which component is having the problem.
1158</p>
1159
1160<pre caption="Checking the logs">
708# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1161# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
709# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1162# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
710# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1163# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
711# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1164# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
712</pre> 1165</pre>
713<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1166
1167<p>
1168You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1169will increase log output over just verbose mode.
1170</p>
1171
714<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1172<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
715# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1173# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
716debug_peer_level = 5 1174debug_peer_level = 5
717debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1175debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
718<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1176<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
719<codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1177commands as well.)</comment>
720</pre> 1178</pre>
1179
721</body> 1180</body>
722</section>
723<section> 1181</section>
1182<section>
724<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1183<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
725<body> 1184<body>
726<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1185
727<pre> 1186<p>
1187SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1188we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1189to the service itself and see what's happening.
1190</p>
1191
1192<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
728# <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1193# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
729<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1194<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
730<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1195letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
731 1196
732Trying 127.0.0.1... 1197Trying 127.0.0.1...
733Connected to localhost. 1198Connected to localhost.
734Escape character is '^]'. 1199Escape character is '^]'.
735* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. 1200* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
736</pre> 1201</pre>
1202
737</body> 1203</body>
738</section>
739<section> 1204</section>
1205<section>
740<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1206<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
741<body> 1207<body>
742<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1208
743<pre> 1209<p>
1210You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1211software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1212all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1213information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1214transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1215</p>
1216
1217<pre caption="Using strace">
744# <i>emerge strace</i> 1218# <i>emerge strace</i>
745# <i>strace $command</i> 1219# <i>strace $command</i>
746# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1220# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
747</pre> 1221</pre>
1222
748</body> 1223</body>
749</section> 1224</section>
750<section> 1225<section>
751<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1226<title>Step 7: Research</title>
752<body> 1227<body>
753<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1228
1229<p>
1230Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1231If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1232help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1233already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1234which contains some great debugging ideas.
754<p> 1235</p>
1236
755<ul> 1237<ul>
756<li>
757<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1238 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
758<li> 1239 <li>
759<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1240 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
760<li> 1241 to look for specific errors
1242 </li>
761<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1243 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
762<li> 1244 <li>
763<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1245 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1246 lists - searchable
1247 </li>
764<li> 1248 <li>
765<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1249 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1250 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1251 </li>
766<li> 1252 <li>
767<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1253 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
1254 google, which has never failed me
1255 </li>
1256 <li>
768<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1257 I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great
1258 place to go for help.
1259 </li>
769</ul> 1260</ul>
770</p> 1261
771</body> 1262</body>
772</section> 1263</section>
773</chapter> 1264</chapter>
774</guide> 1265</guide>
775

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